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Bibb County, Georgia

Bibb County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 155,547. Bibb County is geographically located in the Central Georgia region, is the largest county in the Macon metropolitan area. Bibb County has a consolidated city-county government following a merger with its county seat and largest city, Macon, in 2014, they were joined by the county's only other municipality, Payne City, in 2015. Native Americans had inhabited the area, they were forcibly relocated to today's Oklahoma in the Indian Removal in the 1830s, during the administration of President Andrew Jackson. The Indian tribes affected refer to this as the "Trail of Tears", since many died during the march west. Bibb is one of the counties of the "Black Belt", which referred to the fertile dark soil in the uplands; the area was developed by white settlers and African American slaves into cotton plantations during the antebellum years. Cotton generated high profits, since was in demand in the textile mills of the northern states as well as in England.

By the 1860 census, shortly before the American Civil War, more than a million enslaved African Americans lived in Georgia, they constituted a majority of the population in much of the Black Belt. Bibb County was created by act of the State Legislature of Georgia on December 9, 1822, with Macon to be incorporated as a town/city in December 1823, it was carved from the earlier territories of the counties of Jones, Monroe and Twiggs counties. The County Seat has never been changed since, no other subsequent county in the state has been created out of land from Bibb County; the county was named for Dr. William Wyatt Bibb, a physician from Elbert County, elected to and served in the U. S. House of Representatives and United States Senate from Georgia, moved to the new Alabama Territory, before being elected as the first Governor of the new State of Alabama. During the Civil War, an estimated ten percent of the white males in the county lost their lives while serving the Confederate States Army; the war ended slavery in Georgia, but it left much of the state in ruins.

After the Civil War and during the 20th century, the county seat of Macon continued to serve as the county's principal population center and hub of most significant landmarks and historical events. On July 31, 2012, voters in the City of Macon and Bibb County passed a referendum to merge the governments of the city and the county, based on the authorization of House Bill 1171 passed by the Georgia General Assembly earlier in the year. Four previous consolidation attempts had failed; the consolidation took effect on January 1, 2014, along with the de-annexation from the city of a small portion of land in Jones County. In addition to Macon, Bibb County contained one other municipality, Payne City, an enclave of around 200 people, surrounded by the pre-consolidation City of Macon. In the 2012 referendum, Payne City voters rejected consolidation by a vote of 9 to 7, so it was not merged into the consolidated government. In early 2015, at the request of the small city's government, the Georgia General Assembly passed a bill dissolving Payne City, merging it with the rest of Macon-Bibb County.

Since the 2014 consolidation, Macon-Bibb has been governed by a mayor, elected at-large, along with a nine-member county commission with members elected from single-member districts. Like all other Georgia counties, Bibb has an elected sheriff responsible for maintaining the jail. Bibb's sheriff manages the county's law enforcement duties, with his deputies acting as the city and county police force; as of 2019, the current sheriff is David Davis. In 2013, the consolidated city-county held its first elections. Macon's then-mayor Robert Reichert received 49% of the vote in the general election on September 17 over the other five mayoral candidates, he subsequently won 63% of the vote in a runoff election against former Macon mayor C. Jack Ellis. Reichert was unopposed for re-election in 2016, following the death of his only opponent before the election. Under the city-county charter, the mayor is subject to term limits and may serve only two consecutive terms, so Reichert will leave office in December 2020.

As an urban county with a majority African American population, Bibb County is one of the most Democratic counties in Georgia in presidential elections, having only supported a Republican presidential candidate three times in its history. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 255 square miles, of which 250 square miles is land and 5.6 square miles is water. The entirety of Bibb County is located in the Upper Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. Jones County - northeast Twiggs County - east Houston County - south Peach County - south-southwest Crawford County - southwest Monroe County - northwest Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge Ocmulgee National Monument As of the census of 2000, there were 153,887 people, 59,667 households, 39,797 families residing in the county; the population density was 616 people per square mile. There were 67,194 housing units at an average density of 269 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 50.13% White, 47.32% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.08% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 0.81% from two or more races.

1.31% of the population were Hispanic or Latin

FRAG-12

The FRAG-12 is a specialized shotgun shell which contains small amount of HE to shatter light armored targets like vehicles and bunker doors. The shell was designed by The Special Cartridge Company Ltd. in England. Its Patent ended to Olympic Technologies Ltd. in Gibraltar. The shell is a 50mm long elongated Metal body filled with 3.4 Grams of composition A5. 4 folding fins spring out after leaving muzzle, it arms at 3 meters. A company called Combined Systems, Inc. sells FRAG-12 under the name FRAG12HE. The rounds have low popularity due to relative high cost to performance ratio, limited application, being limited to military only purchase. So sales seems to be limited because of the wide array of other available rounds for military users in more suitable calibers such as 20x30B K-11; the VOG-17. For example, calibers used by GP-25 & similar dedicated devices; the round was advertised with Atchisson Assault Shotgun, AA-12 Shotgun. "Download – Google Drive". Drive.google.com. Retrieved 2018-10-30.

"FRAG12 | HIGH EXPLOSIVE | HOME". Frag12.com. Retrieved 2018-10-30. "12 Bore HE projectiles - General Ammunition Discussion - International Ammunition Association Web Forum". Forum.cartridgecollectors.org. Retrieved 2018-10-30

Muwallil Wasit I of Sulu

Sultan Muwallil Wasit, is the 9th Sultan of Sulu and was known as Rajah Bongsu I. His birth name was Pangiran Shahbandar Maharajalela, was the youngest son of former Sultan of Brunei Muhammad Hassan, he reigned in Sulu after his uncle, Sultan Batara Shah Tengah died without an heir. He was most sent to Sulu to end dynastic troubles there, as he was begot of the marriage of Batara Tengah's Sister, the Sultan of Brunei. On his coming to Sulu in 1609, this Pangiran Shahbandar Maharajalela @ Raja Bongsu-I ibni Sultan Muhammad Hassan brought along his royal symbol's called as "Pulau Janggi" and "Sepong Janggi"; this royal symbol was a symbol of brotherhood between Sulu Brunei sultanate. And as a royal proof to Raja Bongsu-I as he was belongs to Brunei Sultanate royal family. So, at present to identify the true Sulu Sultanate heir's is by identify, the sulu royal family mandated to this royal symbol, and the person who can proceed to have a photo's while holding this royal symbol, that person indeed is the true Sulu Sultanate heir AND the true Successor to the Sulu Sultanate kingdom.

During his reign, he organised various marriage agreements with Sultan Qudarat who married his daughter in 1632 and inherited the throne as Sultan Nasir ud-Din. After his death in 1650, another one of his daughters married Rajah Baratamay of Buayan in 1657, further strengthening kinship between Sulu and Maguindanao. Prior to his death in 1650, he was succeeded by Sultan Salah ud-Din Bakthiar who took the throne of the "other" sultan Nasir ud-Din II earlier in 1648, his descendants are the Kiram and Maharajah Adinda families of the sultans. The previous Sultan, Batara Shah Tenga was believed to be to a nominal extent, a subordinate of Brunei. Although the previous Sultan's reign falls after the year 1578; the year that marks Sulu's de facto independence from Brunei. This however, did not stop the intricately knitted kinship and family ties the Sulu and Brunei Sultanates have with each other, dating as far back as the 14th century. Evidence of this strong family connection is the title of the previous Sultan "Batara", a title used in Brunei annals to refer to rulers of Sulu.

Sultan Tengah's sister was said to have married Sultan Muhammad Hassan of Brunei and Muwallil Wasit-I was begotten from this marriage, as the youngest son. As a prince, he was given the title of Pangiran, he is said to have lived in Brunei for the most part of his childhood. In the late 1580s Pangiran Bongsu, as he was called was sent to Bauang, the capital of Sulu to aid the Sulus militarily against the Spaniards who were once again attacking them. In 1610, Sultan Tengah died with no male heir to the throne, as he was a nephew of the previous Sultan, he was named successor, he took the name Sultan Muwallil Wasit-I. He is believed to have brought with him a Bruneian aide-de-camp, only known as "Datu Acheh". Datu Acheh and Sultan Wasit were believed to have united many Datus and Panglimas or tribal leaders into regions and areas that could be governed by representatives of the Sultanate. This, in turn would lead to a more unified and cohesive government to rule the otherwise and interdependent Datus of the Sulu area.

His early reign was marked by immense successes in trade and strengthening of ties with other tribes within the area. The first incidences of hostility between Wasit and the Spaniards in Manila occurred in 1627, when his Bruneian aide, Datu Acheh on official business in Manila for the Sultanate, was intercepted by Manila Spaniards on his way home. Datu Acheh managed to escape but the act of treachery in the face of a diplomatic mission, perpetrated by the Spaniards incited anger among the Tausugs, Sultan Wasit was quick to respond. Gathering a force of 2,000 Tausug warriors, he ordered a massive attack on the shipyards of Camarines; the raid on the shipyards led to a fierce retaliation from the Spaniards. A year they returned the attack by organising a raiding force of 200 Spanish officers and 1,600 Christian Filipinos. However, this attack saw no clear victor, but Bauang, or Jolo, as the Spaniards called it, the seat of Sultan Wasit and his court, for the most part, survived the attack, in 1629 sent another expedition, under the command of Datu Acheh to attack Spanish settlements in Camarines, Samar and Bohol.

This is the last mention of Datu Acheh in Spanish historical records. The Spaniards retaliated again with a punitive expedition led by Commander Lorenzo de Olaso, on 17 March 1630. Upon landing on the shores of Jolo to attack it, de Olaso was badly wounded and the Spaniards lost heart and retreated, resulting in a decisive Sulu victory; the Sultan and his warriors launched still another invasion, this time, targeted only on the Island of Leyte, what they saw as the seat of Spanish power in the Visayas. He organised a marriage agreement, with the famed Sultan Kudarat, at this time waging a successful but bloody war with Spain. In 1632, Qudarat married one of his daughters, called for a Two-Sultanate alliance, to consolidate his gains, increase his prestige, one, never before seen among the Sulu Sultans since the Sultanate's founding 2 and a half centuries earlier. In 1634, The Two-Sultanate-Alliance mobilised a 1,500-warrior-contingent and attacked Spanish-controlled settlements in Dapitan and Bohol.

Slave raiding had escalated and it began benefiting the Sulu economy immensely. Sultan Wasit grew in wealth and prestige, as well as in fame among his Spanish rivals, who knew him by the name "Rajah Bongsu"; the 1634 attack