Toto Ltd. or TOTO, is the world's largest toilet manufacturer. It was founded in 1917, is known for developing the Washlet and derivative products; the company is based in Kitakyushu and owns production facilities in nine countries. The name "Toto" is an abbreviation of the two Japanese words forming Tōyō Tōki; the Toto Washlet is an innovative toilet seat. The bidet feature activates at the push of a button on a remote control. Different Washlet models have features such as air fresheners, seat heaters, dryers. TOTO Neorest 600 TOTO Drake II Japanese toilets toto.co.jp/en/ — TOTO, Ltd
A toilet, in this sense, is a small room used for accessing the sanitation fixture for urination and defecation. Toilet rooms include a sink with soap for handwashing, as this is important for personal hygiene; this room is known as a "bathroom" in American English, a "loo" in British English, a "washroom" in Canadian English, by many other names across the English-speaking world. "Toilet" referred to personal grooming and came by metonymy to be used for the personal rooms used for bathing, so on. It was euphemistically used for the private rooms used for urination and defecation. By metonymy, it came to refer directly to the fixtures in such rooms. At present, the word refers to such fixtures and using "toilet" to refer to the room or activity is somewhat blunt and may be considered indiscreet, it is, however, a useful term since it is understood by English-speakers across the world, whereas more polite terms vary by region. "Lavatory" was common in the 19th century and is still broadly understood, although it is taken as quite formal in American English, more refers to public toilets in Britain.
The contraction "lav" is used in British English. In American English, the most common term for a private toilet is "bathroom", regardless of whether a bathtub or shower is present. In British English, "bathroom" is a common term but is reserved for private rooms used for bathing. Other terms are used, some as part of a regional dialect; some forms of jargon have their own terms for toilets, including "lavatory" on commercial airplanes, "head" on ships, "latrine" in military contexts. Larger houses have a secondary room with a toilet and sink for use by guests; these are known as "powder rooms" or "half baths" in North America, "cloakrooms" in Britain. The main item in the room is the sanitation fixture itself, the toilet; this may be the flushing sort, plumbed into a cistern operated by a ballcock. Or it may be a dry model; the toilet room may include a plunger, a rubber or plastic tool mounted on a handle, used to remove blockages from the toilet drain. Toilets have a wall mirror above the sink for grooming, checking one's appearance and/or makeup.
Some toilets have a cupboard where personal hygiene products may be kept. If it is a flush toilet the room also includes a toilet brush for cleaning the bowl. Methods of anal cleansing vary between cultures. If the norm is to use paper typically the room will have a toilet roll holder, with the toilet paper hanging either next to or away from the wall. If instead, people are used to cleaning themselves with water the room may include a bidet shower or a bidet. Toilets such as the Washlet, popular in Japan, provide an automatic washing function. A sink, with soap, is present in the room or outside it, to ensure easy handwashing. Above the sink there mounted on the wall, or on a medicine cabinet; this cabinet. Typically contains prescription and over the counter drugs, first aid supplies, grooming equipment for shaving or makeup. Into the modern era, humans practiced open defecation or employed latrines or outhouses over a pit toilet in rural areas and used chamber pots emptied into streets or drains in urban ones.
The Indus Valley Civilization had advanced sanitation, which included common use of private flush toilets. The ancient Greeks and Romans had public toilets and, in some cases, indoor plumbing connected to rudimentary sewer systems; the latrines of medieval monasteries were known as reredorters. In the early modern period, "night soil" from municipal outhouses became an important source of nitrates for creating gunpowder. 19th century refinements of the outhouse included the pail closet. Indoor toilets were at first a luxury of the rich and only spread to the lower classes; as late as the 1890s, building regulations in London did not require working-class housing to have indoor toilets. In some cases, there was a transitional stage where toilets were built into the house but accessible only from the outside. After World War I, all new housing in London and its suburbs had indoor toilets. Bathrooms became standard than toilets, but entered working-class houses at around the same time. For plumbing reasons, flush toilets have been located in or near residences' bathrooms.
In upper-class homes, the first modern lavatories were washrooms with sinks located near the bedrooms. In Britain, there was long a prejudice against having the toilet located in the bathroom proper: in 1904, Hermann Muthesius noted that "a lavatory is never found in an English bathroom; when toilets were placed within bathrooms, the original reason was cost savings. In 1876 Edward William Godwin, a progressive architect-designer, drew u
Washlet is a registered trademark of the Japanese toilet company Toto, used for their line of cleansing toilet seats with water spray feature for genital and anal cleansing. The Washlet is an electronic commonplace on toilets in Japan. Released in June 1980, a total of more than 30 million Washlets have been sold by January 2011. Comprising a significant market share, Washlet has become a generic trademark as products from other toilet manufacturers like LIXIL are colloquially referred to as Washlets. Toto's business model in the 1960s was to import American “wash air seats” for domestic sales, they were sold to hospitals for medical purposes and nursing homes. Toto began domestic production in 1969, but wash air seats were expensive and sometimes caused scalding injuries because of poor regulation of water temperature. Toto continued its own research and development, surveying 300 male and female employees to determine the appropriate spray positions, because there were no biometric statistics available.
Banking on the prospect that washlets would sell in Japan, Toto began to sell its own improved washlets in 1980. The two models were the G series that could store warm water, had a bidet and a dryer function, toilet seat warming; the two series have remained the basic product models until now, along with a compact series introduced in 1993. The models included a regular size and an elongated size, depending on the configuration of the toilet to which washlets were attached, but were replaced by single-sized models in February 2012 with a few exceptions such as products for hotel usage. Recognizing its pioneering role, in 2012 the initial model Washlet G was certified as item number 55 of Mechanical Engineering Heritage. In a 1982 commercial that featured then-rising pop singer Jun Togawa, the advertising slogan “Our butt wants to be washed too” and unique background music drew public attention to Toto's new product; as the commercial was aired during the 7–10 pm slot, known as "golden time", it received complaints from viewers about the impropriety of advertising toilet seats during mealtime, criticism for using the word "butt".
Toto introduced a sensor that detects whether the user is seated or not, throughout the product lineup. The company added new functions including toilet lids that automatically open and close, toilet cleansing, gas absorbent, air refresher. Complete toilets with built-in washlets were introduced and Toto's product lineup of washlets designed for public facilities, business offices, hotels was strengthened. Toto made other improvements such as incorporating "sleep mode" for energy conservation, a remote control which can be attached to a wall. In October 2005, Toto released washlets. Upon her visit to Japan in 2005, pop singer Madonna commented that she had “missed Japan’s warm toilet seats”. Toto released washlets designed for Japanese-style squat toilets in 1996, but they proved less easy to use due to problems with accuracy; as more and more Japanese-style toilets were replaced by western-style toilets, the model was discontinued around 2003. On the other hand, portable types for travelers are still in production.
The buttons associated with operating the cleansing features are labeled Oshiri and "Bidet". Most current models have a sensor that prevents spraying water when a person is not sitting on the toilet. For antibacterial and antifouling purposes, the nozzle is designed at such an angle that the water does not splash back on the inside of the toilet, the nozzle itself is washed with warm water when it is stowed away or before use. Anal and genital cleansing functions operate on different nozzles; some models feature dryers for the user's convenience. The Neorest 600 toilet sells for more than $5000, it has features including a bidet with three adjustable cleaning modes, electric seat heating with adjustable temperature, automatically opening and closing of the lids, automatic flush, built in air purifier and deodorizer, energy-saving features. Electronic bidet Toilets in Japan Official link Drake II specifications on TOTO official website
Piping and plumbing fitting
A fitting is used in pipe systems to connect the straight pipe or tubing sections, adapt to different sizes or shapes and for other purposes, such as regulating fluid flow. "Plumbing" is used to describe the conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste in domestic or commercial environments. "Tubing" is sometimes used for lighter-weight piping that flexible enough to be supplied in coiled form. Fittings require money, time and tools to install, are an important part of piping and plumbing systems. Valves are technically fittings, but are discussed separately. Standard codes are followed. Organizations which promulgate piping standards include: ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers A112.19.1 Enameled cast-iron and steel plumbing fixtures standards A112.19.2 Ceramic plumbing fixtures standard ASTM International: American Society for Testing and Materials API: American Petroleum Institute AWS: American Welding Society AWWA: American Water Works Association MSS: Manufacturers Standardization Society ANSI: American National Standards Institute NFPA: National Fire Protection Association EJMA: Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association CGA: Compressed Gas AssociationPipes must conform to the dimensional requirements of: ASME B36.10M: Welded and seamless wrought-steel pipe ASME B36.19M: Stainless-steel pipe ASME B31.3 2008: Process piping ASME B31.4 XXXX: Power pipingThe B31.3 and B31.4 codes have requirements for piping found in petroleum refineries.
These codes specify requirements for materials and components, fabrication, erection, examination and testing of piping. The codes are applicable to piping for all fluids, including raw and finished chemicals; the material with which a pipe is manufactured is the basis for choosing a pipe. Materials used for manufacturing pipes include: Carbon and galvanized steel Impact-tested carbon steel Low-temperature carbon steel Stainless steel Malleable iron Non-ferrous metals Non-metallic Chrome-molybdenum steel — Generally used for high-temperature serviceThe bodies of fittings for pipe and tubing are most the same base material as the pipe or tubing connected: copper, steel, PVC, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride or ABS. Any material permitted by the plumbing, health, or building code may be used, but it must be compatible with the other materials in the system, the fluids being transported and the temperature and pressure inside the system. Brass or bronze fittings are common in copper plumbing systems.
Fire hazards, earthquake resistance and other factors influence the choice of fitting materials. Gaskets are mechanical seals ring-shaped, which seal flange joints. Gaskets vary by construction and features. Used gaskets are non-metallic, spiral-wound and ring-joint. Non-metallic gaskets are used with flat- or raised-face flanges. Spiral-wound gaskets are used with raised-face flanges, ring-joint gaskets are used with ring-type joint flanges. Stress develops between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when the gasket is bolted to a flange, leading to plastic deformation of the gasket. Piping or tubing is inserted into fittings to make connections. Connectors are assigned a gender, abbreviated M or F. An example of this is a "3/4-inch female adapter NPT", which would have a corresponding male connection of the same size and thread standard; this section discusses fittings used in pressurized piping systems, though there is some overlap with fittings for low-pressure or non-pressurized systems. Specialized fittings for the latter setups are discussed in the next major subsection.
An elbow is installed between two lengths of pipe to allow a change of direction a 90° or 45° angle. The ends may be threaded, or socketed; when the ends differ in size, it is known as a reducing elbow. A 90º elbow known as a "90 bend", "90 ell" or "quarter bend", attaches to plastic, cast iron and lead, is attached to rubber with stainless-steel clamps. Other available materials include silicone, rubber compounds, galvanized steel, nylon, it is used to connect hoses to valves, water pumps and deck drains. A 45º elbow known as a "45 bend" or "45 ell", is used in water-supply facilities, food and electronic industrial pipeline networks, air-conditioning pipelines and garden production, solar-energy facility piping. Elbows are categorized by length; the radius of curvature of a long-radius elbow is 1.5 times the pipe diameter, but a short-radius elbow has a radius equal to the pipe diameter. Short elbows available, are used in pressurized systems, in physically tight locations. Long elbows are used in low-pressure gravity-fed systems and other applications where low turbulence and minimum deposition of entrained solids are of concern.
They are availab
A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow as it exits an enclosed chamber or pipe. A nozzle is a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area, it can be used to direct or modify the flow of a fluid. Nozzles are used to control the rate of flow, direction, shape, and/or the pressure of the stream that emerges from them. In a nozzle, the velocity of fluid increases at the expense of its pressure energy. Function of Nozzle A gas jet, fluid jet, or hydro jet is a nozzle intended to eject gas or fluid in a coherent stream into a surrounding medium. Gas jets are found in gas stoves, ovens, or barbecues. Gas jets were used for light before the development of electric light. Other types of fluid jets are found in carburetors, where smooth calibrated orifices are used to regulate the flow of fuel into an engine, in jacuzzis or spas. Another specialized jet is the laminar jet; this is a water jet that contains devices to smooth out the pressure and flow, gives laminar flow, as its name suggests.
This gives better results for fountains. The foam jet is another type of jet which uses foam instead of a fluid. Nozzles used for feeding hot blast into a blast furnace or forge are called tuyeres. Jet nozzles are used in large rooms where the distribution of air via ceiling diffusers is not possible or not practical. Diffusers that uses jet nozzles are called jet diffuser where it will be arranged in the side wall areas in order to distribute air; when the temperature difference between the supply air and the room air changes, the supply air stream is deflected upwards, to supply warm air, or downwards, to supply cold air. The goal of a nozzle is to increase the kinetic energy of the flowing medium at the expense of its pressure and internal energy. Nozzles can be described as divergent. A de Laval nozzle has a convergent section followed by a divergent section and is called a convergent-divergent nozzle. Convergent nozzles accelerate subsonic fluids. If the nozzle pressure ratio is high enough the flow will reach sonic velocity at the narrowest point.
In this situation, the nozzle is said to be choked. Increasing the nozzle pressure ratio further will not increase the throat Mach number above one. Downstream the flow is free to expand to supersonic velocities; this fact is used extensively in rocketry where hypersonic flows are required and where propellant mixtures are deliberately chosen to further increase the sonic speed. Divergent nozzles slow fluids if the flow is subsonic, but they accelerate sonic or supersonic fluids. Convergent-divergent nozzles can therefore accelerate fluids that have choked in the convergent section to supersonic speeds; this CD process is more efficient than allowing a convergent nozzle to expand supersonically externally. The shape of the divergent section ensures that the direction of the escaping gases is directly backwards, as any sideways component would not contribute to thrust. A jet exhaust produces a net thrust from the energy obtained from combusting fuel, added to the inducted air; this hot air passes through a high speed nozzle, a propelling nozzle, which enormously increases its kinetic energy.
Increasing exhaust velocity increases thrust for a given mass flow, but matching the exhaust velocity to the air speed provides the best energy efficiency. However, momentum considerations prevent jet aircraft from maintaining velocity while exceeding their exhaust jet speed; the engines of supersonic jet aircraft, such as those of fighters and SST aircraft always achieve the high exhaust speeds necessary for supersonic flight by using a CD nozzle despite weight and cost penalties. Rocket motors maximise thrust and exhaust velocity by using convergent-divergent nozzles with large area ratios and therefore high pressure ratios. Mass flow is at a premium because all the propulsive mass is carried with vehicle, high exhaust speeds are desirable. Magnetic nozzles have been proposed for some types of propulsion, such as VASIMR, in which the flow of plasma is directed by magnetic fields instead of walls made of solid matter. Many nozzles produce a fine spray of liquids. Atomizer nozzles are used for spray painting, carburetors for internal combustion engines, spray on deodorants and many other similar uses.
Air-Aspirating Nozzle uses an opening in the cone shaped nozzle to inject air into a stream of water based foam to make the concentrate "foam up". Most found on foam extinguishers and foam handlines. Swirl nozzles inject the liquid in tangentially, it spirals into the center and exits through the central hole. Due to the vortexing this causes the spray to come out in a cone shape. Vacuum cleaner nozzles come in several different shapes. Vacuum Nozzles are used in vacuum cleaners; some nozzles are shaped to produce a stream, of a particular shape. For example, extrusion molding is a way of producing lengths of metals or plastics or other materials with a particular cross-section; this nozzle is referred to as a die. Rocket engine nozzle SERN Spray nozzle "Nozzle design (converging/diverging - CD no
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces. In other words: "Toilets are sanitation facilities at the user interface that allow the safe and convenient urination and defecation". Toilets can be without flushing water, they can be set up for a squatting posture. Flush toilets are connected to a sewer system in urban areas and to septic tanks in less built-up areas. Dry toilets are connected to a pit, removable container, composting chamber, or other storage and treatment device. Toilets are made of ceramic, plastic, or wood. In private homes, the toilet, bath, or shower may be in the same room. Another option is to have one room for body washing and a separate room for the toilet and handwashing sink. Public toilets consist of one or more toilets. Portable toilets or chemical toilets may be brought in for temporary gatherings. Many poor households in developing countries use basic, unhygienic toilets, for example simple pit latrines and bucket toilets which are placed in outhouses.
Globally, nearly one billion people have no access to a toilet at all, are forced to do open defecation. Diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route or via water, such as cholera and diarrhea, can be spread by open defecation, they can be spread by unsafe toilets which cause pollution of surface water or groundwater. Sanitation has been a concern from the earliest stages of human settlements; the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 calls for "adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation by 2030". The number of different types of toilets used on a worldwide level is large. Toilet types can be grouped by: Having a water seal or not Being used in a sitting or squatting position Being located at a household level or in public People use different toilet types based on the country that they are in. In developing countries, access to toilets is related to people's socio-economic status. Poor people in low-income countries have no toilets at all and resort to open defecation instead.
This is part of the sanitation crisis which international initiatives such as World Toilet Day draw attention to. A typical flush toilet is a ceramic bowl connected on the "up" side to a cistern that enables rapid filling with water, on the "down" side to a drain pipe that removes the effluent; when a toilet is flushed, the sewage should flow into a septic tank or into a system connected to a sewage treatment plant. However, in many developing countries, this treatment step does not take place; the water in the toilet bowl is connected to a pipe shaped like an upside-down U. One side of the U channel is arranged as a siphon tube longer; the siphon tube connects to the drain. The bottom of the drain pipe limits the height of the water in the bowl before it flows down the drain; the water in the bowl acts as a barrier to sewer gas entering the building. Sewer gas escapes through a vent pipe attached to the sewer line; the amount of water used by conventional flush toilets makes up a significant portion of personal daily water usage.
However, modern low flush toilet designs allow the use of much less water per flush. Dual flush toilets allow the user to select between a flush for urine or feces, saving a significant amount of water over conventional units; the flush handle on these toilets is pushed up for one kind of flush and down for the other. Another design is to have one for urination and the other for defecation. In some places, users are encouraged not to flush after urination. Flushing toilets can be plumbed to use greywater rather than potable water; some modern toilets pressurize the water in the tank, which initiates flushing action with less water usage. Another variant is the pour-flush toilet; this type of flush toilet has no cistern but is flushed manually with a few liters of a small bucket. The flushing can use as little as 2–3 litres; this type of toilet is common in many Asian countries. The toilet can be connected to one or two pits, in which case it is called a "pour flush pit latrine" or a "twin pit pour flush to pit latrine".
It can be connected to a septic tank. Flush toilets on ships are flushed with seawater. "High-tech" toilets, which can be found in countries like Japan, include features such as automatic-flushing mechanisms. Others include medical monitoring features such as urine and stool analysis and the checking of blood pressure and blood sugar; some toilets have automatic lid operation, heated seats, deodorizing fans, or automated replacement of paper toilet-seat-covers. Interactive urinals have been developed in several countries; the "Toylet", produced by Sega, uses pressure sensors to detect the flow of urine and translates that into on-screen action. Astronauts on the International Space Station use a space toilet with urine diversion which can recover potable water. A vacuum toilet is a flush toilet that requires little flushing water and is connected to a vacuum sewer system. For example, they are used on trains. Many types of toilets without a water seal (also
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl