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Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita referred to as the Gita, is a 700-verse Sanskrit scripture, part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Krishna. At the start of the Dharma Yudhha between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is filled with moral dilemma and despair about the violence and death the war will cause for the war he'll battle against is his own kins, he wonders if he should renounce and seeks Krishna's counsel, whose answers and discourse constitute the Bhagavad Gita. Krishna counsels Arjuna to "fulfill his Kshatriya duty to uphold the Dharma" through "selfless action"; the Krishna–Arjuna dialogue cover a broad range of spiritual topics, touching upon ethical dilemmas and philosophical issues that go far beyond the war Arjuna faces. Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with differing views on the essentials. Vedanta commentators read varying relations between Self and Brahman in the text: Advaita Vedanta sees the non-dualism of Atman and Brahman as its essence, whereas Bhedabheda and Vishishtadvaita see Atman and Brahman as both different and non-different, while Dvaita Vedanta sees dualism of Atman and Brahman as its essence.

The setting of the Gita in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life. The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis of Hindu ideas about dharma, theistic bhakti, the yogic ideals of moksha; the text covers jnana, bhakti and Raja Yoga incorporating ideas from the Samkhya-Yoga philosophy. The Bhagavad Gita is the best known and most famous of Hindu texts, with a unique pan-Hindu influence; the Gita's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi. The Gita in the title of the text "Bhagavad Gita" means "song". Religious leaders and scholars interpret the word "Bhagavad" in a number of ways. Accordingly, the title has been interpreted as "the Song of God" by the theistic schools, "the Song of the Lord", "the Divine Song", "Celestial Song" by others. In India, its Sanskrit name is written as Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, श्रीमद् भगवद् गीता, where the Shrimad prefix is used to denote a high degree of respect.

This is not to be confused with the Shrimad Bhagavatam, a Purana dealing with the life of the Hindu God Krishna and various avatars of Vishnu. The work is known as the Isvara Gita, the Ananta Gita, the Hari Gita, the Vyasa Gita, or the Gita. In the Indian tradition, the Bhagavad Gita, as well as the epic Mahabharata of which it is a part, is attributed to sage Vyasa, whose full name was Krishna Dvaipayana called Veda-Vyasa. Another Hindu legend states that Vyasa narrated it while the elephant-headed deity Ganesha broke one of his tusks and wrote down the Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita. Scholars consider Vyasa to be a mythical or symbolic author, in part because Vyasa is the traditional compiler of the Vedas and the Puranas, texts dated to be from different millennia; the word Vyasa means "arranger, compiler", is a surname in India. According to Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, a Gita scholar, it is possible that a number of different individuals with the same name compiled different texts. Swami Vivekananda, the 19th-century Hindu monk and Vedantist, stated that the Bhagavad Gita may be old but it was unknown in the Indian history till early 8th-century when Adi Shankara made it famous by writing his much-followed commentary on it.

Some infer, states Vivekananda, that "Shankaracharya was the author of Gita, that it was he who foisted it into the body of the Mahabharata." This attribution to Adi Shankara is unlikely in part because Shankara himself refers to the earlier commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, because other Hindu texts and traditions that compete with the ideas of Shankara refer to much older literature referencing the Bhagavad Gita, though much of this ancient secondary literature has not survived into the modern era. According to J. A. B. van Buitenen, an Indologist known for his translations and scholarship on Mahabharata, the Gita is so contextually and philosophically well knit with the Mahabharata that it was not an independent text that "somehow wandered into the epic". The Gita, states van Buitenen, was conceived and developed by the Mahabharata authors to "bring to a climax and solution the dharmic dilemma of a war". According to Alexus McLeod, a scholar of Philosophy and Asian Studies, it is "impossible to link the Bhagavad Gita to a single author", it may be the work of many authors.

This view is shared by the Indologist Arthur Basham, who states that there were three or more authors or compilers of Bhagavad Gita. This is evidenced by the discontinuous intermixing of philosophical verses with theistic or passionately theistic verses, according to Basham. Theories on the date of the composition of the Gita vary considerably. Scholars accept dates from the fifth century to the second century BCE as the probable range, the latter likely; the Hinduism scholar Jeaneane Fowler, in her commentary on the Gita, considers second century BCE to be the probable date of composition. J. A. B. van Buitenen too states that the Gita was composed about 200 BCE. According to the Indologist Arvind Sharma, the Gita is accepted to be a 2nd-century BCE text. Kashi Nath Upadhyaya, in contrast, dates it a bit earlier, he states that the Gita was always a part of the Ma

Morton Freeman Plant Hunting Lodge

The Morton Freeman Plant Hunting Lodge is the centerpiece of a hunting retreat at 56 Stone Ranch Road in East Lyme, Connecticut. It is a large two-story Bungalow style house, designed by Dudley St. Clair Donnelly and built in 1908 by financier Morton Freeman Plant, is one of the only early 20th-century purpose-built hunting lodges in the state, it was the heart of a large 2,400-acre private game preserve. The property, now reduced to 105 acres, is surrounded by town conservation land and a state military reservation; the property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 12, 1988. The Morton Freeman Plant Hunting Lodge is located in an isolated rural setting in western East Lyme; the lodge stands on 105 acres of land, nearly surrounded by town conservation land and a state National Guard training center, all land, once associated with the lodge. There are two buildings on the lodge grounds, which are wooded except for the clearing in which they stand, Stone Ranch Road, which provides access.

The lodge is a 1-1/2 story frame structure with a broad hip roof that creates an overhanging porch in the front, supported by stone piers. Dormers pierce three of the roof faces, a single-story service ell extends to the rear of the main block; the interior of the building retains original finishes, including two concrete fireplaces built to resemble those found in 16th-century European manor houses. Morton Freeman Plant's father, Henry Plant, made the family fortune by developing railroads in Florida, he took over his father's business in 1899. Born and raised in southeastern Connecticut, Plant began purchasing land in East Lyme and Lyme as a hunting retreat in 1907, which grew to about 2400 acres by 1914; the lodge was built in 1908 to a design by Dudley St. Clair Donnelly, a regionally prominent architect who executed a number of commissions for Plant. Plant died in the 1918 influenza pandemic, the property was broken up by his heirs. National Register of Historic Places listings in New London County, Connecticut

Carsten Hauch

Johannes Carsten Hauch was a Danish poet. Hauch was born in Frederikshald in Norway, his father was the Danish bailiff in Frederik Hauch. His mother, Karen Tank was sister of parliament president Carsten Tank. In 1802 Hauch lost his mother, in 1803 returned with his father to Denmark. In 1807 he fought as a volunteer against the English invasion, he entered the university of Copenhagen in 1808, in 1821 took his doctors degree. He became the friend and associate of Steffens and Oehlenschläger, warmly adopting the romantic views about poetry and philosophy, his first two dramatic poems, The Journey to Ginistan and The Power of Fancy, appeared in 1816, were followed by a lyrical drama, Rosaurn. Hauch therefore gave up all hope of fame as a poet, resigned himself to the study of science, he took his doctors degree in zoology in 1821, went abroad to pursue his studies. At Nice he had an accident, he returned to literature, publishing a dramatized fairy tale, the Hamadryad, the tragedies of Bajazet, Gregory VII, in 1828-1829, The Death of Charles V, The Siege of Maestricht.

These plays were violently enjoyed no success. Hauch turned to novel-writing, published in succession five romances Vilhelm Zabern. In 1842 he collected his shorter Poems. In 1846 he was appointed professor of Scandinavian languages in Kiel, but returned to Copenhagen when war broke out in 1848. About this time his dramatic talent was at its height, he produced one admirable tragedy after another. From 1858 to 1860 Hauch was director of the Danish National Theatre. In 1861 he published another collection of Lyrical Poems and Romances and ~fl 1862 the historical epic of Valdemar Seir, volumes which contain his best work. From 1851, when he succeeded Oehlenschläger, to his death, he held the honorary post of professor of aesthetics at the university of Copenhagen, he died in Rome in 1872, was buried at the Cimitero acattolico. Hauch was one of the most prolific of the Danish poets, his lyrics and romances in verse are always line in form and strongly imaginative. In all his writings, but in his tragedies, he displays a strong bias in favor of what is mystical and supernatural.

Of his dramas Marshal Stig is the best, of his novels the patriotic tale of Vilhelm Zabern is admired the most. Hauch's novels were collected and his dramatic works; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Hauch, Johannes Carsten". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this work in turn cites: Georg Brandes, Carsten Hauch in Danske Digtere F. Rønning, J. C. Hauch Dansk Biografisk-Lexicon, Poems by Johannes Carsten Hauch