Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was established. Due to its pivotal role in Australia's early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, its east–west axis runs from a chain of parkland that includes Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Farm Cove on Sydney Harbour in the east. At the 2016 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 17,252. "Sydney CBD" is occasionally used to refer not only to the CBD proper, but its nearby inner suburbs such as Pyrmont, Haymarket and Woolloomooloo. The Sydney CBD is Australia's main financial and economic centre, as well as a leading hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region.
The city centre employs 13% of the Sydney region's workforce. Based on industry mix and relative occupational wage levels it is estimated that economic activity generated in the city in 2015/16 was $118 billion. Culturally, the city centre is Sydney's focal point for entertainment, it is home to some of the city's most significant buildings and structures. The Sydney CBD is an area of densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by several parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens and Wynyard Park. George Street is the Sydney CBD's main north–south thoroughfare; the streets run on a warped grid pattern in the southern CBD, but in the older northern CBD the streets form several intersecting grids, reflecting their placement in relation to the prevailing breeze and orientation to Circular Quay in early settlement. The CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream.
Bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east -- west. Pitt Street is the retail heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall and the Sydney Tower. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House and the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Prior to European settlement in New South Wales, the area around Sydney was home to the Gadigal tribes of Indigenous Australians; the colony of New South Wales founded Sydney at the Rocks in 1788 and established a city in 1842. In the midst of World War 1, on Valentine's day, riots racked the CBD, in what has come to be known as the Central Station Riots of 1916. A substantial segment of the violence was concentrated in the Central area; these riots involved five thousand military recruits who refused to comply with extraneous parade orders. During the riots they caused significant damage to buildings. People with "foreign" names were targeted; the recruits clashed with soldiers. A number of eight people sustained injuries.
Because this incident occurred in the middle of the Great War the state discouraged media coverage. Only a fifth of the rioters were court-marshalled; these riots spurred the introduction of lockout laws for pubs after 6pm. This law was only lifted in 1955; the Sydney central business district has many heritage-listed buildings including: Administratively, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, in particular through the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority. Independent Alex Greenwich has represented the Sydney seat since the 2012 by-election, triggered by the resignation of previous independent Clover Moore, the Lord Mayor of Sydney, due to introduced state laws preventing dual membership of state parliament and local council; the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies.
The financial services industry in particular occupies much of the available office space, with companies such as the Westpac, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Deutsche Bank, Macquarie Bank, AMP Limited, Insurance Australia Group, AON, Allianz, HSBC, AXA, ABN Amro, RBC and Bloomsbury Publishing all having offices. Church Hill is a northerly district in the Central Business district of Australia, it is so named because the earliest churches in Australia were formed on this site, including St Patrick's, St Philip's and Scots Church The significance of Church Hill dates back to the time of Governor Arthur Phillip, who mandated compulsory Sunday church attendance for all convicts, until they rebelled and burned down the area’s first church in 1798. The area gained greater prominence as Church Hill on Wednesday 1 October 1800, when incoming Governor Philip Gidley King had the foundation stone laid for St Philip’s Church, which subsequently he proclaimed one of Australia’s first two parishes in 1802.
The site where St Patrick’s Church stands is where the Roman Catholic Eucharist was first preserved in Australia, in May 1818. Celebrations for the bicentenary of this occasion were held in St Patrick’s Church on Sunday 6 May 2018. A proposed stop on the tram network under construction on George Street may be named Church Hill. Sydney's CBD is serviced by commuter rail, light
The Artspace Sydney Visual Arts Centre is a leading international residency-based contemporary art centre, housed in the historic Gunnery Building in Woolloomooloo, fronting Sydney Harbour in Sydney, Australia. Devoted to the development of certain new ideas and practices in contemporary art and culture, since the early 1980s Artspace has been building a critical context for Australian and international artists and writers; each year, Artspace presents between 24 and 30 gallery projects, hosts over 50 artist residencies, initiates a range of public program and education activities, publishes a regular projects journal together with cultural theory books and artist monographs. Artspace is supported by the Visual Arts and Craft Strategy, an initiative of the Australian and Territory Governments, it is assisted by the Government of New South Wales through Arts NSW and by the Australia Council, the Australian Government's arts funding and advisory body. Culture of Sydney Artspace Sydney
The Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts Awards, known as the AACTA Awards, are presented annually by the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts. The awards recognise excellence in the film and television industry, including the producers, actors and cinematographers, it is the most prestigious awards ceremony for the Australian television industry. They are considered to be the Australian counterpart of the Academy Awards and British Academy Awards; the awards called Australian Film Institute Awards or AFI Awards, began in 1958 and involved 30 nominations across six categories. They expanded in 1986 to cover television as well as film; the AACTA Awards were instituted in 2011. As of 2011, the Australian awards take place at the Sydney Opera House and the International Awards, inaugurated on 27 January 2012, are presented every January in Los Angeles; the awards were presented annually by the Australian Film Institute as the Australian Film Institute Awards, "to recognise and honour outstanding achievement in the Australian film and television industry."
They were instituted in 1958, "as a way to improve the impoverished state of Australian cinema", was part of the Melbourne International Film Festival until 1972. The first AFI Awards ceremony consisted of seven fields: Documentary, Advertising, Experimental Film, Public Relations and Teaching, an Open category for other films which didn't fit in the aforementioned categories. Between 1958–1980, submitted films were presented with a gold, silver or bronze prize, in some circumstances, a Grand Prix award, the highest honour a film could receive. Additionally, films were presented with a gold or silver medallion for technical achievements, films which didn't receive a prize were given a certificate of honourable mention. From the awards inception to 1968, documentary and educational films were the only films submitted for awards due to few feature films produced in Australia, but in 1969, Jack and Jill: A Postscript became the first feature film to receive an award from the AFI, with a silver prize in the "Open" category, is considered a winner in the Best Film category of the current awards.
Up until 1970, prizes were handed out in recognition of the film and production, rather than achievements of individual filmmakers and crafts people. However, from 1971 special achievement awards were introduced to recognise actors, screenwriters, musicians and cinematographers in feature films, from 1975, an additional cash prize was given per achievement. In 1977 feature film categories became competitive, while non-feature films continued to be awarded the gold and bronze prizes until 1981, when they became competitive. In 1976 the awards were broadcast live on television for the first time on the Nine Network at the Hilton Hotel in Melbourne. In 1986 television categories were introduced, presenting awards for mini-series and telefeatures before expanding to dramas and documentaries in the 1990s. In June 2011, the AFI announced an industry consultation for an "Australian Academy"; the aim of the Academy is to create awareness for Australian film in local and international markets and to improve the way the AFI rewards practitioners with the formation of an "Honorary Council".
Of the announcement Damian Trewhella, CEO of the AFI said, "We thought a better way to engage with the industry would be to try and improve our professional membership structure It's quite a big improvement on the way the AFI does things." The consultation period ended in July 2011 and on 20 July it was announced that the AFI would go ahead with the Australian Academy with Trewhella stating that " envisage that this will lead to greater opportunities for those working in the industry, as well as greater audience recognition and connection with Australian screen content." The name of the new Academy was revealed on 18 August 2011 as the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts, with the awards renamed to the AACTA Awards. Prior to this announcement, the awards date and location was changed to January 2012 at the Sydney Opera House in Sydney as opposed to Melbourne where it was held for the majority of the AFI Awards history; the date change was made to align the awards with the international awards season.
When the Academy announced the dates for the inaugural awards season, they introduced awards which "recognise international excellence within the categories of best film, acting and direction". On 23 November 2011, it was announced that the first award to be handed out since the Academy's inception is the Longford Lyell Award, presented to Don McAlpine for his contribution to cinematography, at the inaugural awards luncheon. To be eligible for nomination, a production must be an Australian production or program and, in the case of a film, cannot have been submitted for consideration; the submission of a production is accompanied by an entry fee in Australian dollars, of up to A$1680 for feature films, $400 for documentaries, $330 for short film and animation and $1125 for television categories. At the time of the awards inception, a jury of five judges, composed of film critics and filmmakers, determined the winner of a production. In 1976, the jury system was replaced by a peer voting process for feature films which would allow public members the right to v
Museum of Contemporary Art Australia
The Museum of Contemporary Art Australia, located in Sydney, Australia, is an Australian museum dedicated to exhibiting and collecting contemporary art, both from across Australia and around the world. It is housed in the art deco-style former Maritime Services Board Building on the western edge of Circular Quay; the museum was opened in 1991 as the Museum of Contemporary Art and from 2010 underwent an A$58 million expansion and re-development, reopening on 29 March 2012 under its current name as the Museum of Contemporary Art Australia. The collection contains over 4,000 works by Australian artists that have been acquired since 1989; the collection spans all art forms with strong holdings in painting, sculpture, works on paper and moving image, as well as significant representation of works by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artists. The establishment of the MCA was mandated in the will of Australian expatriate artist John Power, who bequeathed his personal fortune to the University of Sydney with the express purpose of informing and educating Australians in the contemporary visual arts.
With the relocation of the Maritime Services Board to larger premises in 1989, the building and site was donated by the Government of New South Wales to the Museum of Contemporary Art. Funded by the University of Sydney and the Power Bequest and refurbishment of the building commenced in 1990 under the direction of Andrew Anderson of Peddle Thorpe/John Holland Interiors and in November 1991 the Museum of Contemporary Art opened. Extensions made in 2010–12 were to a design by Sydney architect Sam Marshall; the new extension, called the Mordant Wing, opened in March 2012. Sydney Cove West Archaeological Precinct Museum of Contemporary Art official website Museum of Contemporary Art Artabase page Architect Marshall official website "Museum of Contemporary Art Australia". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 9 October 2015. "Commissariat Stores". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2015.. "Maritime Services Board Building, 136-140 George St, The Rocks, NSW, Australia".
Australian Heritage Database. Department of the Environment. 21 October 1980
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Art in America
Art in America is an illustrated monthly, international magazine concentrating on the contemporary art world in the United States, including profiles of artists and genres, updates about art movements, show reviews and event schedules. It is designed for collectors, art dealers, art professionals and other readers interested in the art world, it has ArtinAmericaMagazine.com. Founded in 1913, Art in America covers the visual art world, both in the United States and abroad, with a concentration on New York City and contemporary art fairs. Between 1921 and 1939 the magazine was published under the title Art in America and Elsewhere. A number of well-known artists have been commissioned to design special covers for the magazine. Edward Steichen did one for its 50th birthday. For its 100th birthday the magazine planned special covers by Richard Prince, Cindy Sherman, Urs Fischer. Long-time editor Elizabeth C. Baker, who led the magazine for 34 years, resigned in June 2008 and was replaced by staff senior editor Marcia E. Vetrocq.
She served as editor until January 2011. During her tenure, the magazine was re-designed, its international coverage expanded, a website launched. Art market blogger and Bloomberg reporter Lindsay Pollock was named editor-in-chief in January 2011. Pollock announced that she was leaving in April 2017. Cynthia Zabel joined Art in America in 2005 as advertising director, in 2008 was named publisher. Art in America was sold to ARTnews SA, parent of ARTnews in 2015. Brant Publications acquired both Art in America and ARTnews from ARTnews SA; the print magazine is published 11 times a year with a joint June/July issue. Select reviews and features are uploaded to the website. In 2018, Penske Media Corporation, the parent company of Variety Magazine, acquired ARTnews and Art in America. Wilhelm Valentiner Frederic Fairchild Sherman Jean Lipman Brian O'Doherty Elizabeth C. Baker Marcia Vetrocq Lindsay Pollock William S. Smith Joan Simon Nancy Marmer Richard Vine David Ebony Art in America is read by art dealers, historians, art professionals, others.
It contains news and art criticism of painting, photography, installation art, performance art, digital art and architecture in exhibition reviews, artist profiles, feature articles. The magazine was published by Brant Publications, founded in 1984, based in New York's SoHo district. Art Media Holdings formed in June 2016, is the owner and publisher of Art in America and three other magazines including ARTNews, The Magazine ANTIQUES, MODERN Magazine. Chelsea Art Guide is a free publication produced by Art in America. Chelsea Art is a current guide to New York's vast contemporary art district. With exhibition listings and an annotated map, Chelsea Art is a guide to the changing geography of Chelsea. ArtinAmericaMagazine.com is Art in America's website. Its offerings include a calendar of art world events, live coverage of art fairs, information on auctions. Art in America's official website Early volumes of Art in America from 1913-1922 readable at HathiTrust
Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race
The Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race is an annual event hosted by the Cruising Yacht Club of Australia, starting in Sydney, New South Wales on Boxing Day and finishing in Hobart, Tasmania. The race distance is 630 nautical miles; the race is run in conjunction with the Royal Yacht Club of Tasmania, is considered to be one of the most difficult yacht races in the world. The race was planned to be a cruise by Peter Luke and some friends who had formed a club for those who enjoyed cruising as opposed to racing, however when a visiting British Royal Navy Officer, Captain John Illingworth, suggested it be made a race, the event was born; the Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race has grown over the decades, since the inaugural race in 1945, to become one of the top three offshore yacht races in the world, it now attracts maxi yachts from all around the globe. The 2018 race will be the 74th edition. Australia's foremost offshore sailing prize is the Tattersall's Cup, awarded to the ultimate winner of the handicap competitions based on the length, shape and sail dimensions of the yacht.
Much public attention however, focuses on the race for "line honours" – the first boat across the finishing line the newest and largest Maxi yacht in the fleet. In 2017, LDV Comanche set a new race record finishing in 1 day, 9 hours, 15 minutes and 24 seconds, beating Perpetual Loyal's record of 1 day, 13 hours, 31 minutes and 20 seconds, set the previous year. Wild Oats XI, who crossed the line first, received a 1-hour penalty for her role in a near-miss collision at the beginning of the race and disregard of the starboard rule, handing LDV Comanche line honours. Wild Oats XI completed the course in an unofficial record time of 1 day, 08 hours, 48 minutes and 50 seconds. Wild Oats XI has won line honours on 9 separate occasions and is the first boat to have claimed the treble – race record, line honours and overall winner. Bass Strait, the waters of the Pacific Ocean to its east, are renowned for their high winds and difficult seas. Although the race takes place in the Tasman Sea, the shallowness of Bass Strait and the proximity to the race course means that the fleet is much under the influence of the Strait as they transit from the mainland to Flinders Island.
Though the race is held in the Australian summer, "southerly buster" storms make the Sydney–Hobart race cold and challenging for the crew. It is typical for a considerable number of yachts to retire at Eden on the New South Wales south coast, the last sheltered harbour before Flinders Island; the inaugural race in 1945 had nine starters. John Illingworth's Rani, built in Speers Point, New South Wales was the winner, taking six days, 14 hours and 22 minutes. Race records for the fastest time dropped rapidly. However, it took 21 years for the 1975 record by Kialoa from the USA to be broken by the German yacht Morning Glory in 1996, only by a dramatic 29 minutes, as she tacked up the Derwent River against the clock. In 1999 Denmark's Nokia sailed the course in one day, 19 hours, 48 minutes and two seconds, a record which stood until 2005 when Wild Oats XI won line and handicap honours in 1 day 18 hr 40 min 10 sec. There have been some notable achievements by yachts over the years. Sydney yacht, won the second and fourth races and under new owners Frank and John Livingston from Victoria, took a further four titles as Kurrewa IV in 1954, 1956, 1957 and 1960.
Other yachts to win three or more titles are Astor and Bumblebee IV firstly in 1979 and again in 1988 and 1990 as Ragamuffin. When Wild Oats XI won back-to-back titles in 2006, it was the first yacht to do so since Astor in the 1960s. Wild Oats XI claimed its third consecutive line honours title in the 2007 race, re-writing history by being only the second yacht after Rani in the inaugural 1945 race to win line and handicap honours and break the race record in the same year and only the second yacht after Morna to win three line honours titles in a row. In 2008, Wild Oats XI broke Morna's long-standing record of three titles in a row, by completing a four-in-a-row, the first yacht to achieve that remarkable achievement. For the handicap race the respected Halvorsen brothers' Freya won three titles back-to-back between 1963 and 1965. Although not consecutive, Love & War equalled Freya's three titles by winning its third in 2006 to add to its 1974 and 1978 titles; the 1998 Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race was marred by tragedy when, during an exceptionally strong storm, five boats sank and six people died.
Of the 115 boats that started, only 44 made it to Hobart. As a result, the crew eligibility rules were tightened, requiring a higher minimum age and experience. G. Bruce Knecht wrote a book about this race called "The Proving Ground". A coronial enquiry into the race was critical of both the race management at the time and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. In 1999 the race record was broken by a water-ballasted VO60 yacht, she sailed the course in 19 hours, 48 minutes and 2 seconds. Brindabella reached Hobart just under one hour and Wild Thing was a close third; the previous Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race record had been set by Morning Glory in 1996. In 2004 only 59 yachts completed the course of the 116. Storms hit the race; the super maxi Skandia capsized after losing her keel. In 2005, Wild Oats XI became the first boat since Rani to win the "treble", taking Line Honour