Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus)

The Bibliotheca known as the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, is a compendium of Greek myths and heroic legends, arranged in three books dated to the first or second century AD. The author was traditionally thought to be Apollodorus of Athens, but that attribution is now regarded as false, so "Pseudo-" was added to Apollodorus; the Bibliotheca has been called "the most valuable mythographical work that has come down from ancient times". An epigram recorded by the important intellectual Patriarch Photius I of Constantinople expressed its purpose: It has the following not ungraceful epigram:'Draw your knowledge of the past from me and read the ancient tales of learned lore. Look neither at the page of Homer, nor of elegy, nor tragic muse, nor epic strain. Seek not the vaunted verse of the cycle; the brief and unadorned accounts of myth in the Bibliotheca have led some commentators to suggest that its complete sections are an epitome of a lost work. A certain "Apollodorus" is indicated as author on some surviving manuscripts.

This Apollodorus has been mistakenly identified with Apollodorus of Athens, a student of Aristarchus of Samothrace as it is known—from references in the minor scholia on Homer—that Apollodorus of Athens did leave a similar comprehensive repertory on mythology, in the form of a verse chronicle. The text which did survive to the present, cites a Roman author: Castor the Annalist, a contemporary of Cicero in the 1st century BC; the mistaken attribution was made by scholars following Photius' mention of the name, though Photius did not name him as the Athenian and the name was in common use at the time. Since for chronological reasons Apollodorus of Athens could not have written the book, the author of the Bibliotheca is conventionally called the "Pseudo-Apollodorus" by those wishing to be scrupulously correct. Traditional references instance "the Library and Epitome". One of his many sources was the Tragodoumena a 4th-century BC analysis of the myths in Greek tragedies by Asclepiades of Tragilus, the first known Greek mythographic compilation.

The first mention of the work is by Photius in the 9th century. It was lost in the 13th century, surviving in one now-incomplete manuscript, copied for Cardinal Bessarion in the 15th century. Although the Bibliotheca is undivided in the manuscripts, it is conventionally divided into three books. Part of the third book, which breaks off abruptly in the story of Theseus, has been lost. Photius had the full work before him, as he mentions in his "account of books read" that it contained stories of the heroes of the Trojan War and the nostoi, missing in surviving manuscripts. Sir James George Frazer published an epitome of the book by conflating two manuscript summaries of the text, which included the lost part; the first printed edition of the Bibliotheca was published in Rome in 1555, edited by Benedetto Egio of Spoleto, who divided the text in three books, but made many unwarranted emendations in the corrupt text. Hieronymus Commelinus published an improved text at Heidelberg, 1559; the first text based on comparative manuscripts was that of Christian Gottlob Heyne, Göttingen, 1782–83.

Ancient Greece portal Diller, Aubrey. 1983. "The Text History of the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus". In Studies in Greek Manuscript Tradition. Edited by Aubrey Diller, 199–216. Amsterdam: A. M. Hakkert. Dowden, Ken.. The Uses of Greek Mythology. London: Routledge. Fletcher, K. F. B. 2008. "Systematic Genealogies in Apollodorus’ Bibliotheca and the Exclusion of Rome from Greek Myth". Classical Antiquity 27:59–91. Hard, Robin. 1997. Apollodorus: The Library of Greek Mythology. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. Higbie, Carolyn. 2007. "Hellenistic Mythographers". In The Cambridge Companion to Greek Mythology. Edited by Roger D. Woodard, 237–254. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Huys, Marc. 1997. "Euripides and the Tales from Euripides: Sources of Apollodoros' Bibliotheca?" Rheinisches Museum 140: 308–327. Kenens, Ulrike. 2013. "Text and Transmission of Ps.-Apollodorus’ Bibliotheca: Avenues for Future Research". In Writing Myth: Mythography in the Ancient World. Edited by S. M. Trzaskoma and R. S. Smith, 95–114. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters.

Kenens, Ulrike. 2011. "The Sources of Ps.-Apollodorus' Library: A Case Study". Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica 97:129–146. Simpson, trans. 1976. Gods and Heroes of the Greeks: The "Library" of Apollodorus. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. Scully, Stephen. 2015. "Echoes of the Theogony in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods". Hesiod's'Theogony', From Near Eastern Creation Myths to'Paradise Lost'. Oxford. Smith, R. Scott, Stephen M. Trzaskoma, trans. 2007. Apollodorus' Library and Hyginus' Fabulae: Two Handbooks of Greek Mythology. Cambridge, MA: Hackett. Trzaskoma, Stephen. 2013. "Citation and Authorial Presence in Ps.-Apollodorus’ Bibliotheca". In Writing Myth: Mythography in the Ancient World. Edited by S. M. Trzaskoma and R. S. Smith, 75–94. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters. Trzaskoma, Stephen M. and R. Scott Smith. 2008. "Hellas in the Bibliotheke of Apollodorus". Philologus 152.1: 90–96. Apollodorus The Library translated by J. G. Frazer Archive orgWorks by Apollodorus at Perseus Digital Library Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Ἀπολλόδωρος Mythographoi.

Scriptores poetiace historiae graeci, Antonius Westermann, Brunsvigae sumptum fecit Georgius Westermann, 1843, pagg. 1-123. Apollodori Bibliotheca, Immanuel Bekker, Lipsiae sumptibus et typis B. G. Teubneri, 1854. M

Fono (Producer)

Luke Fono, known professionally as Fono, is an English record producer, electronic dance musician, DJ from Brighton. He is best known for his 2015 single "Real Joy", described as one of the dance songs of the summer. "Real Joy" received support from BBC Radio 1 and BBC Radio 1Xtra DJs, including MistaJam, Danny Howard, Annie Mac, Nick Grimshaw, Zane Lowe. Fono, released his debut single, "Real Joy", on Relentless Records on 12 June 2015; the song brought Fono to mainstream attention after receiving national airplay and when other DJs such as Duke Dumont, Calvin Harris and The Magician championed the song. Annie Mac included "Real Joy" on her sixth compilation album Annie Mac Presents 2015; the official video for "Real Joy" was premiered by The Fader on 28 April 2015 and attracted some mild controversy due to its violent content. However, the video was well received online and was subsequently nominated for "Best Dance Video -UK" in the UK Music Video Awards 2015. In June 2015, Fono was revealed as the support act for Duke Dumont on his UK September tour.

Fono's second single, "Everybody Knows", was released in November 2015. Fono on Facebook Fono on Twitter

Battle of Umberkhind

Battle of Umberkhind took place on 3 February 1661 in the mountain range of Sahyadri near the city of Pen, India. The battle was fought between the Maratha under Chhatrapati Shivaji and General Kartalab Khan of the Mughal Empire; the Marathas decisively defeated the Mughal forces. This battle was a great example of guerrilla warfare. On the orders of Aurangzeb, Shahista Khan sent Kartalab Khan to attack Rajgad. Shivaji's men encountered them in the mid way, The Umberkhind. Chhatrapati Shivaji wanted Kartalab and the famous Rai Bagan, the wife of Deshmukh of Mahur Sarkar of Berar Subah Raje Udaram, to enter Umberkhind, so that they become easy prey to his guerilla technique; when the mughals entred Umberkhind, a 15 miles passage, Shivaji's men started blowing horns. The whole mughal army got stunned. Marathas attacked the Mughal army with arrows; the Kartalab khan and Rai Bagan with other mughal soldiers tried to retaliate, but the forest was so dense and Maratha army was so quick that the Mughals could not see the enemy.

The situation was such that mughal soldiers were getting killed without seeing where the enemy is and without knowing where to shoot. Number of mughal soldiers died this way. Rai Bagan advised Kartalab khan, that he should surrender himself to Shivaji and ask for mercy, she said, "You have made a mistake by putting the whole army in the lions jaw. Shivaji is the lion. You should not have chosen this path to attack shivaji. Now, to save these dying soldiers, you should surrender yourself to Shivaji. Unlike Mughals, shivaji shows amnesty for those who surrender." Battle lasted for two. And Kartalab khan on advise of Rai Bagan, sent the soldiers with white flag for truce, they shouted “ truce, truce!” and within a minute got encircled by Shivaji's men. On the condition of paying huge ransom and surrendering all the arms, the Kartalab Khan was allowed to go back. Shivaji stationed Netaji Palkar in Umberkhind to keep check on the mughals, if they come back