Bias is disproportionate weight in favor of or against an idea or thing in a way, closed-minded, prejudicial, or unfair. Biases learned. People may develop biases against an individual, a group, or a belief. In science and engineering, a bias is a systematic error. Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average; the word derives from Old Provençal into Old French biais, "sideways, against the grain". Whence comes French biais, "a slant, a slope, an oblique", it seems to have entered English via the game of bowls, where it referred to balls made with a greater weight on one side. Which expanded to the figurative use, "a one-sided tendency of the mind", and, at first in law, "undue propensity or prejudice". A cognitive bias is a repeating or basic misstep in thinking, recollecting, or other cognitive processes; that is, a pattern of deviation from standards in judgment, whereby inferences may be created unreasonably.
People create their own "subjective social reality" from their own perceptions, their view of the world may dictate their behaviour. Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality; however some cognitive biases are taken to be adaptive, thus may lead to success in the appropriate situation. Furthermore, cognitive biases may allow speedier choices. Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations, coming about because of an absence of appropriate mental mechanisms, or just from human limitations in information processing. Anchoring is a psychological heuristic that describes the propensity to rely on the first piece of information encountered when making decisions. According to this heuristic, individuals begin with an implicitly suggested reference point and make adjustments to it to reach their estimate. For example, the initial price offered for a used car sets the standard for the rest of the negotiations, so that prices lower than the initial price seem more reasonable if they are still higher than what the car is worth.
Apophenia known as patternicity, or agenticity, is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data. Apophenia is well documented as a rationalization for gambling. Gamblers may imagine that they see patterns in the numbers which appear in lotteries, card games, or roulette wheels. One manifestation of this is known as the "gambler's fallacy". Pareidolia is the auditory form of apophenia, it has been suggested that pareidolia combined with hierophany may have helped ancient societies organize chaos and make the world intelligible. An attribution bias can happen when individuals assess or attempt to discover explanations behind their own and others' behaviors. People make attributions about others' behaviors. Rather than operating as objective perceivers, individuals are inclined to perceptual slips that prompt biased understandings of their social world; when judging others we tend to assume their actions are the result of internal factors such as personality, whereas we tend to assume our own actions arise because of the necessity of external circumstances.
There are a wide range of sorts of attribution biases, such as the ultimate attribution error, fundamental attribution error, actor-observer bias, self-serving bias. Examples of attribution bias: Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret and recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses while giving disproportionately less attention to information that contradicts it; the effect is stronger for charged issues and for entrenched beliefs. People tend to interpret ambiguous evidence as supporting their existing position. Biased search and memory have been invoked to explain attitude polarization, belief perseverance, the irrational primacy effect and illusory correlation. Confirmation biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Poor decisions due to these biases have been found in organizational contexts. Framing involves the social construction of social phenomena by mass media sources, political or social movements, political leaders, so on.
It is an influence over how people organize and communicate about reality. It can be positive or negative, depending on the audience and what kind of information is being presented. For political purposes, framing presents facts in such a way that implicates a problem, in need of a solution. Members of political parties attempt to frame issues in a way that makes a solution favoring their own political leaning appear as the most appropriate course of action for the situation at hand; as understood in social theory, framing is a schema of interpretation, a collection of anecdotes and stereotypes, that individuals rely on to understand and respond to events. People use filters to make sense of the world, the choices they make are influenced by their creation of a frame. Cultural bias is the related phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to one's own culture. Numerous such biases exist, concerning
Ateyyat El Abnoudy known as Ateyyat Awad Mahmoud Khalil, was an Egyptian journalist, actress and movie director. She was born in a small village along the Nile Delta in Egypt. El-Abnoudy was considered to be one of the pioneering Arab female movie directors as her films inspired the works of many Arab women in the industry, she has been called the "poor people's filmmaker" due to the subject matter that inspired her to make films, including civil rights issues and the condition of impoverished Arabs. El Abnoudy has received more than 30 international awards for her 22 films, including three for Horse of Mud, released in 1971. Ateyyat El Abnoudy was raised in a small village by her two parents in a working-class family. El-Abnoudy attended the University of Cairo to attain her law degree, working as an actress at a local theatre to fund her education. While at university, she met her first husband, a journalist and poet named Abdel-Rahman El Abnoudy. Abdel's career gave Atteyyat access to a network of writers and other artists in Egypt.
El Abnoudy played various roles at the theater, such as stage assistant. In 1972 she attended the Cairo Higher Institute of Cinema to finish her film studies. While there, she created Horse of Mud, not only her first documentary, but Egypt's first documentary produced by a woman. El Abnoudy started her acting career as a means to financially support herself in school while she studied journalism; when El-Abnoudy's career as a journalist began, she took a particular interest in the poor of Egypt Cairo. This inspired her to take up production and become a filmmaker who shed light on the plight of some in Egypt. El-Abnoudy became known by two titles: the "poor people's filmmaker" and the "mother of documentaries", she inspired many Arab women filmmakers to follow in her footsteps. El-Abnoudy's films are known for dealing with political and economic issues in Egypt, they challenged the censored state of film during Egypt's Sadat era. El-Abnoudy further contested the censorship of Egypt's filmmakers when she became the first female to establish her own production company, Abnoudy Film, which supported small filmmakers similar to her.
1971, three international prizes at the Grand Prix Film Festival, Mannheim Film Festival and Damascus Film Festival. 1972, French Critics Prize at Grenoble Film Festival. 1990, Best Co-Production Prize, Valencia Film Festival, Spain. 1992, Egyptian Film Critics Prize, Ismailia International Documentary & Short Film Festival. 1998, National Film Festival, Egyptian Ministry of Culture. The Physicalities of Documentaries by African Women written by Stefanie Van De Peer Permissible Documentaries: Representation in Ateyyat El Abnoudy's documentaries written by Stefanie Van De Peer Popular Egyptian Cinema: Gender and Nation written by Viola Shafik Attiyat El-Abnoudy on IMDb 1993 Ateyyat El-Abnoudy interview with Kevin Thomas Ateyyat El Abnoudy Interview with Rebecca Hillauer
Frederick de Horn was the first husband of the painter Angelica Kauffman. According to contemporary sources, which may not be reliable, he was an imposter and bigamist who posed as a Swedish count. Brandt is chiefly known for his marriage to the Swiss painter Angelica Kauffman whom he met in London in 1766 or 1767 where she had opened a studio after arriving from the continent; the couple married at the Anglican St James's Church, Piccadilly, on 22 November 1767 in front of the Rev. Baddeley; the witnesses were Richard Horne. Sources write of a possible second ceremony at a local Catholic church but there is no evidence for it; such a ceremony would have been risky as the anti-Catholic penal laws were still in force which mandated execution for a Catholic priest who married two Catholics and imprisonment for the newly-weds. A drawing of Kauffman by Nathaniel Dance now in the British Museum, shows her with a wedding ring and her hand over her heart indicating love; the couple lived apart and the relations between them broke down.
It was speculated in contemporary sources that the marriage was unconsummated and that Horn was impotent. Following the breakdown of the marriage it was said that Brandt was revealed to be a bigamist who had married in Hildesheim, Hanover, in 1765, it was said that he used false names, calling himself Studerat in Amsterdam, Rosenkranz in Breslau, Buckle or Burckle in Sweden. He was said to have posed as a colonel in the army of Frederick the Great, it was said that he was the illegitimate son of Count de Horn and a maidservant Christina Brandt, brought up in the Count's household. Kauffman and her father paid Horn off and he left England for the continent. Brandt died in 1780, or 1781, Kauffman soon after married Antonio Zucchi. Https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=XherJFG-nIkC&lpg=PT99&dq=Frederick%20de%20Horn&pg=PT100#v=onepage&q=Frederick%20de%20Horn&f=false
Groovin' is an album by saxophonist Willis Jackson, recorded in 1961 and released on the Prestige label. Allmusic awarded the album 3 stars stating "A fine, soulful jazz date slow blues and ballads, from one of the kings of honky-tonk saxophone. Jackson's smooth, Ben Webster-ish tenor playing is surprising, but always satisfying". All compositions by Willis Jackson except. "Careless Love" – 4:13 "Oatmeal" – 4:25 "I Remember Clifford" – 3:48 "A Twist of Blues" – 5:40 "Sweet Peter Charleston" – 6:51 "Again" – 4:05 "He Said, She Said, I Said" – 3:52 "Girl Of My Dreams" – 6:40Recorded at Van Gelder Studio in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey on January 10, 1961, April 11, 1961 Willis Jackson – tenor saxophone Jimmy Neeley, Richard Wyands – piano Wendell Marshall, Peck Morrison – bass Gus Johnson, Mickey Roker – drums Juan Amalbert – congas
Lauren Caitlin Upton credited as Caite Upton, is an American fashion model and former beauty queen from Lexington, South Carolina. Upton became Miss South Carolina Teen USA for 2007 in the November 2006 state pageant, she went on to place as third runner-up in the Miss Teen USA 2007 pageant. She gained international notoriety for her convoluted and nonsensical response to a question posed to her during the August 2007 national pageant. During the pageant, Upton responded to a question posed by host Aimee Teegarden: "Recent polls have shown a fifth of Americans can't locate the U. S. on a world map. Why do you think this is?" Upton responded: I believe that U. S. Americans are unable to do so because, uh, some, uh, people out there in our nation don't have maps and, uh, I believe that our education like such as in South Africa and, uh, the Iraq, everywhere like such as, and, I believe that they should, our education over here in the U. S. should help the U. S. uh, or, uh, should help South Africa and should help the Iraq and the Asian countries, so we will be able to build up our future.
For our children. As a guest on NBC's The Today Show, Upton told Ann Curry and Matt Lauer that she was overwhelmed when asked the question and did not comprehend it correctly; the Today Show hosts gave Upton another opportunity to answer. She responded: Well my friends and I, we know where the United States is on our map. I don't know anyone, and if the statistics are correct, I believe that there should be more emphasis on geography in our education so people will learn how to read maps better. Both Curry and Lauer, along with unseen crew members, applauded her response. Since she has modeled in advertisements for companies such as Nautica and Wrangler and has appeared in national magazines such as Seventeen, Cosmo Girl and American Cheerleader. Upton signed a deal with Donald Trump's modeling agency in New York City. Upton appeared in Weezer's music video "Pork and Beans,", released on May 23, 2008 where the microphone she held became a lightsaber. In the same video, she blends "Maps" in a Blendtec blender.
In 2010, Upton was a contestant on The Amazing Race 16, where she is credited as Caite Upton and finished the Race in 3rd place with her then-boyfriend Brent Horne. Most Upton reported herself as selling real estate in Brentwood, Los Angeles, she married personal trainer Charlie McNeil in 2016 and they divorced in 2019. In December 2019, Upton announced. Caitlin Upton on IMDb The Amazing Race profile page
The New Jersey Jammers, known as the Jersey Jammers, was a professional basketball in the United States Basketball League. The team was a charter franchise of the USBL in 1985. In 1985, the Jammers played home games at William Paterson College in New Jersey. During the inaugural USBL draft in 1985, the Jammers picked center Ralph Dalton from Georgetown University, second overall. Cazzie Russell was the team's head coach in 1985. New Jersey United States Senator Bill Bradley, a former professional basketball player, said he was sending "good wishes for success to coach Cazzie Russell". In 1986, the team sold for a $150,000 to an investment group of five people led by Elnardo Webster. Team officials announced the team would play their 1986 home games at Yanitelli Center in Jersey City, New Jersey. During the 1986 USBL territorial draft, the Jammers selected Bill Bradley, New Jersey's United States Senator and a former New York Knicks player; the Jammers hired Nate Archibald to head coach in 1986.
On August 18, 1986, Jammers guard Byron Strickland set a USBL record for most points scored in a single game with 65 in a game against the Springfield Fame. In 1987, the Jammers selected college basketball color commentator Dick Vitale as their territorial pick. Henry Bibby served as the Jammers head coach in 1987. New Jersey Gems New Jersey Meteors New Jersey ShoreCats