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Bhutan

Bhutan the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in South Asia. Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by the Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the north, the Chumbi Valley of Tibet and the Indian states of Sikkim and West Bengal in the west, the Indian states of Assam and West Bengal in the south and east. Bhutan is geopolitically in South Asia and is the region's second-least-populous nation after the Maldives. Thimphu is largest city, while Phuntsholing is its financial center. Bhutan's independence has endured for centuries, it has never been colonized in its history. Situated on the ancient Silk Road between Tibet, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Bhutanese state developed a distinct national identity based on Buddhism. Headed by a spiritual leader known as the Zhabdrung Rinpoche, the territory comprised many fiefdoms and was governed as a Buddhist theocracy. Following a civil war in the 19th century, the House of Wangchuck reunited the country and established relations with the British Empire.

After the end of the British Raj, Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism. In the early 1990s, the government deported much of the country's Nepali-speaking Lhotsampa minority, sparking a refugee crisis in nearby Nepal. In 2008 Bhutan transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy and held the first election to the National Assembly of Bhutan; the National Assembly is part of the bicameral parliament of the Bhutanese democracy. The country's landscape ranges from lush subtropical plains in the south to the sub-alpine Himalayan mountains in the north, where there are peaks higher than 7,000 metres. Gangkhar Puensum is Bhutan's highest peak and may be the highest unclimbed mountain in the world; the wildlife of Bhutan is notable for its diversity. In South Asia, Bhutan ranks first in economic freedom, ease of doing business, peace, is the least corrupt country in the region as of 2016, it continues to be a least developed country, but expects to graduate from this status by 2023.

Hydroelectricity accounts for most of its exports. The government is a parliamentary democracy. Bhutan maintains diplomatic relations with 52 countries and the European Union, but does not have formal ties with the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, it is a member of SAARC, BIMSTEC and the Non-Aligned Movement. The Royal Bhutan Army maintains a close relationship with the Indian Armed Forces. Bhutan is notable for pioneering the concept of gross national happiness; the precise etymology of "Bhutan" is unknown, although it is to derive from the Tibetan endonym "Böd" for Tibet. Traditionally, it is taken to be a transcription of the Sanskrit Bhoṭa-anta "end of Tibet", a reference to Bhutan's position as the southern extremity of the Tibetan plateau and culture. Since the 17th century Bhutan's official name has been Druk yul. Names similar to Bhutan—including Bohtan, Bottanthis and Bottanter—began to appear in Europe around the 1580s. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier's 1676 Six Voyages is the first to record the name Boutan.

But these names seem to have referred not to the Kingdom of Tibet. The modern distinction between the two did not begin until well into the Scottish explorer George Bogle's 1774 expedition. Realizing the differences between the two regions and states, his final report to the East India Company formally proposed calling the Druk Desi's kingdom "Boutan" and the Panchen Lama's "Tibet"; the EIC's surveyor general James Rennell first anglicized the French name as Bootan and popularized the distinction between it and greater Tibet. Locally, Bhutan has been known by many names. One of the earliest Western records of Bhutan, the 1627 Relação of the Portuguese Jesuits Estêvão Cacella and João Cabral, records its name variously as Cambirasi and Mon; the first time a separate Kingdom of Bhutan appeared on a western map, it did so under its local name "Broukpa". Others include Lho Tsendenjong, Lhomen Khazhi and Lho Menjong. Stone tools, weapons and remnants of large stone structures provide evidence that Bhutan was inhabited as early as 2000 BC, although there are no existing records from that time.

Historians have theorized that the state of Lhomon, or Monyul may have existed between 500 BC and AD 600. The names Lhomon Tsendenjong, Lhomon Khashi, or Southern Mon, have been found in ancient Bhutanese and Tibetan chronicles. Buddhism was first introduced to Bhutan in the 7th century AD. Tibetan king Songtsän Gampo, a convert to Buddhism, who had extended the Tibetan Empire into Sikkim and Bhutan, ordered the construction of two Buddhist temples, at Bumthang in central Bhutan and at Kyichu in the Paro Valley. Buddhism was propagated in earnest in 746 under King Sindhu Rāja, an exiled Indian king who had established a government in Bumthang at Chakhar Gutho Palace. Much of early Bhutanese history i

Juan Manuel Peña

Juan Manuel Peña Montaño is a Bolivian retired footballer who played as a central defender. The vast majority of his professional career was spent in Spain, where he played a total of 14 years for three teams, appearing in a total of 305 La Liga games. Peña played more than 80 times with Bolivia, representing the nation at the 1994 World Cup and five Copa América tournaments. Born in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Peña played for Club Blooming in his home country and Independiente Santa Fe in Colombia, before moving to Spain in 1995. At Real Valladolid he was a defensive stalwart for nine seasons – sharing teams with compatriot Marco Sandy in his first – leaving for Villarreal CF upon his first team's 2004 relegation from La Liga. At Villarreal Peña figured less prominently, but managed to score a rare goal, in a 3–0 home win against Málaga CF on 19 December 2004. After just six league appearances during 2006–07 he switched to Celta de Vigo, in the second division. Following two seasons of intermittent use, Peña retired in mid-November 2009 aged 36, not wishing to pursue his career anymore after careful deliberation.

However, on 25 March of the following year, he signed with D. C. United of the Major League Soccer. After his debut for Bolivia in 1991, Peña went on to become one of its most capped players and team captain. With 85 international matches, he played a FIFA World Cup game, against Spain in 1994, appeared in five Copa América editions. Peña scored only once for the national team, in a friendly match with Honduras played in Washington on 11 October 2003. In his penultimate appearance, on 1 April 2009, he helped to the 6–1 demolition of Argentina in La Paz for the 2010 World Cup qualifiers. VillarrealUEFA Intertoto Cup: 2004 Stats at Liga de Fútbol Profesional Juan Manuel Peña at BDFutbol MLS player profile Juan Manuel Peña at National-Football-Teams.com Juan Manuel Peña – FIFA competition record

The Rochdale Pioneers

The Rochdale Pioneers is a British biographical feature film, released in 2012, that tells the story of the foundation of the first successful cooperative retail store by working class members of the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, in 1844. This came at a time of chronic unemployment, poverty and social inequality, it was met with prejudice and opposition. A documentary, The Making of'The Rochdale Pioneers', was created to accompany the film; the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 brought with it famine, chronic unemployment and drastic wage cuts amongst textile weavers and spinners, this – coupled with a lack of suffrage – led to calls for reform which culminated in the Peterloo Massacre of 1819 in Manchester, England when a peaceful demonstration of radical reformers was attacked by cavalry. Several cooperative ventures had since been begun, in an attempt to improve conditions, but they had all failed, the pioneers in Rochdale, were faced with a hard struggle; the Rochdale pioneers' aim was to provide an affordable alternative to poor-quality and adulterated food and provisions, using "honest weights and measures", to use any surplus to benefit the community.

The vision and efforts of these twenty eight working class men is recognized as the birth of the co-operative movement, the Rochdale Principles which they developed formed the foundation of the principles still in use by the modern cooperative movement which now numbers around 1.4 million independent enterprises with nearly 1 billion members worldwide. The Rochdale Pioneers was inspired by the 1944 film, Men of Rochdale which had marked the centenary of the first shop's opening and had been in turn based upon G. J. Holyoake's The History of Co-operation; the original shop at 31 Toad Lane in Rochdale in Lancashire, England opened on 21 December 1844 and was used for trading until 1867. It was re-opened in 1931 as the Rochdale Pioneers Museum and again reopened in 2012 after renovations costing £2.3 million. The story is set in 1844 when a group of working-class people from the town of Rochdale came together to change the unfair society they were living in. Fed up with dishonest and corrupt shopkeepers selling poor quality products at high prices they decide to take matters into their own hands.

By pooling the few resources they have, the group manage to get enough money together to open their own shop and pledge to only sell quality, unadulterated products, sharing the profits with their customers. The shop is only small and stocks just a handful of products like butter and sugar, but the idea itself is revolutionary and the way they do business is fundamentally different in its nature. Commissioned by The Co-operative Group and produced by the Co-operative British Youth Film Academy, The Rochdale Pioneers was released as part of the United Nations International Year of Cooperatives, 2012. A documentary, The Making of'The Rochdale Pioneers', was created to accompany the film, this was directed and produced by Darren White. Many of the cast and crew were recruited from local communities, to work alongside established actors like John Henshaw and John McArdle. Shooting was carried out in the historic Yorkshire village of Heptonstall, just a few miles from Rochdale; the Rochdale Pioneers premiered at Co-operatives United in Manchester, England on 1 November 2012.

The television premiere was on Film4 on Sunday 11 November 2012 at UK time. History of the cooperative movement The Hungry Forties Official website Official film trailer on YouTube The Rochdale Pioneers on IMDb The Making of'The Rochdale Pioneers' The Making of'The Rochdale Pioneers' on IMDb Rochdale Pioneers Museum