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Bezant

In the Middle Ages, the term bezant was used in Western Europe to describe several gold coins of the east, all derived from the Roman solidus. The word itself comes from the Greek Byzantion, ancient name of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire; the original "bezants" were the gold coins produced by the government of the Byzantine Empire, first the nomisma and from the 11th century the hyperpyron. The term was used to cover the gold dinars produced by Islamic governments. In turn, the gold coins minted in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and County of Tripoli were termed "Saracen bezants", since they were modelled on the gold dinar. A different electrum coin based on Byzantine trachea was minted in the Kingdom of Cyprus and called the "white bezant"; the term "bezant" in reference to coins is common in sources from the 10th through 13th centuries. Thereafter, it is employed as a money of account and in literary and heraldic contexts. Gold coins were minted in early medieval Western Europe, up until the 13th century.

Gold coins were continually produced by the Byzantines and medieval Arabs. These circulated in Western European trade in smallish numbers, originating from the coinage mints of the Eastern Mediterranean. In Western Europe, the gold coins of Byzantine currency were prized; these gold coins were called bezants. The first "bezants" were the Byzantine solidi coins; the name hyperpyron was used by the late medieval Greeks, while the name bezant was used by the late medieval Latin merchants for the same coin. The Italians used the name perpero or pipero for the same coin. Medievally from the 12th century onward, the Western European term bezant meant the gold dinar coins minted by Islamic governments; the Islamic coins were modelled on the Byzantine solidus during the early years after the onset of Islam. The term bezant was used in the late medieval Republic of Venice to refer to the Egyptian gold dinar. Marco Polo used the term bezant in the account of his travels to East Asia when describing the currencies of the Yuan Empire around the year 1300.

An Italian merchant's handbook dated about 1340, Pratica della mercatura by Pegolotti, used the term bisant for coins of North Africa, Cyprus and Tabriz, whereas it used the term perpero / pipero for the Byzantine bizant. Although the medieval "bezant" was a gold coin, medieval Latin texts have silver coin bezants; the silver bezants were called "white bezants". In Latin they were called "miliaresion bezants" / "miliarense bezants". Like the gold bezants, the silver bezants by definition were issuances by the Byzantine government or by an Arabic government, not by a Latin government, the usage of the term was confined to the Latin West. In heraldry, a roundel of a gold colour is referred to in reference to the coin. Like many heraldic charges, the bezant originated during the crusading era, when Western European knights first came into contact with Byzantine gold coins, were struck with their fine quality and purity. During the Fourth Crusade the city of Constantinople was sacked by Western forces.

During this sacking of the richest city of Europe, the gold bezant would have been much in evidence, many of the knights no doubt having helped themselves liberally to the booty. This event took place at the dawn of the widespread adoption of arms by the knightly class, thus it may have been an obvious symbol for many returned crusaders to use in their new arms; when arms are strewn with bezants, the term bezantée or bezanty is used

Mariano Sánchez de Loria

Mariano Sánchez de Loria was a Bolivian-born statesman and lawyer. He was a representative to the Congress of Tucumán which on 9 July 1816 declared the Independence of Argentina. Sánchez de Loria was born in Chuquisaca and gained his doctorate in jurisprudence and canonical laws at the university there, he supported the revolution in that city in 1809 and was elected by Charcas to the Tucumán Congress, serving in 1816 for the declaration. He backed the idea of an Incan constitutional monarchy for the United Provinces of the River Plate. After the Congress moved to Buenos Aires, Sánchez de Loria continued his work there. Around 1817 his wife died and he returned to his hometown and was ordained a priest, becoming a cannon at Charcas Cathedral; when he died he was a priest at Tacobamba in Potosí. Profile by the House of Tucumán

Lamme Goedzak

Lamme Goedzak is a character in Charles De Coster's novel The Legend of Thyl Ulenspiegel and Lamme Goedzak. He is the best friend of Thyl Ulenspiegel. While Ulenspiegel himself is derived from Dutch-German-Flemish folklore Lamme Goedzak is created by De Coster. Despite this he has become one of the most recognizable Flemish folklore characters since. Camille Huysmans, in his commentary on De Coster, considered Lamme Goedzak to be modeled on Cervantes' Sancho Panza, Don Quixote's loyal companion. Lamme Goedzak's name translates as "lazy kind soul", which hints at his personality. Lamme is a good-natured, if somewhat naïve man, he functions as a sidekick to Ulenspiegel, with whom he shares his knack for fooling other people clergymen and the Spanish invaders. While sometimes slow-witted Lamme is Tijl's most loyal friend. Lamme is known for being a Bruegelian bon vivant who enjoys eating and drinking; when depicted on book illustrations he is carrying food and wine. In the novel some information about Lamme's background history is provided.

As a child he ran away from home because his younger sister taunted him and he wasn't assertive enough to do something about it. He is married, but lost track of his wife and tries to find her back, while resisting the temptation of other women, it turns out that the wife - a staunch Catholic while Goedzak himself is a Protestant - has been misled by an unscrupulous monk into taking a vow of abstinence. While searching for her, Goedzak along with Ulenspiegel is drawn into the Dutch Revolt against Spanish rule, despite his fatness and indolence manages to prove his mettle in various perilous situations, he finds an ideal slot as a ship's cook on one of the vessels of the Sea Beggars, the famed rebel/pirate fleet harassing the Spanish. After a long and hard search Goedzak finds back his wife, proves to her the hypocrisy of the monk, they are reunited; the expression "lamme goedzak" has become an eponym in the Dutch language, referring to a "good, but naïve person, prone to being taken advantage of."

The term is used for obese, jolly people who enjoying eating and drinking. Certain Flemish comics characters, like Lambik and Nero, have been compared with Lamme Goedzak in terms of character. A boat trip from Bruges to Damme has been named after him, a theater company in Bruges, a local history organization in Ruddervoorde and a beer brand. Various restaurants and cafés in Lebbeek, Belsele, Zoersel and Bonn. Jean Carmet played Lamme in Les Aventures de Till L'Espiègle. In the Flemish TV series "Tijl Uilenspiegel" Anton Peters played the part of Lamme. Ray Goossens had a 1945 comic strip based on Tijl Uilenspiegel, where Tijl and Lamme Goedzak were portrayed as a comedic duo; the series was sometimes called Tijl en Lamme too. Willy Vandersteen used Lamme Goedzak in his 1952-1954 comic book adaptation of "Tijl Uilenspiegel". In Vandersteen's final comics series, De Geuzen, set in the 16th century, the central character is a young intelligent man named Hannes, his sidekick is an obese man who enjoys eating and drinking and, an expy of Lamme Goedzak, down to his name "Tamme"