Cannabinol is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in Cannabis, is found in aged Cannabis. Pharmacologically relevant quantities are formed as a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol. CBN has a higher affinity to CB2 receptors. Degraded or oxidized cannabis products, such as low-quality baled cannabis and traditionally produced hashish, are high in CBN. Unlike other cannabinoids, CBN does not stem directly from cannabigerol or cannabigerolic acid, but rather is the degraded product of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. If cannabis is exposed to air or ultraviolet light for a prolonged period of time, THCA will convert to cannabinolic acid. CBN is formed by decarboxylation of CBNA. In contrast to THC, CBN stereoisomers. Both THC and CBN activate the CB2 receptors. Chemically, CBN is related to cannabidiol. CBN is not listed in the schedules set out by the United Nations' Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs from 1961 nor their Convention on Psychotropic Substances from 1971, so the signatory countries to these international drug control treaties are not required by these treaties to control CBN.
In Canada, CBN is a Schedule II controlled substance as defined by the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. In the United States and state laws regarding the legality of cannabis products are confusing and at times contradictory. CBN is not listed in the list of scheduled controlled substances in the USA. However, it is possible that CBN could be considered an analog of THC or CBD, both of which are Schedule I substances, therefore sales or possession could be prosecuted under the Federal Analogue Act, it is possible that CBN may not meet the legal standard of an analogue for the purposes of bringing forth a prosecution under the Federal Analogue Act. In December 2016, the Drug Enforcement Administration added marijuana extracts, which are defined as any "extract containing one or more cannabinoids, derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin", to Schedule I; this action has led to additional uncertainty about the legal status. Erowid Compounds found in Cannabis sativa
420 (cannabis culture)
420, 4:20, or 4/20 is slang in cannabis culture for the consumption of cannabis smoking cannabis around the time 4:20 p.m. and refers to cannabis-oriented celebrations that take place on annually on April 20. In 1971, five high school students – Steve Capper, Dave Reddix, Jeffrey Noel, Larry Schwartz, Mark Gravich – in San Rafael, calling themselves the Waldos because "their chosen hang-out spot was a wall outside the school", used the term in connection with a 1971 plan to search for an abandoned cannabis crop that they had learned about, based on a treasure map made by the grower; the Waldos designated the Louis Pasteur statue on the grounds of San Rafael High School as their meeting place, 4:20 p.m. as their meeting time. The Waldos referred to this plan with the phrase "4:20 Louis". After several failed attempts to find the crop, the group shortened their phrase to "4:20", which evolved into a code-word that the teens used to mean consuming cannabis. Mike Edison says that Steven Hager of High Times was responsible for taking the story about the Waldos to "mind-boggling, cult-like extremes" and "suppressing" all other stories about the origin of the term.
Hager wrote "Stoner Smart or Stoner Stupid?", in which he attributed the early spread of the phrase to Grateful Dead followers – after Reddix became a roadie for the Dead's bassist, Phil Lesh – and called for 4:20 p.m. to be the accepted hour of the day to consume cannabis. April 20 has become an international counterculture holiday, where people gather to celebrate and consume cannabis. Many such events have a political nature to them, advocating the liberalization / legalization of cannabis. Vivian McPeak, a founder of Seattle's Hempfest states that 4/20 is "half celebration and half call to action". Paul Birch suggests that one can't stop events like these. On that day many marijuana users protest in civil disobedience by gathering in public to light up at 4:20 p.m. As marijuana continues to be decriminalized and legalized around the world, Steve DeAngelo, cannabis activist and founder of California's Harborside Health Center, notes that "even if our activist work were complete, 420 morphs from a statement of conscience to a celebration of acceptance, a celebration of victory, a celebration of our amazing connection with this plant" and that he thinks that "it will always be worthy of celebration".
North American observances have been held at many locations, including: "Hippie Hill" in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park near the Haight-Ashbury district, The University of Colorado's Boulder campus, Ontario, at Parliament Hill and Major's Hill Park, Quebec, at Mount Royal monument, Alberta, at the Alberta Legislature Building, British Columbia, at the Vancouver Art Gallery, but as of 2016 at Sunset Beach. Washington Square Park in Manhattan, the largest and most notable of a number of gatherings and demonstrations on April 20 in New York City. Mile High 420 Festival in Denver's Civic Center Park The National Cannabis Festival in Washington D. C. has been running since 2016 and includes live music, educational sessions, history, local vendors. The University of California, Santa Cruz, where the growing size of the unofficial event there caused the Vice Chancellor of Student Affairs to send an e-mail to parents in 2009 stating: "The growth in scale of this activity has become a concern for both the university and surrounding community."
Events have occurred in Hyde Park in London and Dunedin, New Zealand, at the University of Otago. In Ljubljana, the University of Ljubljana's student organization has carried out several annual cannabis-themed protests that have contributed to the debate on cannabis status in Slovenia and the subsequent legislation proposals in 2018 by gathering responses from various political parties in Slovenia and ranking them accordingly. Using 25 years of U. S. national data, one study found a 12% increase in the risk of fatal motor vehicle crash between 4:20 p.m. and midnight on April 20 compared to identical time intervals on control days. Among the subgroup of drivers less than 21 years of age, risks were 38% higher on April 20 than on control days. Signs bearing the number 420 have been stolen. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on I-70 east of Denver with one reading 419.99 in an attempt to stop the thievery. The Idaho Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on U.
S. Highway 95, just south of Coeur d'Alene, with Mile Marker 419.9. The Washington State Department of Transportation implemented similar measures. In Goodhue County, officials have changed "420 St" street signs to "42x St". In 2003, California Senate Bill 420 was introduced to regulate medical marijuana use, in deliberate reference to the status of 420 in marijuana culture. An unsuccessful 2010 bill to legalize cannabis in Guam was called Bill 420. On January 9, 2019, H. R. 420 was introduced into the 116th Congress by Rep. Earl Blumenauer, named the Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act, designed to remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act and return regulation to the states; as the country dial-code of the Czech Republic is 420 and the rate of cannabis use there is one of the highest in the world, some foreign visitors think that cannabis is legal in this Central European country. However, those smoking cannabis outdoors will be fined and possessing more than 10 grams of marijuana is considered a crime.
In 2016, Snoop Dogg displayed his knowledge of marijuana on The $100,000 Pyramid. Snoop replied without delay that the country
Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west; the state covers an area of 1.53 % of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most spoken and official language of the state; the main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs forming the demographic majority and Hindus forming a sizable minority. The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana; the five rivers from which the region took its name were Sutlej, Beas and Jhelum. The Punjab region was home to the Indus Valley Civilization until 1900 BCE.
The Punjab was invaded by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE and was captured by Chandragupta Maurya under Chanakya. The Punjab was home to the Gupta Empire, the empire of the Alchon Huns, the empire of Harsha, the Mongol Empire. Circa 1000, the Punjab was part of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire. Sikhism originated in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire; the confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The entire Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab; the western part was assimilated into new country of Pakistan. The Indian Punjab as well as PEPSU was divided into three parts on the basis of language in 1966. Haryanvi-speaking areas were carved out as Haryana, while the hilly regions and Pahari-speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh, alongside the current state of Punjab.
Punjab's government has three branches – executive and legislative. Punjab follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state. Punjab is agriculture-based due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, sewing machines, sports goods, tourism, bicycles and the processing of pine oil and sugar. Minerals and energy resources contribute to Punjab's economy to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district; the region was called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means "Land of the Five Rivers", was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests.
The word Punjab is a compound of the Persian words āb. Thus Panjāb means "the land of five rivers"; the five rivers are the Sutlej, Ravi and Jehlum. Traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, i.e. "The Punjab". The name is sometimes spelled as "Panjab"; the Greeks called Punjab an inland delta of five converging rivers. During the period when the epic Mahabharata was written, around 800–400 BCE, Punjab was known as Trigarta and ruled by Katoch kings; the Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of the Punjab region with cities such as Ropar. The Vedic Civilization spread along the length of the Sarasvati River to cover most of northern India including Punjab; this civilisation shaped subsequent cultures in the Indian subcontinent. The Punjab region was ruled by many ancient empires including the Gandhara, Mauryas, Kushans, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas and Hindu Shahis; the furthest eastern extent of Alexander the Great's exploration was along the Indus River. Agriculture flourished and trading cities such as Jalandhar and Ludhiana grew in wealth.
Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from both west and east. Punjab faced invasions by the Achaemenids, Scythians and Afghans; this resulted in the Punjab witnessing centuries of bitter bloodshed. Its culture combines Hindu, Islamic and British influences; the original Punjab region is now divided into several units: West Punjab, portions of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa such as the Gandharar region, the Indian states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and the Indian Union territory of Chandigarh and Jammu Division. The Punjab is the'Sapta Sindhu' region mentioned in the Rig Veda, the seven rivers are: Saraswati, Satadru/Shutadri, Asikani, Purushni, Vitasta/Vet and Sindhu. Among the classic books that were wholly or composed in this region are the following. Rigveda Grammar of Sakatayana Ashtadhyayi of Pāṇini Nirukta of Yaska Charaka Samhita Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita Brihatkatha of Gunadya Bakhshali ManuscriptThe world's oldest university Takshashila flourished here before the Buddha's birth.
The Brahmins of this region
A cannabis edible known as a cannabis-infused food or an edible, is a food product that contains cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol. Although edible may refer to either a food or a drink, a cannabis-infused drink may be referred to more as a liquid edible or drinkable. Most edibles contain a significant amount of THC, which can induce a wide range of effects, including relaxation, increased appetite and anxiety. THC-dominant edibles are consumed for medical purposes; some edibles contain a negligible amount of THC and are instead dominant in other cannabinoids, most cannabidiol. These edibles are used for medical purposes only. Foods and beverages made from non-psychoactive cannabis products are known as hemp foods; the earliest recorded cannabis-infused food was in the Indian subcontinent, where people have prepared food and drink with bhang for millennia, for both spiritual and medicinal purposes. The oil-solubility of cannabis extracts was known to ancient Indians, with Sanskrit recipes requiring cannabis to be sautéed in ghee before mixing it with other ingredients.
Bhang drink as early as 1,000 BCE by Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. Bhang is traditionally distributed during the Hindu spring festival of Holi. Modern interest in cannabis-infused food is credited to the publication of The Alice B. Toklas Cook Book. Toklas included a recipe for "haschich fudge", contributed by artist and friend Brion Gysin when the book was published in 1954. Although it was omitted from the first American editions, Toklas' name and her "brownies" became synonymous with cannabis in the growing 1960s counterculture. In some U. S. states that have legalized cannabis, edibles have experienced a dramatic rise in sales. However, there is growing concern about the danger edibles pose to children and inexperienced cannabis consumers, who may ingest too much at once not realizing the food has been infused. Furthermore, calls to poison control have increased since 2008 due to dogs ingesting edibles. Cannabis does not contain significant amounts of THC. Rather, it contains high levels of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, which converts into THC through decarboxylation, a process induced by heating.
Comparing effects of eating cannabis products and smoking them is difficult because there are large margins of error due to variability in how different people smoke, with the number and spacing of puffs, the hold time and the volume of the person's lungs all affecting the dosing. With regard to eating, different vehicles in which cannabinoids are dissolved for oral intake affect the availability of the cannabinoids, different people metabolize differently. However, because oral doses are processed by the digestive system and the liver before entering the bloodstream, cannabinoids that are ingested are absorbed more and have delayed and lower peak concentrations, are cleared more compared to inhaling them in the aerosol, formed when cannabis is burnt. Oral administration leads to two peaks of concentration, due to enterohepatic circulation. Consuming THC through ingestion results in absorption through the liver and, through metabolic processes, the conversion of a significant proportion of it into 11-Hydroxy-THC.
A cannabis-infused baked good is a common type of cannabis edible. Popular varieties include hash cookies, pot brownies, space cakes. One is not able to distinguish between regular baked goods and those containing cannabinoids before consumption, but they tend to have a green tinge and they emit a faint cannabis smell. A mild grassy or cannabis flavor might be detectable. Many resources for recipes and dosage are available online, though they vary in effectiveness and quality. A cannabis-infused drink known as a liquid edible or drinkable, is a drink, infused with cannabinoids. Traditional cannabis-infused drinks include the Indian drinks lassi and thandai when prepared with bhang. Cannabis tea is a mildly psychoactive herbal tea but is psychoactively weak due to the lack of fat and alcohol in the drink. In U. S. states that have legalized cannabis for recreational use, drinks were about 4% of the cannabis market in 2014 but had fallen to around 1.5% of the market in 2016. A capsule containing THC or CBD, not sold as a regulated pharmaceutical is considered an edible and provides the same effect as food and drink.
Cannabis tincture is an alcoholic extract of cannabis. Because cannabis resins are soluble in alcohol, an effective way of adding them into dishes is through cooking brandy or rum infused with cannabinoids. Stems and leaves of the marijuana plant are used due to their lower THC content when smoked; when infused in high-proof grain-based alcohol, such as Everclear, it becomes what is known as green dragon. Creme de Gras is a flavored liqueur made from cannabis, it can be added to coffee and other beverages. Cannabis oil is a product based in a cooking oil, infused with cannabinoids by mixing cannabis with the heated oil. Cannabis cooking oils are available to medical cannabis patients in a variety of blends for various cooking applications. Cannabis-infused butter, or cannabutter, is a cannabis-infused ingredient used in many cannabis edibles. Heating the raw cannabis in melted butter allows the cannabinoids to be extracted by the fat. A more complicated process is using a double-boiler, or slow cooker, cheesecloth or tea strainer and funnel.
Brownie Mary Chef Ra The Straight Dope column on Alice B. Toklas brownies (includes
A cannabis shop, cannabis dispensary, or cannabis cooperative is a location at which marijuana is sold for recreational or medical use. In the Netherlands these are called coffeeshops. In the United States they exist as an outlet for both medical use; these shops differ from head shops. In 2015, the City of San Diego made A Green Alternative the first licensed medical marijuana dispensary and delivery service in the city. Cannabis selling coffeeshops began in the 1970s. Establishments like Mellow Yellow coffeeshop were known for open cannabis dealing. After an explosion of hard drugs authorities began to tolerate soft drugs and legalized cannabis selling in registered coffeeshops. In certain territories in the United States and Canada, dispensaries distribute cannabis to the general public or in some cases only to approved patients. In Uruguay cannabis dispensaries can sell to the public. Appearing in the United States during Prohibition they sold cannabis as a legal intoxicant. Today they exist in New Zealand, Spain Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria.
And Germany. In India, several Indian states allow licensed bhang shops to sell a decoction of cannabis, they sell, traditional cannabis-infused Indian bhang drinks Bhang lassi and Bhang thandai
Long-term effects of cannabis
The long-term effects of cannabis have been the subject of ongoing debate. Because cannabis is illegal in most countries, research presents a challenge. Acute cannabis intoxication has been shown to negatively affect attention, psychomotor task ability, short-term memory. Studies of chronic cannabis use have not demonstrated a long-lasting or refractory effect on the attention span, memory function, or cognitive abilities of moderate-dose long-term users. Once cannabis use was discontinued, these effects disappeared in users abstinent for a period of several months. Chronic use of cannabis during adolescence, a time when the brain is still developing, is correlated in the long term with lower IQ and cognitive deficits, it is not clear, though, if the causality is in the reverse. Recent studies have shown that IQ deficits existed in subjects before chronic cannabis use, suggesting that lower IQ may instead be a risk factor for cannabis addiction. Cannabis is the most used illicit drug in the Western world, although in the United States 10 to 20% of consumers who use cannabis daily become dependent, it is different from addiction.
Cannabis use disorder is defined in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a condition requiring treatment. A 2012 review of cannabis use and dependency in the United States by Danovitch et al said that "42% of persons over age 12 have used cannabis at least once in their lifetime, 11.5% have used within the past year, 1.8% have met diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence within the past year. Among individuals who have used cannabis, conditional dependence is 9%." Although no medication is known to be effective in combating dependency, combinations of psychotherapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy and motivational enhancement therapy have achieved some success. Cannabis dependence develops in 9% of users less than that of heroin, cocaine and prescribed anxiolytics, but higher than that for psilocybin, mescaline, or LSD. Dependence on cannabis tends to be less severe than that observed with cocaine and alcohol. A 2018 review of the nature of dependency on marijuana states that the risk of dependence formation among regular marijuana consumers has declined since 2002.
The possible connection between psychosis and cannabis has been seen as controversial. Medical evidence suggests that the long-term use of cannabis by people who begin use at an early age display a higher tendency towards mental health problems and other physical and development disorders, although a causal link is not established; these risks appear to be most acute in adolescent users. Cannabis can contain over 100 different cannabinoid compounds, many of which have displayed psychoactive effects; the most distinguished cannabinoids are ∆9 – THC and cannabidiol, with THC being the primary agent responsible for the psychoactivity of cannabis. The effects of THC and CBD are salient regarding anxiety; as of 2017 there is clear evidence that long term use of cannabis increases the risk of psychosis, regardless of confounding factors, for people who have genetic risk factors. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding anxiety and cannabis for therapeutic purposes, these cross-sectional studies have been consistent regarding the anxiolytic effects.
The studies showed relief of anxiety as a result of cannabis consumption. Cannabis use may precipitate new-onset panic attacks and depersonalization/derealization symptoms simultaneously. According to one 2013 review, long term cannabis use "increases the risk of psychosis in people with certain genetic or environmental vulnerabilities", but does not cause psychosis. Important predisposing factors include childhood trauma and urban upbringing. Another 2013 review concluded that cannabis use may cause permanent psychological disorders in some users such as cognitive impairment, anxiety and increased risks of psychosis. Key predisposing variables include age of first exposure, frequency of use, the potency of the cannabis used, individual susceptibility. A 2013 review stated that there exists "a strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use...". The authors found that cannabis use alone does not predict the transition to subsequent psychiatric illness. Many factors are involved, including genetics, time period of initiation and duration of cannabis use, underlying psychiatric pathology that preceded drug use, combined use of other psychoactive drugs.
A 2014 review said that "ecause longitudinal work indicates that cannabis use precedes psychotic symptoms, it seems reasonable to assume a causal relationship" between cannabis and psychosis, but that "more work is needed to address the possibility of gene-environment correlation." In the same year, a review examined psychological therapy as add-on for people with schizophrenia who are using cannabis: A 2016 meta-analysis found that cannabis use increases the risk of psychosis, that a dose–response relationship exists between the level of cannabis use and risk of psychosis. The analysis was not able to establish a causal link. Another 2016 meta-analysis found that cannabis use only predicted transition to psychosis among those who met the criteria for abuse of or dependence on the drug. A 2016 review found that the epidemiologic evidence regarding cannabis use and psychosis was strong enough "to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders," but cautioned that additional studies are needed to determine the size of the effect.
A 2016 review
A grow house is a property located in a suburban residential neighbourhood, used for the production of marijuana, it may be used for the production of other plants such as Psilocybin mushrooms. The houses are outfitted with extensive hydroponic equipment to provide water and light to the plants, the houses themselves are kept in good condition to blend in with the neighbourhood. Illegal electrical hookups are a common feature of grow houses, to both save money and to make it harder for authorities to identify them due to their unusually high electrical usage. In the United Kingdom illegal cannabis growers bypass electric meter readers and "abstract" the electricity, an offence in its own right. In the last ten years authorities in both the United Kingdom and the United States of America have become more aware of grow houses and have introduced policies focusing law enforcement, local government authorities, energy providers and landlords on disruption and detection of illegal grow houses. In the United Kingdom the Proceeds of Crime Bill targets criminal profits and unevidenced sources of income from convicted drug producers.
Local media run regular stories advising local people on what to look out for including visited properties with blacked out windows or with high levels of humidity on the inside. However, professional criminals are able to defeat these efforts with the use of low-power lighting, activated charcoal filters, tube or inline fans, cooling systems and hydroponic systems. In the second season of the TV series Weeds, the protagonist begins operating a grow house to better support her marijuana-selling operation. Cannabis cultivation Cannabis culture Grow shop Headshop Illegal drug trade