The biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. It is treated as a race. Depending on the competition, missed shots result in extra distance or time being added to the contestant's total. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the biathlon "is rooted in the skiing traditions of Scandinavia, where early inhabitants revered the Norse god Ullr as both the ski god and the hunting god". In modern times, the activity that developed into this sport was an exercise for Norwegian people, an alternative training for the military. Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at mark while skiing at top speed, downhill race among trees, downhill race on big hills without falling, a long race on flat ground while carrying rifle and military pack. In modern terminology these military contests included downhill, slalom and cross-country skiing. One of the world's first known ski clubs, the Trysil Rifle and Ski Club, was formed in Norway in 1861 to promote national defense at the local level.
20th century variants include Forsvarsrennet – a 17 km cross-country race with shooting, the military cross-country race at 30 km including marksmanship. The modern biathlon is a civilian variant of the old military combined exercise. In Norway, the biathlon was until 1984 a branch of Det frivillige Skyttervesen, an organization set up by the government to promote civilian marksmanship in support of national defense. In Norwegian, the biathlon is called skiskyting. In Norway there are still separate contests in skifeltskyting, a cross-country race at 12 km with large-caliber rifle shooting at various targets with unknown range. Called military patrol, the combination of skiing and shooting was contested at the Winter Olympic Games in 1924, demonstrated in 1928, 1936, 1948, but did not regain Olympic recognition because the small number of competing countries disagreed on the rules. During the mid-1950s, the biathlon was introduced into the Soviet and Swedish winter sport circuits and was enjoyed by the public.
This newfound popularity aided the effort of having biathlon gain entry into the Winter Olympics. The first Biathlon World Championship was held in 1958 in Austria, in 1960 the sport was included in the Olympic Games. At Albertville in 1992, women were first allowed in the Olympic biathlon; the competitions from 1958 to 1965 used high-power centerfire cartridges, such as the.30-06 Springfield and the 7.62×51mm NATO, before the.22 Long Rifle rimfire cartridge was standardized in 1978. The ammunition was carried in a belt worn around the competitor's waist; the sole event was the men's 20 km individual, encompassing four separate ranges and firing distances of 100 m, 150 m, 200 m, 250 m. The target distance was reduced to 150 m with the addition of the relay in 1966; the shooting range was further reduced to 50 m in 1978 with the mechanical self-indicating targets making their debut at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. For the 2018/2019 season electronic targets were approved as an alternative to paper or mechanical steel targets for IBU events.
In 1948, the International Modern Pentathlon Union was founded, to standardise the rules for the modern pentathlon and, from 1953 biathlon. In July 1993, the biathlon branch of the UIPMB created the International Biathlon Union, which separated from the UIPMB in 1998. Presidents of the UIPMB/IBU: 1947–1949: Tom Wiborn 1949–1960: Gustaf Dyrssen 1960–1988: Sven Thofelt, 1988–1992: Igor Novikov 1992-2018: Anders Besseberg Since 2018: Olle Dahlin The following articles list major international biathlon events and medalists. Contrary to the Olympics and World Championships, the World Cup is an entire winter season of weekly races, where the medalists are those with the highest sums of World Cup points at the end of the season. Biathlon at the Winter Olympics Biathlon World Championships Biathlon World Cup Biathlon European Championships IBU Cup Biathlon Junior World Championships Biathlon at the Winter Universiade The complete rules of the biathlon are given in the official IBU rule books. A biathlon competition consists of a race in which contestants ski through a cross-country trail system whose total distance is divided into either two or four shooting rounds, half in prone position, the other half standing.
Depending on the shooting performance, extra distance or time is added to the contestant's total skiing distance/time. The contestant with the shortest total time wins. For each shooting round, the biathlete must hit five targets or receive a penalty for each missed target, which varies according to the competition rules, as follows: Skiing around a 150 m penalty loop—typically taking 20–30 seconds for elite biathletes to complete, depending on weather and snow conditions. Adding one minute to the skier's total time. Use of an extra cartridge to hit the target. In order to keep track of the contestants' progress and relative standing throughout a race, split times are taken at several points along the skiing track and upon finishing each shooting round; the large display screens set up at biathlon arenas, as well as the information graphics shown as part of the TV picture, will list the split time of the fastest contestant at each intermediate point and the times and time differences to the closest runners-up.
In the Olympics, all cross-country skiing techniques are permitted in the biat
The Ansaldo A.300 was an Italian general-purpose biplane aircraft built by the Ansaldo company of Turin from 1920 to 1929. It served as a light bomber, transport and reconnaissance aircraft, as an advanced trainer, with examples in service as late as 1940. 50 examples were license-built in Poland at ZM E. Plage & T. Laśkiewicz, but were not a success due to poor quality. Based on Ansaldo's successful World War I Balilla and S. V. A scouts, the A.300 was a conventional single-engined two-bay open cockpit biplane of mixed metal and wood-and-fabric construction, powered by a water-cooled Fiat A.12bis V12 engine. Most variants had one mobile gun mounted in the rear cockpit, it first flew in 1919. Early examples were two seaters, but the A.300/3 was a three-seater intended for reconnaissance use, of which around 90 were delivered. The most significant variant was the A.300/4, again three-seaters, which started full production in 1923, just as Ansaldo was absorbed into FIAT. This became the standard multi-role aircraft in the newly formed Regia Aeronautica and served in Italy, Sardinia, Corfu and Eritrea.
The A.300 was one of the most numerous aircraft of its time, with the production run of the A.300/4 alone, at 700 units, exceeding the total production of any other type of the 1920s except the Breguet XIX and Potez 25. Despite this, because it was Italian rather than French or British, it remains one of the least documented contemporary types the most obscure produced in anything like these numbers. A.300/2 initial production version A.300/3 three-seat version exported to Spain and Poland A.300/4 definitive production version with improved cooling A.300/5 prototype with Lorraine engine A.300/6 improved A.300/4 in service A.300C Four passenger airliner. Several built 1921-'26 and operated by the Belgian airline SNETA, French airlines SABENA and 1925 operated by the Romanian airlines SNNA, as regular flights with 5 aircraft. A.300T Eight passenger airliner. At least one built 1921. A.400 prototype BelgiumBelgian Air Force Kingdom of ItalyCorpo Aeronautico Militare PolandPolish Air Force Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force TurkeyTürk Hava Kurumu General characteristics Crew: two and observer Length: 8.75 m Wingspan: 11.24 m Height: 2.97 m Wing area: 39.5 m2 Empty weight: 1,200 kg Gross weight: 1,700 kg Powerplant: 1 × Fiat A.12bis piston engine, 170 kW Performance Maximum speed: 200 km/h Endurance: 3 hours 30 min Service ceiling: 5,500 m Rate of climb: 2.5 m/s Armament 2 × fixed, forward-firing.303 Vickers machine guns 1 × flexible.303 Vickers machine gun for observer
Larslejsstræde is a street in the Latin Quarter of central Copenhagen, Denmark. It links Sankt Peders Stræde with Nørre Voldgade; the street was a cul-de-sac affording access to St. Peter's graveyard and a house that belonged to St. Johm's and St. Birgitte's alter; the street name is seen as Lasse Leegs stræde in 1571, referring to a man of that name who owned a house in the street for many years. Over the next period the name is variously written as Lasse-, Laurs-, Leeg-, Leyell- and Leig- before the name Larsleistræde is established; the houses along the street were destroyed both in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728 and in the Fire of 1795 but rebuilt soon thereafter. No. 2 is from the former rectory for the pastor at St. Peter's Church; the rest of the northeast side of the street is dominated by the wall of St. Peter's graveyard and the large Sankt Petri Passage complex with a passageway that through several interior courtyards links Larslejstræde and Nørregade on the other side of the block; the buildings at No. 5 and No. 7 was designed by Frederik Levy.
No. 7 is listed. No. 1 and No. 3 are listed. The German Sankt Petri Schule is based in No. 5. Det Petersenske Jomfrukloster at No. 11 is from 1937 and provides housing for unmarried, female descendants of Thomas Lindemann, pastor at St. Peter's Church from1638-54; the foundation was created by two of his grand children in the 1760s and was first located in Klostergården on Amagertorv. It moved to Klosterstræde and from 1938 to Larslejstræde. Abraham Pelt Larslejstræde at indenforvoldene.dk Larslejstræde at pisserenden.dk