A bidirectional text contains both text directionalities, right-to-left and left-to-right. It involves text containing different types of alphabets, but may refer to boustrophedon, changing text direction in each row; some writing systems including the Arabic and Hebrew scripts or derived systems such as the Persian and Yiddish scripts, are written in a form known as right-to-left, in which writing begins at the right-hand side of a page and concludes at the left-hand side. This is different from the left-to-right direction used by the dominant Latin script; when LTR text is mixed with RTL in the same paragraph, each type of text is written in its own direction, known as bidirectional text. This can get rather complex. Many computer programs fail to display bidirectional text correctly. For example, the Hebrew name Sarah is spelled: sin resh, heh. Note: Some web browsers may display the Hebrew text in this article in the opposite direction. Bidirectional script support is the capability of a computer system to display bidirectional text.
The term is shortened to "BiDi" or "bidi". Early computer installations were designed only to support a single writing system for left-to-right scripts based on the Latin alphabet only. Adding new character sets and character encodings enabled a number of other left-to-right scripts to be supported, but did not support right-to-left scripts such as Arabic or Hebrew, mixing the two was not practical. Right-to-left scripts were introduced through encodings like ISO/IEC 8859-6 and ISO/IEC 8859-8, storing the letters in writing and reading order, it is possible to flip the left-to-right display order to a right-to-left display order, but doing this sacrifices the ability to display left-to-right scripts. With bidirectional script support, it is possible to mix characters from different scripts on the same page, regardless of writing direction. In particular, the Unicode standard provides foundations for complete BiDi support, with detailed rules as to how mixtures of left-to-right and right-to-left scripts are to be encoded and displayed.
The Unicode standard calls for characters to be ordered'logically', i.e. in the sequence they are intended to be interpreted, as opposed to'visually', the sequence they appear. This distinction is relevant for bidi support because at any bidi transition, the visual presentation ceases to be the'logical' one. Thus, in order to offer bidi support, Unicode prescribes an algorithm for how to convert the logical sequence of characters into the correct visual presentation. For this purpose, the Unicode encoding standard divides all its characters into one of four types:'strong','weak','neutral', and'explicit formatting'. Strong characters are those with a definite direction. Examples of this type of character include most alphabetic characters, syllabic characters, Han ideographs, non-European or non-Arabic digits, punctuation characters that are specific to only those scripts. Weak characters are those with vague direction. Examples of this type of character include European digits, Eastern Arabic-Indic digits, arithmetic symbols, currency symbols.
Unless a directional override is present numbers are always encoded big-endian, the numerals rendered LTR. The weak directionality only applies to the placement of the number in its entirety. Neutral characters have direction indeterminable without context. Examples include paragraph separators and most other whitespace characters. Punctuation symbols that are common to many scripts, such as the colon, full-stop, the no-break-space fall within this category. Explicit formatting characters referred to as "directional formatting characters", are special Unicode sequences that direct the algorithm to modify its default behavior; these characters are subdivided into "marks", "embeddings", "isolates", "overrides". Their effects continue until the occurrence of a "pop" character. If a "weak" character is followed by another "weak" character, the algorithm will look at the first neighbouring "strong" character. Sometimes this leads to unintentional display errors; these errors are prevented with "pseudo-strong" characters.
Such Unicode control characters are called marks. The mark is to be inserted into a location to make an enclosed weak character inherit its writing direction. For example, to display the U+2122 ™ TRADE MARK SIGN for an English name brand in an Arabic passage, an LRM mark is inserted after the trademark symbol if the symbol is not followed by LTR text. If the LRM mark is not added, the weak character ™ will be neighbored by a strong LTR character and a strong RTL character. Hence, in an RTL context, it will be considered to be RTL, displayed in an incorrect order; the "embedding" directional formatting characters are the classical Unicode method of explicit formatting, as of Unicode 6.3, are being discouraged in favor of "isolates". An "embedding" signals; the text within the scope of the embedding formatting characters is not independent of the surrounding text. Characters within an embedding can affect the ordering of characters outside. Unicode 6.3 recognized that directional embeddings have too strong an effect on their surroundings and are thus unnecessarily difficult to use.
The "isolate" directional formatting
James and Mary Wallis were Wesleyan missionaries and the first European Settlers in Raglan, New Zealand. Born in 1809 in Blackwall, James Wallis felt the call to ministry at a young age after a personal spiritual awakening. In 1834 - after being accepted for a position to the Pacific via the Wesleyan Missionary Society - he married Mary Ann Reddick. A few weeks they were aboard a vessel bound for Australia en route to the fledgling Mission at Mangungu, in the Hokianga, New Zealand. After several months in Hobart, Australia and Mary arranged a vessel to carry them to the Hokianga Harbour, New Zealand whereby they arrived on 1 December 1834. Upon entering the harbour mouth, their ship was caught by a gust of wind and laid “nearly on her beam ends and the rocks. Recovering from this danger the captain ran his vessel a mile or two up the river and dropped anchor at the pilot station. A few minutes after the anchor was down a large number of natives came on board whose wild antics and unitelligable jargon gave us an insight into the kind of people among whom out lot was to be cast for an indefinite time” After several months at Mangungu, where a Mission Station was established and a new mission house was under construction, James was surprised at the practical nature of his work "A New Zealand Missionary was to be a man of all work".
Becoming frustrated at the lack of spiritual input he was able to contribute he pushed for a new mission base to be established under his leadership in the Kawhia and Whaingaroa regions further south on the west coast of the North Island. In April 1835, James and Mary Wallis, along with another missionary couple and a number Maori Chiefs from Hokianga arrived – via a three-day sailing journey at Kāwhia Harbour; the Hokianga Chiefs spoke in favor of the missionaries and a crowd of about 1,000 were present to celebrate their arrival. While Mrs Wallis stayed at Kawhia with the other missionaries, James journeyed on foot to Raglan, a distance of about 30 km across rough terrain with his local Maori guide, expecting his arrival - some 12 months previous, the establishment of a mission station had been agreed between Maori Chiefs and members of a Wesleyan reconnaissance tour of the region.... “Here I was met with a warm reception from the natives who from various considerations welcomed me as their future instructor.
A rush hut about eight feet by five feet was assigned to me as my residence.... Building of the Mission House was undertaken by some fifty or sixty men, only about a third of whom worked at one time all the rest looking on, suggesting an improved style of architecture. In the course of a few weeks, the house was finished so far as labor was needed..... As soon as the house was habitable Mrs. Wallis was fetched by a dozen natives who carried her in a sedan of their own construction." Upon arrival - in between the practicalities of establishing a mission station complete with gardens and home, religious services began with the attendance of as many as 200 people at one time. Services consisted of the reading of passages of Scripture and commentary by a Maori interpreter and assistant to Wallis, trained at Mangungu, it was not long before James and his Wife has a full grasp of the Maori language and could converse fluently without an interpreter. On 23 November 1835 the Wallis’ first child was born, Elizabeth Reddick, the first European born in the district.
The Mission to Raglan was successful in converting many local Maori people who were receptive to the message of the Bible. By January 1836, several large and influential tribes had professed faith with the most notable conversion being that of the notable local warrior and chief Wiremu Neera Te Awaitaia; this first Raglan Mission was established at Te Horea on the north side of the Raglan Harbor. Around about May 1836, word was received from the London Secretaries of the Wesleyan Missionary Society that it had been agreed that the area south of the Manukau would be occupied by the Church Missionary Society and that all the Methodist Missionaries around Kawhia and Raglan were to withdraw; this news was a great shock to James and Mary – as well as local Maori as their work in Raglan was flourishing. On 1 June 1836, Wallis wrote: “Left Waingaroa this morning with heart overwhelmed with sorrow and not without some doubts relative to the propriety of the steps we are taking; the Lord has been please own our labors at Waingaroa in a measure far surpassing anything we had anticipated and the people have regarded us as their principal friends....
Several of them accompanied us to sea as far as they safety could threw themselves into their canoes returning to land with hearts overwhelmed.” It was decided that the Wallis’ would now pioneer a new mission station, some distance into the Kaipara region and up a branch of the Wairoa River, Northland at Tangiteroria. Here they labored; as the Maori settlements were some distance away, the local people of this area “manifested no desire for religious instruction” James had to travel considerable distances to preach the message. After 12 months of rather fruitless labor in the Kaipara region, a visit from Raglan Maori encouraged him to return their region with reports that many were still attending worship and were learning to read and write under the leadership of their own people. Wallis partitioned the Secretaries in London for permission to return to Raglan and about October 1838, seeing as the area had still not been occupied by the CMS, his return was approved; the work at Tangiteroria had, by now, had some success with a local Chief beginning to attend worship and learning to read and write and the work there continued after the Wallis’ left un
The Silver Branch or Silver Bough is a symbol found in Irish mythology and literature. Featured in the Irish poem The Voyage of Bran, it represents entry into the Celtic Otherworld Irish Tír na nÓg: In Imram Brain, the silver apple branch with white apple blossoms was brought to Bran mac Febail by a mysterious woman, who disclosed that the branch of white silver was from Emain the land where she hailed from. After singing verses describing her land as the place of delight. Bran mounted on a voyage and reached the Land of Women, Emain, at least according to some commentators; some other commentators venture the silver branch Bran saw originated in Emain Ablach though that extended form does not appear in the text of the Imram Brain. The land of the branch turned out to be some sort of "Otherworld", for though Bran and his crew believed they tarried at the Land of Women for a year, it turned out to be many years centuries, so that when they approached Ireland, they learned that they had become ancient history, a member who tried to set foot on land turned into ashes.[ wrote a paper drawing parallel between this silver branch and the golden bough of Roman legend, required for entry into the Underworld.
In like manner, the branch is an object given to a human invited by a denizen of the Otherworld to visit his/her realm, offering "a clue binding the desired one to enter". One of the paralleling examples was the branch seen by Bran. Though not a genuine Celticist, to quote W. H. Evans-Wentz, "the silver branch of the sacred apple-tree bearing blossoms.. Borne by the Fairy Woman is a passport to Tír n-aill". A magical silver branch with three golden apples belonged to the sea deity Manannán mac Lir and was given to the high king Cormac mac Airt in the narrative Echtra Cormaic or "Cormac's Adventure in the Land of Promise"; the sea god visited Cormac's ramparts as an unidentified warrior from a land "wherein there is nought save truth, there is neither age nor decay nor gloom", etc. identified as the Land of Promise. The branch created magical soporific music that assuaged those afflicted with injury or illness to sleep, including "women in child-bed". In a variant text under the title "How Cormac mac Airt Got his Branch", the same object is not described as a silver branch, but rather a "glittering fairy branch with nine apples of red gold".
Here, the branch possessed. Cormac bargained his wife and children away to obtain the branch, when the wife and daughter learn of this to their utter disheartening, Cormac jiggles the branch to cause their sorrows to depart; this ability is reminiscent of the grief-soothing lapdog Petit Crû and its jingling bell in Tristan and Isolde, as pointed out by Gertrude Schoepperle. In Immacallam in dá Thuarad, or The Dialogue of the Two Sages, the mystic symbol used by gods, magicians, by all initiates who know the mystery of life and death, is thus described as a Druid symbol:–'Neidhe', "made his journey with a silver branch over him; the Anradhs, or poets of the second order, carried a silver branch, but the Ollamhs, or chief poets, carried a branch of gold. The Silver Bough is a work on Celtic folklore by a Scottish folklorist; the Silver Branch is the title of the second book in Rosemary Sutcliff's children's book series The Roman Britain Trilogy. The Silver Bough is the title of a 1948 novel by Scottish novelist Neil M. Gunn.
He references the Silver Bough song sung by the protagonist's landlady and the protagonist has a musical silver bough with gold apples crafted for the landlady's granddaughterThe Silver Branch documentary is a celebration of the people and place of the mythical landscape of the Burren. The protagonist references The Silver Branch myth, in his search for unity, in being part of nature and letting nature work on us to find our place in the world. Bibliography Internet Sacred Text Archive/Celtic Folklore/The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries/Section II, The Recorded Fairy-Faith Temple of Manannan Celtic Literature Collective and Jones's Celtic Encyclopedia Irish Literature, Mythology and Drama
Eastbourne Borough Council is the local authority for the borough of Eastbourne. Eastbourne is divided into 9 local wards, which each elect 3 borough councillors as local representatives, creating a total of 27 councillors; the Borough Council meets at Eastbourne Town Hall. The authority's headquarters are nearby at 1 Grove Road, though there are a number of other administrative buildings located elsewhere in the town. 1858 Local Government Board A Local Board was created in Eastbourne in 1859, following the Local Government Act 1858. This created a'local government area' in Eastbourne and a predecessor organisation to Eastbourne Borough Council; the town hall was designed by W. Tadman Foulkes, built between 1884 and 1886 under supervision of Henry Currey, the Duke of Devonshire's architect. Eastbourne Corporation Act 1910 The Eastbourne Corporation Act 1910 brought in the area of Hampden Park to the wider designated Eastbourne borough. Eastbourne Corporation Act 1926 The Eastbourne Corporation Act 1926 was to "empower the Mayor Aldermen and Burgesses of the borough of Eastbourne to acquire the Downs and Downland in and near the borough.
Norra skenet is a sculpture by the artist Ernst Nordin at the Umeå University campus in Umeå in Sweden. As part of the planning of the Umeå University campus, a competition for a sculpture was held 1967 and won by Ernst Nordin. Norra skenet was raised 1969 at the campus and moved to the actual location close to the University Dam in 1995, due to the construction of the Teachers' Training Hall; the sculpture is made of polished stainless steel. Rectangular steel pipes have been welded together in a diagonal composition, resembling Aurora Borealis; the structure is lit by built-in spotlights. Umeå University makes use of the sculpture as a symbol in its marketing. Skulpturguide Umeå, published by Västerbottens konstförening, Umeå 2005, page 162, ISBN 978-91-631-8462-8 Konstvandring på Umeå universitet. En guide till konsten på campus, published by Umeå University, p. 22, ISBN 978-91-7601-035-8
Tommy Pistol is the stage name of American adult film actor and director Aramis Sartorio. He is known for his porn parody work, most notably as the lead actor Evil Head, Pee-Wee's XXX Adventure: A Porn Parody, Taxi Driver, Suicide Squad: An Axel Braun Parody Sartorio started his career in Queens NY as a stage actor with sketch comedy group, Cheese Theater, with whom he acted for more than a decade, he appeared in several short and feature films. He entered the pornography business in late 2005, after meeting with Joanna Angel, founder of alt porn company, Burning Angel; this meeting led to Pistol being the first male performer on BurningAngel.com. Angel was responsible for choosing the moniker Tommy Pistol, after nixing Pistol's original idea of A-Mac. In 2010, Pistol wrote and had the title role in the independent horror-comedy film The Gruesome Death of Tommy Pistol. Pistol continued to direct and in 2013, he directed the feature horror-porn, Beyond Fucked: A Zombie Odyssey. In 2014, Pistol won AVN's Best Actor Award for his role as Ash Williams in Burning Angel's "Evil Head", the porn parody of the Evil Dead franchise.
Pistol went on to star as the Joker in Axel Braun's Suicide Squad: An Axel Braun Parody, other lead roles, including his 2018 AVN Best Actor Win for Ingenue. In 2015, Pistol became the first male performer in 20 years to host the annual AVN Awards in Las Vegas, NV, along with Alexis Texas. Pistol, as Aramis Sartorio, has made several appearances in independent films, including Bethany, Jurassic City, the lead role in Frankie In Blunderland. Since 2016, Sartorio has participated in the annual WIH Massive Blood Drive PSA, a collaboration between the international grassroots initiative, Women In Horror Month and Twisted Twin Productions. Pistol has enjoyed mainstream recognition when his minor role as'The Cook' in Brazzers.com's Tatas Under Siege: An XXX Parody went viral on Twitter. Pistol has been featured on Buzzfeed.com, Uproxx.com, most Elle.com, as a tweet mocking Donald Trump was liked by his daughter, Ivanka Trump. Pistol has a large following on Twitter and his biggest fans are Lola Murder, a friend and sex worker advocate and Robyn Stevens, an erotic model.
Sartorio was once a singer for the metalcore band AmoreA. He performed as DJ Tommy Pistol on for the soundtrack of his film The Gruesome Death Of Tommy Pistol. Sartorio was born in New York, he was married to Gia Paloma on December 8, 2007. They separated in 2013, he is now in a relationship with filmmaker Nikki Swarm. 2006 AVN Award – Most Outrageous Sex Scene with Joanna Angel 2007 AVN Award – Best New Male Performer 2012 XBIZ Award – Male Acting Performance of the Year-Male 2014 XBIZ Award – Best Supporting Actor 2014 AVN Award – Best Actor 2015 XBIZ Award – Best Actor – Parody Release 2015 XBIZ Award – Best Scene – Parody Release with Aaliyah Love 2016 XBIZ Award – Best Actor – Couples-Themed Release 2017 XBIZ Award – Best Actor – Parody Release (Suicide Squad XXX: An Axel Braun Parody 2019 XBIZ Award – Best Actor – Feature Movie 2019 XBIZ Award – Best Actor – Couples-Themed Release 2020 AVN Award - Best Supporting Actor - The Gang Makes a Porno: A DP XXX Parody "Tatas Under Siege" – The Cook A Wet Dream on Elm Street – Professor Psycho Sleepover Horat: The Sexual Learnings of America for Make Benefit Beautiful Nation of Kaksuckistan - Horat Evil Head - Ashley J. Williams The Bad Luck Betties The XXXorcist – Father Merkin Avenue X Skater Girl Fever Debbie Does Dallas Again – himself Tommy Pistol on IMDb Tommy Pistol on Twitter Tommy Pistol at the Internet Adult Film Database Tommy Pistol at the Adult Film Database Jane, Ian.
"COCKED AND LOADED: An Interview with Tommy Pistol". Archived from the original on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 13 May 2008. Profile at Burning Angel