Bharatanatyam is a major form of Indian classical dance that originated in state of Tamilnadu. It is one of eight forms of dance recognized by the Sangeet Natak Akademi and it expresses South Indian religious themes and spiritual ideas of Shaivism and Shaktism. Description of Bharatanatyam by 2nd century CE is noted in the ancient Tamil epic Silappatikaram, while temple sculptures of 6th to 9th century CE suggest it was a well refined performance art by the mid 1st millennium CE. Bharatanatyam is the oldest classical dance tradition of India. Theoretical foundations of the Indian classical dance laid out in Natya Shastra. Can be traced to various ancient art forms including Bharatanatyam. Bharatanatyam style is noted for its fixed upper torso, legs bent or knees flexed out combined with spectacular footwork, a sophisticated vocabulary of sign language based on gestures of hands and face muscles; the dance is accompanied by music and a singer, her guru is present as the Nattuvanar and conductor of the performance and art.
The dance has traditionally been a form of an interpretive narration of mythical legends and spiritual ideas from the Hindu texts. The performance repertoire of Bharatanatyam, like other classical dances, includes nrita and natya. Bharatanatyam remained exclusive to Hindu temples through the 19th century, it was banned by the colonial British government in 1910, but the Indian community protested against the ban and expanded it outside the temples in the 20th century. Modern stage productions of Bharatanatyam have incorporated technical performances, pure dance based on non-religious ideas and fusion themes. Known as sadhiraattam or Dashiattam, the Indian classical dance form Bharatanatyam owes its current name, to E Krishna Iyer and Rukmini Devi Arundale, who were instrumental in modifying the Pandanallur style of dancing bringing it to global attention, removing the extraneous sringaar elements from the dance, which were the legacy of its Devadasi association in the past; the word Bharata is a mnemonic, consisting of "bha"–"ra"–"ta".
According to this belief, bha stands for bhava, ra stands for raga, ta stands for tala. The term Natya is a Sanskrit word for "dance"; the compound word Bharatanatyam thus connotes a dance that harmoniously expresses bhava, tala. The theoretical foundations of Bharatanatyam are found in Natya Shastra, the ancient Hindu text of performance arts. Natya Shastra is attributed to the ancient scholar Bharata Muni, its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE, but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE; the most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters. The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance, the theory of rasa, of bhāva, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures—all of which are part of Indian classical dances. Dance and performance arts, states this ancient text, are a form of expression of spiritual ideas and the essence of scriptures. More direct historical references to Bharatnatyam is found in the Tamil epics Silappatikaram and Manimegalai.
The ancient text Silappatikaram, includes a story of a dancing girl named Madhavi. The carvings in Kanchipuram's Shiva temple that have been dated to 6th to 9th century CE suggest Bharatanatyam was a well developed performance art by about the mid 1st millennium CE. A famous example of illustrative sculpture is in the southern gateway of the Chidambaram temple dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva, where 108 poses of the Bharatnatyam, that are described as karanas in the Natya Shastra, are carved in stone. Many of the ancient Shiva sculptures in Hindu temples are the same. For example, the Cave 1 of Badami cave temples, dated to 7th-century, portrays the Tandava-dancing Shiva as Nataraja; the image, 5 feet tall, has 18 arms in a form that expresses the dance positions arranged in a geometric pattern. The arms of Shiva express mudras; some colonial Indologists and modern authors have argued that Bharatanatyam is a descendant of an ancient Devadasi culture, suggesting a historical origin back to between 300 BCE and 300 CE.ijhjng Modern scholarship has questioned this theory for lack of any direct textual or archeological evidence.
Historic sculpture and texts do describe and project dancing girls, as well as temple quarters dedicated to women, but they do not state them to be courtesans and prostitutes as alleged by early colonial Indologists. According to Davesh Soneji, a critical examination of evidence suggests that courtesan dancing is a phenomenon of the modern era, beginning in the late 16th or the 17th century of the Nayaka period of Tamil Nadu. According to James Lochtefeld, Bharatanatyam remained exclusive to Hindu temples through the 19th century, only in the 20th century appearing on stage outside the temples. Further, the Maratha rulers of Tanjore contributed towards Bharatanatyam. With the arrival of the East India Company in the 18th century, British colonial rule in the 19th, many classical Indian dance forms were ridiculed and discouraged, these performance arts declined. Christian missionaries and British officials presented "nautch girls" of north India and "devadasis" of south India as evidence of "harlots, debased erotic
Pteria penguin known as the penguin's wing oyster, is a species of marine bivalve mollusc in the family Pteriidae, the pearl oysters. It is native to the western and central Indo-Pacific region and is used for the production of cultured pearls; the generic name comes from Greek πτερον meaning wing. Pteria penguin is native to the central Indo-Pacific region, its range extends from the East African coast and the Red Sea to India, southern China, southern Japan, the Philippines and northern Australia. It is found attached by its byssal threads to a number of different substrates but to hydroids, at depths of less than about 25 m. Wild oysters of this species contain pearls; when they do, they tend to be irregular in shape and have the same range of pinkish hues that are typical of the nacre lining the shells. The maximum diameter of the pearls is about 13 mm; because the shell valves of this species are so thin, it was beyond the competence of nineteenth century oyster culturists to use it for pearl production.
With modern techniques, seeding has become easier and Pteria penguin has joined Pteria sterna, another member of the genus Pteria, as being a major producer of cultured pearls. Most of the pearls produced by Pteria penguin are "mabé pearls" known as bubble or half pearls, formed between the mantle and the shell valve and having one flattened side; the production of round pearls requires more advanced techniques in seeding. Occurring spat can be collected on spat collectors for growing on into mature oysters, there are some hatcheries producing spat on a commercial scale; these oysters are cultured on the Ryukyu Islands, along the southern coast of China, on Phuket Island in Thailand and on Vava'u in Tonga
Vachellia constricta known as the whitethorn acacia, is a shrub native to Mexico and the Southwestern United States, with a disjunct eastern population in Virginia and Maryland. In the Southwest V. constricta grows in the southern half of Arizona, extending into New Mexico and West Texas. It grows in Mexico as far south as Oaxaca, with small disjunct populations in Baja California and in the Magdalena Plain of Baja California Sur. In the Sonoran Desert, Vachellia constricta grows in arroyos and washes, where it blooms in late spring, with a second round of blooms in July–October. Blooming requires a minimum amount of rain, followed by a period of warmth. Vachellia constricta grows to 2 metres in height reaching 6 metres, its stems range from a light gray to a mahogany color, with pairs of straight white spines anywhere from 0.5 to 2 cm long. The small leaves are even-pinnate 2.5–4 cm in length, with each of the 3-9 pairs of pinnae made of 4-16 pairs of leaflets, which are about 3.5 mm long and 1 mm wide.
The flowers occur in small yellow balls about 1 cm in diameter. The flowers offer no nectar and little pollen, so tend to have few visitors. Extrafloral nectaries attract ants to the trees; the seed pods are long and thin, up to 12 cm long but only 3–6 mm wide. The leaves may drop in response to either cold. Vachellia constricta is cultivated by specialty plant nurseries as an ornamental plant, it is used in native plant desert habitat gardens. It can be grown as a barrier hedges. Raymond M. Turner, Janice E. Bowers, Tony L. Burgess, Sonoran Desert Plants: an Ecological Atlas pp. 15–16 USDA Plants profile: Vachellia constricta USFS: Vachellia constricta Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study. Consensus implies general agreement, though not unanimity. Consensus is achieved through communication at conferences, the publication process, replication of reproducible results by others, scholarly debate, peer review; these lead to a situation in which those within the discipline can recognize such a consensus where it exists. On occasion, scientific institutes issue position statements intended to communicate a summary of the science from the "inside" to the "outside" of the scientific community. In cases where there is little controversy regarding the subject under study, establishing the consensus can be quite straightforward. Popular or political debate on subjects that are controversial within the public sphere but not controversial within the scientific community may invoke scientific consensus: note such topics as evolution, climate change, or the lack of a link between MMR vaccinations and autism.
There are many philosophical and historical theories as to how scientific consensus changes over time. Because the history of scientific change is complicated, because there is a tendency to project "winners" and "losers" onto the past in relation to our current scientific consensus, it is difficult to come up with accurate and rigorous models for scientific change; this is made exceedingly difficult in part because each of the various branches of science functions in somewhat different ways with different forms of evidence and experimental approaches. Most models of scientific change rely on new data produced by scientific experiment. Karl Popper proposed that since no amount of experiments could prove a scientific theory, but a single experiment could disprove one, science should be based on falsification. Whilst this forms a logical theory for science, it is in a sense "timeless" and does not reflect a view on how science should progress over time. Among the most influential challengers of this approach was Thomas Kuhn, who argued instead that experimental data always provide some data which cannot fit into a theory, that falsification alone did not result in scientific change or an undermining of scientific consensus.
He proposed that scientific consensus worked in the form of "paradigms", which were interconnected theories and underlying assumptions about the nature of the theory itself which connected various researchers in a given field. Kuhn argued that only after the accumulation of many "significant" anomalies would scientific consensus enter a period of "crisis". At this point, new theories would be sought out, one paradigm would triumph over the old one – a series of paradigm shifts rather than a linear progression towards truth. Kuhn's model emphasized more the social and personal aspects of theory change, demonstrating through historical examples that scientific consensus was never a matter of pure logic or pure facts. However, these periods of'normal' and'crisis' science are not mutually exclusive. Research shows that these are different modes of more than different historical periods. Perception of whether a scientific consensus exists on a given issue, how strong that conception is, has been described as a "gateway belief" upon which other beliefs and action are based.
In public policy debates, the assertion that there exists a consensus of scientists in a particular field is used as an argument for the validity of a theory and as support for a course of action by those who stand to gain from a policy based on that consensus. Arguments for a lack of scientific consensus are encouraged by sides who stand to gain from a more ambiguous policy. For example, the scientific consensus on the causes of global warming is that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases; the historian of science Naomi Oreskes published an article in Science reporting that a survey of the abstracts of 928 science articles published between 1993 and 2003 showed none which disagreed explicitly with the notion of anthropogenic global warming. In an editorial published in The Washington Post, Oreskes stated that those who opposed these scientific findings are amplifying the normal range of scientific uncertainty about any facts into an appearance that there is a great scientific disagreement, or a lack of scientific consensus.
Oreskes's findings were replicated by other methods. The theory of evolution through natural selection is supported by an overwhelming scientific consensus. Opponents of evolution claim that there is significant dissent on evolution within the scientific community; the wedge strategy, a plan to promote intelligent design, depended on seeding and building on public perceptions of absence of consensus on evolution. The inherent uncertainty in science, where theories are never proven but can only be disproven, poses a problem for politicians, policymakers and business professionals. Where scientific or philosophical questions can languish in uncertainty for decades within their disciplinary settings, policymakers are faced with the problems of making sound decisions based on the available data if it is not a final form of the "truth"; the tricky part is discerning what is close enough to "final truth". For example, socia
Stowe's Hill is an elongated hill, 381 metres high, located on the eastern edge of Bodmin Moor in the county of Cornwall, England. Stowe's Hill is a prominent granite ridge located about 1500 metres north of Minions, the highest village in Cornwall, it is dominated by Stowe's Pound, a huge tor enclosure comprising two massive stone-walls. The smaller enclosure surrounds the tors at the southern end of the hill. At the southern end is a large, disused quarry, but the hill is best known as the site of the Cheesewring, the extraordinary granite formation that gave the quarry its name. Inside Stowe's Pound are a stone round house and over 100 house platforms; the site is thought to be Neolithic or Bronze Age and connected with other settlements and ritual monuments in the vicinity
María del Mar Rodríguez Carnero, better known by her stage name La Mari, was born 18 January 1975 in Málaga, Spain and is the lead vocalist of Chambao. One of three original members of the group that formed in 2001, she sang alongside cousins Eduardo Casañ and Daniel Casañ, until Chambao disbanded in 2005. La Mari remained, continuing to front the release albums under the name Chambao. In March 2005, La Mari was diagnosed with breast cancer, she co-wrote a book with her sister, Aurora Rodríguez Carnero, discussing her personal experiences overcoming the disease. In 2006 she was a featuring artist on Ricky Martin's album MTV Unplugged, she featured alongside Ricky Martin on the track "Tu Recuerdo", which hit #1 on the Latin Billboard charts and received a Latin Grammy nomination for Record of the Year. In 2007, La Mari released Con Otro Aire, backed by a new band. In 2008, she collaborated with the winner of the Eurovision Song Contest 50, Helena Paparizou, performing a duet of her Spanish song, "Papeles Mojados."
Throughout her career, La Mari has collaborated with various groups and artists, including Enrique Morente, Mojo Project, El Bicho, Bebe, Estrella Morente, Jarabe de Palo, Javier Ruibal, Cesária Évora, Antonio Orozco, Peret, La Shica, Miguel Rios, Rosario Flores, Lila Downs, Calima, La Guardia, Mario Diaz and Ricky Martin. Flamenco Chill Endorfinas en la Mente Pokito a Poko Con Otro Aire En el Fin del Mundo Chambao Nuevo Ciclo María del Mar Rodríguez Carnero discography at Discogs María del Mar Rodríguez Carnero at AllMusic Chambao official website