In Norse mythology, Bifröst is a burning rainbow bridge that reaches between Midgard and Asgard, the realm of the gods. The bridge is attested as Bilröst in the Poetic Edda. Both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda alternately refer to the bridge as Ásbrú. According to the Prose Edda, the bridge ends in heaven at Himinbjörg, the residence of the god Heimdallr, who guards it from the jötnar; the bridge's destruction during Ragnarök by the forces of Muspell is foretold. Scholars have proposed that the bridge may have represented the Milky Way and have noted parallels between the bridge and another bridge in Norse mythology, Gjallarbrú. Scholar Andy Orchard posits that Bifröst may mean "shimmering path." He notes that the first element of Bilröst—bil —"suggests the fleeting nature of the rainbow," which he connects to the first element of Bifröst—the Old Norse verb bifa —noting that the element evokes notions of the "lustrous sheen" of the bridge. Austrian Germanist Rudolf Simek says that Bifröst either means "the swaying road to heaven" or, if Bilröst is the original form of the two, "the fleetingly glimpsed rainbow".

Two poems in the Poetic Edda and two books in the Prose Edda provide information about the bridge: In the Poetic Edda, the bridge is mentioned in the poems Grímnismál and Fáfnismál, where it is referred to as Bilröst. In one of two stanzas in the poem Grímnismál that mentions the bridge, Grímnir provides the young Agnarr with cosmological knowledge, including that Bilröst is the best of bridges. In Grímnismál, Grímnir notes that Asbrú "burns all with flames" and that, every day, the god Thor wades through the waters of Körmt and Örmt and the two Kerlaugar: In Fáfnismál, the dying wyrm Fafnir tells the hero Sigurd that, during the events of Ragnarök, bearing spears, gods will meet at Óskópnir. From there, the gods will cross Bilröst, which will break apart as they cross over it, causing their horses to dredge through an immense river; the bridge is mentioned in the Prose Edda books Gylfaginning and Skáldskaparmál, where it is referred to as Bifröst. In chapter 13 of Gylfaginning, Gangleri asks the enthroned figure of High what way exists between heaven and earth.

Laughing, High replies that the question isn't an intelligent one, goes on to explain that the gods built a bridge from heaven and earth. He incredulously asks Gangleri. High says that Gangleri must have seen it, notes that Gangleri may call it a rainbow. High says that the bridge consists of three colors, has great strength, "and is built with art and skill to a greater extent than other constructions."High notes that, although the bridge is strong, it will break when "Muspell's lads" attempt to cross it, their horses will have to make do with swimming over "great rivers." Gangleri says that it doesn't seem that the gods "built the bridge in good faith if it is liable to break, considering that they can do as they please." High responds that the gods do not deserve blame for the breaking of the bridge, for "there is nothing in this world that will be secure when Muspell's sons attack."In chapter 15 of Gylfaginning, Just-As-High says that Bifröst is called Asbrú, that every day the gods ride their horses across it to reach Urðarbrunnr, a holy well where the gods have their court.

As a reference, Just-As-High quotes the second of the two stanzas in Grímnismál that mention the bridge. Gangleri asks. High says that the red in the bridge is burning fire, without it, the frost jotnar and mountain jotnar would "go up into heaven" if anyone who wanted could cross Bifröst. High adds that, in heaven, "there are many beautiful places" and that "everywhere there has divine protection around it."In chapter 17, High tells Gangleri that the location of Himinbjörg "stands at the edge of heaven where Bifrost reaches heaven." While describing the god Heimdallr in chapter 27, High says that Heimdallr lives in Himinbjörg by Bifröst, guards the bridge from mountain jotnar while sitting at the edge of heaven. In chapter 34, High quotes the first of the two Grímnismál stanzas. In chapter 51, High foretells the events of Ragnarök. High says that, during Ragnarök, the sky will split open, from the split will ride forth the "sons of Muspell"; when the "sons of Muspell" ride over Bifröst it will break, "as was said above."In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, the bridge receives a single mention.

In chapter 16, a work by the 10th century skald Úlfr Uggason is provided, where Bifröst is referred to as "the powers' way." In his translation of the Prose Edda, Henry Adams Bellows comments that the Grímnismál stanza mentioning Thor and the bridge stanza may mean that "Thor has to go on foot in the last days of the destruction, when the bridge is burning. Another interpretation, however, is that when Thor leaves the heavens the rainbow-bridge becomes hot in the sun."John Lindow points to a parallel between Bifröst, which he notes is "a bridge between earth and heaven, or earth and the world of the gods", the bridge Gjallarbrú, "a bridge between earth and the underworld, or earth and the world of the dead." Several scholars have proposed. In the final


Volken is a municipality in the district of Andelfingen in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland. Volken has an area of 3.3 km2. Of this area, 64.2 % is used for agricultural purposes. The rest of the land, is settled. Volken has a population of 362; as of 2007, 6.8% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 15%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Portuguese being third. In the 2007 election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the FDP, the CSP and the SPS. The age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 28.7% of the population, while adults make up 59.3% and seniors make up 11.9%. In Volken about 90.5% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Volken has an unemployment rate of 0.21%. As of 2005, there were 46 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 18 businesses involved in this sector.

4 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 1 businesses in this sector. 22 people are employed with 7 businesses in this sector. Official website

White Shadow (film)

White Shadow is a 2013 internationally co-produced drama film written and directed by Noaz Deshe. An international co-production between Germany and Tanzania, the film premiered in Critics’ Week selection at the 70th Venice International Film Festival on September 2, 2013, it won the Lion of the future award at the festival. The film premiered in-competition in the World Cinema Dramatic Competition at 2014 Sundance Film Festival on January 17, 2014; the film screened at 2014 San Francisco International Film Festival on May 4, 2014. Ryan Gosling along with Matteo Ceccarini and Eva Riccobono served as the executive producers of the film. Alias, a young Albino, is on the run from the local doctors, who are hunting Albinos to use their body parts for potions. Hamisi Bazili as Alias James Gayo as Kosmos Glory Mbayuwayu as Antoinette Salum Abdallah as Salum Riziki Ally as Mother John S. Mwakipunda as Anulla Tito D. Ntanga as Father James P. Salala as Adin White Shadow received positive reviews from critics.

Guy Lodge of Variety, said in his review that "Noaz Deshe makes a staggering debut with this drama about the African albino multi trade." Boyd van Hoeij in his review for The Hollywood Reporter said that "This harrowing account of a young albino's fight for survival in Tanzania is too long but nonetheless gripping." Jessica Kiang of Indiewire grade the film B+ and praised the film by saying that "We have to admit, it first took a lot of our patience, all of our nerve, to make it through to the end, but that makes it a film, as upsetting as its subject matter warrants." Official website Official website White Shadow on IMDb White Shadow at Rotten Tomatoes