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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited owned and founded by the Government of India, is an engineering and manufacturing company based in New Delhi, India. Established in 1964, BHEL is India's largest power generation equipment manufacturer. BHEL was established in 1964 ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India. Heavy Electricals Limited was merged with BHEL in 1974. In 1991, BHEL was converted into a public limited company. Over time, it developed the capability to produce a variety of electrical and mechanical equipments for all sectors, including transmission, transportation and gas and other allied industries. However, the bulk of the revenue of the company is derived from sale of equipment for power generation such as turbines, etc; as of 2017, BHEL supplied equipment contributed to about 55% of the total installed power generation capacity of India. The company has supplied thousands of Electric Locomotives to Indian Railway, as well as defence equipment such as the Super Rapid Gun Mount naval guns manufactured in partnership with the Indian Ordnance Factories and Defence Simulators to the Indian Armed Forces....

BHEL is engaged in the design, manufacturing, testing and servicing of a wide range of products and services for the core sectors of the economy, viz. power, industry, renewable energy, oil & gas, defence. It has a network of 17 manufacturing units, 2 repair units, 4 regional offices, 8 service centres, 8 overseas offices, 15 regional centres, 7 joint ventures, infrastructure allowing it to execute more than 150 projects at sites across India and abroad; the company has established the capability to deliver 20,000 MW p.a. of power equipment to address the growing demand for power generation equipment. BHEL has retained its market leadership position during 2015–16 with 74% market share in the Power Sector. An improved focus on project execution enabled BHEL record its highest commissioning/synchronization of 15059 MW of power plants in domestic and international markets in 2015–16, marking a 59% increase over 2014–15. With the all-time high commissioning of 15000 MW in a single year FY2015-16, BHEL has exceeded 170 GW installed base of power generating equipments.

It has been exporting its power and industry segment products and services for over 40 years. BHEL's global references are spread across over 76 countries across all the six continents of the world; the cumulative overseas installed capacity of BHEL manufactured power plants exceeds 9,000 MW across 21 countries including Malaysia, Iraq, UAE, Bhutan and New Zealand. Their physical exports range from turnkey projects to after sales services. BHEL's investment in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate sector in India. During the year 2012–13, the company invested about Rs. 1,252 Crore on R&D efforts, which corresponds to nearly 2.50% of the turnover of the company, focusing on new product and system developments and improvements in existing products. The IPR capital of BHEL grew by 21.5% in the year, taking the total to 2170. The Corporate R&D division at Hyderabad leads BHEL’s research efforts in a number of areas of importance to BHEL’s product range. Research & product development Groups for each product group at the manufacturing divisions play a complementary role.

BHEL has established Centres of Excellence for Simulators, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Permanent Magnet Machines, Surface Engineering, Machine Dynamics, Centre for Intelligent Machines and Robotics, Compressors & Pumps, Centre for Nano Technology, Ultra High Voltage Laboratory at Corporate R&D. BHEL has established four specialized institutes, viz. Welding Research Institute at Tiruchirappalli, Ceramic Technological Institute at Bangalore, Centre for Electric Traction at Bhopal and Pollution Control Research Institute at Haridwar. Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell plant at Gurgaon pursues R&D in Photo Voltaic applications. BHEL is one of the only four Indian companies and the only Indian Public Sector Enterprise figuring in'The Global Innovation 1000' of Booz & Co. a list of 1,000 publicly traded companies which are the biggest spenders on R&D in the world. BHEL is to construct 1340-megawatt coal power plant in Rampal, close to the Sundarban mangrove forest for Bangladesh-India Friendship Power Company Limited.

The project has faced criticism for the environmental impact and the potential harm to the largest mangrove forest in the world. In 2017 Norway’s sovereign wealth fund removed BHEL from its investment portfolio over concerns about the Rampal coal plant. Bharathidasan Institute of Management, a college that functions within the BHEL campus.

Trolleybuses in Warsaw

A Warsaw trolleybus system formed part of the public transport network of Warsaw, the capital city of Poland, during two separate periods. The first trolleybus system was established in 1946 and lasted until 1973, it had a maximum of 10 routes. The second system, comprising only one route, was in operation from 1983 until 1995. During World War II, most of the mass transit infrastructure in Warsaw was destroyed; the city was in need of a efficient transport network. In 1945, thirty secondhand trolleybuses, along with material for installation of overhead lines, were obtained from the Moscow trolleybus system, in the Soviet Union, the first two lines in Warsaw opened on 5 January 1946, they operated from Plac Unii Lubelskiej to Warszawa Gdańska train station, from the Łazienkowska depot to the city centre. In March 1946, another line was closed and replaced by trams in December. By 1955, five new trolleybus lines were opened and existing ones extended, covering the city centre; the first system's fleet had included 15 French-built Vétra trolleybuses, purchased new in 1947, 30 East German-built LOWA vehicles, received in 1952–53.

These were supplanted by trolleybuses built by Škoda, in what was Czechoslovakia. They included seven of model 7Tr, 45 of model 8Tr and 77 of model 9Tr, though not all in service during the same periods. 1967 started a period of fast decline in both the number of trolleybuses and the trolleybus lines in Warsaw. The national government policy at the time was that as much Polish coal as possible be exported while the oil be imported at low prices from the USSR, it was decided. The last trolleybus line closed on 29 June 1973; the last period of the Warsaw trolleybus history started in 1977, when it was decided that the existing vehicles should be used on a new line between Warsaw and the southern suburb of Piaseczno. An additional longer route to Piaseczno was planned, through Wilanów, Powsin and Konstancin-Jeziorna. However, economic conditions made construction of the latter line impossible, only the former, on the direct route between Warsaw and Piaseczno, was opened; this single route, numbered 51, opened on 1 June 1983.

In the meantime, it had been decided to purchase new trolleybuses, these came from Uritsky, in Russia, model ZIU-682. These wore a red-and-cream paint scheme. New trolleybuses were purchased from the Polish manufacturer, Jelcz. Route 51 was 12.5 km long, the depot was located only about 1.5 km from the outer end of the line. After 1989 it became apparent that the ZIU trolleybuses were in need of replacement, that the cost of running a single line was high. In 1992, additional trolleybuses were acquired secondhand from the St. Gallen trolleybus system, in Switzerland; these comprised St. Gallen trolleybuses 119–130, built in 1957–58 by Saurer, a number of passenger trailers, built in 1969–70; these entered service in 1992, with new fleet numbers but keeping their green-and-cream St. Gallen livery; the ZIU trolleybuses were withdrawn in 1993. By 1995, the 1957 Saurer trolleybuses had become "among the oldest trolleybuses still in service anywhere in the world". In 1995, the Warsaw City Council decided to discontinue the service.

The final day of operation was 31 August 1995. The trolleybus depot at Iwiczna, in Piaseczno, was closed, the vehicles were placed in storage; the decision was taken to reduce costs. The depot had been designed for 300 vehicles but was only being used by 39. In July 2000, what had been an indefinite closure; the remaining vehicles were sold to Gdynia and Lublin, to various museums. List of trolleybus systems

The Little Deputy

The Little Deputy is a Canadian short documentary film, directed by Trevor Anderson and starring Luke Oswald, released in 2015. Inspired by Anderson's rediscovery of an old childhood photo of himself and his father dressed in cowboy garb, the film blends Anderson's own contemporary quest to recreate a new version of the photo — as an adult Anderson is gay, wants to recreate the photo while clothed in drag — with segments in which he imagines himself as an actual cowboy in the 1880s; the film premiered at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival. At the Alberta Film and Television Awards in 2015, The Little Deputy won the Rosie Award for Best Short Film. In December 2015, it was named to the Toronto International Film Festival's annual Canada's Top Ten list of the year's ten best feature and short films; the film was a shortlisted Canadian Screen Award nominee for Best Short Documentary Film at the 4th Canadian Screen Awards. The Little Deputy on IMDb The Little Deputy on Vimeo

Radio communication station

A radio communication station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves. It is a receiver or transmitter or transceiver, an antenna, some smaller additional equipment necessary to operate them, they play a vital role in communication technology as they are relied on to transfer data and information across the world. More broadly, the definition of a radio station includes the aforementioned equipment and a building in which it is installed; such a station may include several "radio stations" defined above. This definition of a radio station is more referred to as a transmitter site, transmitter station, transmission facility or transmitting station. An example of this definition is Bethany Relay Station of the Voice of America which had seven broadcast transmitters and could broadcast up to seven independent programs as well as several communications transmitters and receivers; the International Telecommunications Union, defines a radio station as - «one or more transmitters or receivers or a combination of transmitters and receivers, including the accessory equipment, necessary at one location for carrying on a radio communication service, or the radio astronomy service.

Each station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily». Transmitter - Takes the electrical output of a microphone and modulates a higher-frequency carrier signal and transmits it as radio waves. Receiver - The broadcast message is received by the receiver and decodes the radio sine waves. Antenna - An antenna is required for transmission; the main use of an antenna is to send radio signals. Aerial feeder - system of feeding HF-Energy in the antenna Transmission lines - Transmission lines are used to transfer the radio signals from one location to another. For example, a transmission line was used in Luftwaffe, Germany during WW II to send information from camps back to their base. Connectors Interface panel remote control – This is used to connect various different types of the equipment used in a radio station. To input broadcast data into a transmitter an interface panel will need to be used. Cable – A cable can be used to connect the various devices.

Equipment Rack – To hold all equipment in a secure and logical manner, an equipment rack will be used. Power protection equipment – For holding equipment's in a stable and logical manner. UPS – For uninterrupted power supply. Known as United Parcel Service; these are the most used/important items for most radio stations. A microphone is used to capture the input of sound waves created by people speaking into the device; the sounds are turned into electrical energy. As the electrons in the electric current move back and forth up the antenna, the current creates an invisible electromagnetic radiation in the form of radio waves; the waves travel at the speed of light. A compound of both a transmitter and a receiver is called a transceiver, they are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing. Technically transceivers must combine a significant amount of the transmitter and receiver handling the circuitry. Possible Frequency allocations, allotments & assignments Broadcasting service - 535 to 1606.5 kHz Broadcasting service - bands from 5.9 to 26.1 MHz Mobile service - 26.96 to 27.41 MHz Amateur Radio Service - bands from 135.7 kHz & up Broadcasting service - 54 to 88 MHz Broadcasting service - 88 to 108 MHz Broadcasting service - 174 to 220 MHz FIXED SERVICE, MOBILE SERVICE, garage door opener - around 40 MHz MOBILE SERVICE standard digital cordless phones - 40 to 50 MHz MOBILE SERVICE baby monitors - 49 MHz MOBILE SERVICE radio controlled airplanes - around 72 MHz Mobile service cell phones - 824 to 849 MHz Space research service - 2290 MHz to 2300 MHz

Innovation economics

Innovation economics is a growing economic theory that emphasizes entrepreneurship and innovation. In his 1942 book Capitalism and Democracy, economist Joseph Schumpeter introduced the notion of an innovation economy, he argued that evolving institutions and technological changes were at the heart of economic growth. However, it is only in recent years that "innovation economy," grounded in Schumpeter's ideas, has become a mainstream concept". Joseph Schumpeter was one of the first and most important scholars who extensively tackled the question of innovation in economics. In contrast to his contemporary John Maynard Keynes, Schumpeter contended that evolving institutions and technological change were at the heart of economic growth, not independent forces that are unaffected by policy, he argued that "capitalism can only be understood as an evolutionary process of continuous innovation and'creative destruction'". It is only in the 21st century that a theory and narrative of economic growth focused on innovation, grounded in Schumpeter's ideas has emerged.

Innovation economics attempted to answer the fundamental problem in the puzzle of total factor productivity growth. Continual growth of output could no longer be explained only in increase of inputs used in the production process as understood in industrialization. Hence, innovation economics focused on a theory of economic creativity that would impact the theory of the firm and organization decision-making. Hovering between heterodox economics that emphasized the fragility of conventional assumptions and orthodox economics that ignored the fragility of such assumptions, innovation economics aims for joint didactics between the two; as such, it enlarges the Schumpeterian analyses of new technological system by incorporating new ideas of information and communication technology in the global economy. Innovation economics emerges from other schools of thought in economics, including new institutional economics, new growth theory, endogenous growth theory, evolutionary economics and neo-Schumpeterian economics.

It provides an economic framework that explains and helps support growth in today’s knowledge economy. Leading theorists of innovation economics include both formal economists as well as management theorists, technology policy experts and others; these include Paul Romer, Elhanan Helpman, Bronwyn Hall, W. Brian Arthur, Robert Axtell, Richard R. Nelson, Richard Lipsey, Michael Porter, Keun Lee and Christopher Freeman. Innovation economists believe that what drives economic growth in today’s knowledge-based economy is not capital accumulation as neoclassical economics asserts, but innovative capacity spurred by appropriable knowledge and technological externalities. Economic growth in innovation economics is the end-product of: knowledge. In 1970, economist Milton Friedman said in the New York Times that a business’s sole purpose is to generate profits for their shareholders and companies that pursued other missions would be less competitive, resulting in fewer benefits to owners and society.

Yet, data over the past several decades shows that while profits matter, good firms supply far more in bringing innovation to the market. This fosters employment gains and other society-wide benefits. Business school professor David Ahlstrom asserts that "the main goal of business is to develop new and innovative goods and services that generate economic growth while delivering benefits to society". In contrast to neoclassical economics, innovation economics offer differing perspectives on main focus, reasons for economic growth and the assumptions of context between economic actors: Despite the differences in economic thought, both perspectives are based on the same core premise, namely the foundation of all economic growth is the optimization of the utilization of factors and the measure of success is how well the factor utilization is optimized. Whatever the factors, it nonetheless leads to the same situation of special endowments, varying relative prices and production processes. Thus, while the two differ in theoretical concepts, innovation economics can find fertile ground in mainstream economics, rather than remain in diametric contention.

Empirical evidence worldwide points to a positive link between technological innovation and economic performance. The drive of biotech firms in Germany was due to the R&D subsidies to joint projects, network partners and close cognitive distance of collaborative partners within a cluster. For instance: These factors increased patent performance in the biotech industry. Innovation capacity explains much of the GDP growth in India and China between 1981–2004, but in the 1990s, their development of a National Innovation System through heavy investment of R&D expenditures and personnel and high-tech/service exports strengthened their innovation capacity. By linking the science sector with the business sector, establishing incentives for innovative activities and balancing the import of technology and indigenous R&D effort, both countries experienced rapid economic growth in recent decades. AThe Council of Foreign Relations asserted that since the end of the 1970s the U. S. has gained a disproportionate share of the world’s wealth through their aggressive pursuit of technological change, demonstrating that technological innovation is a central catalyst of steady economic performance.

Concisely, evidence shows that innovation contributes to steady economic growth and r


Mungar is a rural locality in the Fraser Coast Region, Australia. In the 2016 census, Mungar had a population of 309 people. Mungar is 247 kilometres north of the state capital Brisbane and 20 kilometres south west of the regional centre of Maryborough; the Mungar Junction to Monto Branch Railway branches from the North Coast railway line at Mungar. Mary River Saw Mill Provisional School opened on 9 July 1875. On 24 Sep 1877 it was renamed Mungar State School. At the 2011 census and the surrounding area had a population of 264. Mungar State School is a government primary school for girls at 1143 Mungar Road. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 44 students with 4 non-teaching staff. Mungar railway station