In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Big Bay Point Light
The Big Bay Point Light is a lighthouse which stands on a tall bluff over a rocky point near Big Bay, Michigan 24 miles northwest of Marquette on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Today it is the only operational lighthouse with a breakfast, it is reputed to be haunted. The establishment of a station at Big Bay Point was recommended to the Lighthouse board in 1882 as follows: "The point occupies a position midway between Granite Island and Huron Islands, the distance in each case being 15 to 18 miles; these two lights are invisible from each other and the intervening stretch is unlighted. A light and fog signal would be a protection to steamers passing between these points. Quite a number of vessels have in past years been wrecked on Big Bay Point". A 20-by-15-foot brick fog signal building was constructed, it contained two 10-inch steam train whistles that stuck out of the roof of the building and were operated by steam boilers. In 1928, the steam whistles were replaced by a modern air diaphone.
There were two small brick privies, a brick building with a metal roof and a door for storing oil for the lens. On October 20, 1896, the 3rd-order fixed Fresnel lens went into service, it was "fitted with a three-wick burner same as a 2nd order light and consuming the same quantity of oil". To increase the steady white light screened rotating panels were installed, creating "a brilliant white flash every twenty seconds"; this lens is considered to be sufficiently significant that models have been made and marketed as technological "diamonds"—"a superior example of mathematical dimension and extraordinary beauty.... With its magnificent series of concentric glass prisms, the light would reflect back through the central lens—a perfect example of a'catadioptric system."An office was on the tower's lower level, it was accessible only from the head keeper's side. Each dwelling had six rooms, including on the first floor a kitchen and dining room, on the second floor three bedrooms; each side had a basement cistern to collect water from the roof eaves and a pump in the kitchen to get water from the cistern to the sink for washing dishes.
When paint contamination of the cisterns was discovered, water was fetched from the lake in five US gallons buckets. The aid to navigation was sold to private owners. In 1990 the original Fresnel lens was recovered and reinstalled, is on exhibit. In 1961, the lighthouse, 33 acres were sold by sealed bid to Jon Pick, a plastic surgeon from Chicago; the purchase price was $40,000. Six years of abandonment meant that most of the roof was missing, windows broken and the walls were denuded of most of the plaster. Layers of paint needed to be scraped. Pick's attempt to turn it into a summer home encompassed 17 years of construction and renovation, including upgrading or installing inside plumbing, electricity and a modern heating system. Many rooms were re-plastered; the duplex was integrated into one large building. Period antiques and travel mementos were placed. In 1979, in his 80s and in poor health, the Pick sold the dream keeper's house to Dan Hitchens of Traverse City. Hitchens added bathrooms and executive meeting rooms, intending to convert the place to a bed and breakfast.
Five years Hitchens sold the lighthouse to an investment group of whom the managing owners were Norman Gotschall, his wife. Bed-and-breakfast amenities were added, the fog signal building was reopened, additional acreage acquired, hiking trails opened; the new bed-and-breakfast opened in 1986. Nearing retirement, the Gotschalls and their partners decided to sell, in March 1992 the lighthouse was purchased by the fourth and present owners, three avid preservationists from the Chicago area. John Gale, Linda Gamble, Jeff Gamble had been guests at the B&B and fell in love with the lighthouse and the tiny hamlet of Big Bay on their first visit; the light was built in 1896 at a cost of $25,000 and automated in 1944. In 1961, the lighthouse was sold to Pick. Pick had it restored and furnished with antiques, it was set up as a duplex, so it would have quarters for two keepers and their families. It has been a bed and breakfast since 1986. Access to the grounds and tours of the light are available; the keeper's house consists of 18 rooms in a 52-by-52-foot two story brick building.
The attached tower is tall enough to place the light 105 feet above Lake Superior. This housed the keeper and an assistant keeper with family as well; as the country moved to eight-hour shifts, a frame building with outhouse was built at the bottom of the hill for a second assistant keeper. At the time the light was built; those who worked at Big Bay Point were isolated. The keepers' wives not only had to do the usual housekeeping and food preparation, but schooling of any children in residence. Other structures on the site include two cisterns, an oil house, a garage, two brick outhouses, a dock. A well house and a brick fog signal building. However, another source opines that "the original 3° Fresnel lens displayed in the fog signal building, is now on loan to the Marquette Maritime Museum in Marquette."The light tower has intricate fortress style brick work near its apex, supporting an octagonal lantern and iron watch room. The light was automated in 1941; the station was sold in 1961. There has been at least one notable death associated
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
A civil township is a used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states. Specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries coincide and may geographically subdivide a county; the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. There are 20 states with civil townships. Township functions are overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers include justice of the peace, road commissioner, assessor and surveyor. In the 20th century, many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases, townships run local libraries, senior citizen services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance, cemetery services.
In some states, a township and a municipality, coterminous with that township may wholly or consolidate their operations. Depending on the state, the township government has varying degrees of authority. In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are but not always, overlaid on survey townships; the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases within a state. For example, townships in the northern part of Illinois are active in providing public services — such as road maintenance, after-school care, senior services — whereas townships in southern Illinois delegate these services to the county. Most townships in Illinois provide services such as snow removal, senior transportation, emergency services to households residing in unincorporated parts of the county; the townships in Illinois each have a township board, whose board members were called township trustees, a single township supervisor. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee and a three-member board.
Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Michigan, general law townships are corporate entities, some can become reformulated as charter townships, a status intended to protect against annexation from nearby municipalities and which grants the township some home rule powers similar to cities. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as "towns" rather than townships, but they function the same as in neighboring states. In Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form "Name Township". In both documents and conversation, "town" and "township" are used interchangeably. Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the township's name. In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township. Where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality, though these overlaps are sometimes overlooked by mistake.
Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap. In Kansas, some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services. While counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few remote areas of New Hampshire and Maine, every square foot of New England lies within the borders of an incorporated town. New England has cities, most of which are towns whose residents have voted to replace the town meeting form of government with a city form. In portions of New Hampshire and Maine, county subdivisions that are not incorporated are referred to as townships, or by other terms such as "gore", "grant", "location", "plantation", or "purchase". In New York, counties are further subdivided into towns and cities, the principal forms of local government.
Towns fulfill a function similar to those of townships in other states. As is the case in most of New England, every square foot of New York's territory is incorporated. New York towns contain one or more incorporated villages, village residents pay both town and village taxes. Towns include a number of unincorporated hamlets. A Pennsylvania township is a unit of local government, responsible for services such as police departments, local road and street maintenance, it acts the same as a borough. Townships were established based on convenient geographical boundaries and vary in size from six to fifty-two square miles. A New Jersey township is similar, in that it is a form of municipal government equal in status to a village, borough, or city, provides similar services to a Pennsylvania township. In the South, outside cities and towns there is no local government other than the county. North Carolina is no exception to that rule, but it does have townships as minor geographical subdivisions of counties, including
Marquette is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Marquette County. The population was 21,355 at the 2010 census, making it the largest city of the state's Upper Peninsula. Marquette is a major port on Lake Superior, known for shipping iron ore, is the home of Northern Michigan University. In 2012, Marquette was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the United States by CBS MoneyWatch; the land around Marquette was known to French missionaries of the early 17th century and the trappers of the early 19th century. Development of the area did not begin until 1844, when William Burt and Jacob Houghton discovered iron deposits near Teal Lake west of Marquette. In 1845, Jackson Mining Company, the first organized mining company in the region, was formed; the village of Marquette began on September 14, 1849, with the formation of a second iron concern, the Marquette Iron Company. Three men participated in organizing the firm: Robert J. Graveraet, who had prospected the region for ore.
The village was at first called New Worcester, with Harlow as the first postmaster. On August 21, 1850, the name was changed to honor Jacques Marquette, the French Jesuit missionary who had explored the region. A second post office, named Carp River, was opened on October 13, 1851 by Peter White, who had gone there with Graveraet at age 18. Harlow closed his post office in August 1852; the Marquette Iron Company failed, while its successor, the Cleveland Iron Mining Company and had the village platted in 1854. The plat was recorded by Peter White. White's office was renamed as Marquette in April 1856, the village was incorporated in 1859, it was incorporated as a city in 1871. During the 1850s, Marquette was linked by rail to numerous mines and became the leading shipping center of the Upper Peninsula; the first ore pocket dock, designed by an early town leader, John Burt, was built by the Cleveland Iron Mining Company in 1859. By 1862, the city had a soaring economy. In the late 19th century, during the height of iron mining, Marquette became nationally known as a summer haven.
Visitors brought in by Great Lakes passenger steamships filled the city's resorts. South of the city, K. I. Sawyer Air Force Base was an important Air Force installation during the Cold War, host to B-52H bombers and KC-135 tankers of the Strategic Air Command, as well as a fighter interceptor squadron; the base closed in September 1995, is now the county's Sawyer International Airport. Marquette continues to be a shipping port for hematite ores and, enriched iron ore pellets, from nearby mines and pelletizing plants. About 7.9 million gross tons of pelletized iron ore passed through Marquette's Presque Isle Harbor in 2005. The Roman Catholic Bishop Frederic Baraga is buried at St. Peter Cathedral, the center for the Diocese of Marquette. In addition to the Marquette #1 Post Office there is the "Northern Michigan University Bookstore Contract Station #384"; the first day of issue of a postal card showing Bishop Frederic Baraga took place in Marquette on June 29, 1984, that of the Wonders of America Lake Superior stamp on May 27, 2006.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.45 square miles, of which 11.39 square miles is land and 8.06 square miles is water. The city includes several small islands in Lake Superior; the Marquette Underwater Preserve lies offshore. Marquette Mountain, used for skiing, is located in the city, as is most of the land of Marquette Branch Prison of the Michigan Department of Corrections. Trowbridge Park is located to the west, Sands Township to the south, Marquette Township to the northwest of the city; the climate is a hemiboreal humid continental with four distinct seasons, moderated by Lake Superior and is located in Plant Hardiness zone 5b. Winters are long and cold with a January average of 18.8 °F. Winter temperatures are warmer than inland locations at a similar latitude due to the release of the heat stored by the lake, which moderates the climate. On average, there are 11.6 days where the temperature reaches below 0 °F and most days during winter remain below freezing.
Being located in the snowbelt region, Marquette receives a significant amount of snowfall during the winter months from lake-effect snow. Because Lake Superior freezes over this enables lake effect snow to persist throughout winter, making Marquette the third snowiest location in the contiguous United States as reported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration with an average annual snowfall of 149.1 inches. The snow depth in winter exceeds 10 inches. Marquette is the city with the deepest snow depths with a population of more than 20,000 in the US, as the averages remain low throughout the winter and cold, dry air is intercepted by the Great Lakes; the warmest months and August, each average 66.6 °F, showing somewhat of a seasonal lag. The surrounding lake cools summertime temperatures and as a result, temperatures above 90 °F are rare, with only 3.4 days per year. Spring and fall are transitional seasons that are mild though variable due to the alternation of air masses moving quickly.
Spring is cooler than fall because the surrounding lake is slow to warm th
Northern Michigan University
Northern Michigan University is a public university in Marquette, Michigan. The university was established in 1899. With enrollment of about 8,000 undergraduate and graduate students, Northern Michigan University is the Upper Peninsula's largest university. NMU offers programs in master's degrees, as well as specialist certification. NMU is home to the TLC initiative, providing every student with a laptop as part of their tuition; the average class size is 22 students, with a 22:1 student-faculty ratio. In 2017, NMU became the first college in the United States to offer a four-year degree in Medicinal Plant chemistry. Northern Michigan University was established in 1899 by the Michigan Legislature as Northern State Normal School to offer teacher preparation programs in Michigan's then-wild and sparsely populated Upper Peninsula; when it opened in 1899, NMU enrolled thirty-two students who were taught by six faculty members in rented rooms in Marquette city hall. The original 20-acre campus site at the corner of Presque Isle and Kaye Avenues was on land donated by local businessman and philanthropist John M. Longyear, whose namesake academic building, Longyear Hall, opened in 1900.
Throughout the school's first half-century and teacher training was school's primary focus. During this time, the school built the native sandstone buildings Kaye and Peter White Halls, as well as a manual training school next to the campus buildings, J. D. Pierce School. Modest enrollment increases led to several name changes: Northern State Normal, 1899 Northern State Teachers College, 1927 Northern Michigan College of Education, 1942 Northern Michigan College, 1955In 1963, through the adoption of a new state constitution in Michigan, Northern Michigan was designated a comprehensive university serving the diverse educational needs of Upper Michigan. During this time, enrollment grew, due in large part to the 1957 opening of the Mackinac Bridge that links the Upper and Lower Peninsulas. Accredited undergraduate and graduate degree programs are offered by the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Business, the College of Health Sciences and Professional Studies. Graduate education began in March 1935 when courses at the master's degree level were offered in cooperation with the University of Michigan.
180 Undergraduate and graduate degree programs are offered at NMU. NMU has five academic divisions: College of Academic Information Services: Beaumier Heritage Center College of Arts and Sciences: School of Art and Design, Center for Economic Education and Entrepreneurship, Center for Native American Studies, Center for Upper Peninsula Studies Walker L. Cisler College of Business Graduate Education and Research College of Health Sciences and Professional Studies: School of Clinical Sciences, School of Education and Public Service, School of Health and Human Performance, School of Nursing Northern Michigan University is accredited by the Commission on Institutions of Higher Education of the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. All education programs are accredited by the Teacher Education Accreditation Council. Other accreditations include the Accreditation Board for Technology. In addition, the nursing programs are approved by the Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulation, State Board of Nursing and the baccalaureate and master's degrees are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education.
The baccalaureate degree programs of the Walker L. Cisler College of Business are accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. NMU is a tobacco-free campus. Instructional Spaces Ten buildings. There are 3 distance learning facilities, the largest of, Mead Auditorium which seats 100. Art and Design This facility contains over 110,000 square feet of studios, lecture halls, digital green screen room, sound studio, photography suite and screening rooms, as well as the DeVos Art Museum; the DeVos Art Museum displays 10–12 exhibitions per year of contemporary international, national and local art. At over 4,000 square feet it is the largest art gallery on campus and the only art museum with a permanent collection in the Upper Peninsula. Berry Events Center Northern's multi-purpose student events center, is the home of the Northern Michigan University hockey and men's and women's basketball teams; the 60,000-square-foot facility contains an Olympic-size ice sheet and seats over 4,000 for hockey events.
The Berry Events Center was built on the site of the former Memorial Stadium. Cohodas Hall The tallest building on campus, Cohodas Hall houses administrative offices and the College of Business. Completed in 1975, the building stands on the site of Northern's original campus, it is named after U. P. banker and philanthropist Sam M. Cohodas. Forest R
Wayne State University Press
Wayne State University Press is a university press, part of Wayne State University. It publishes under its own name and the imprints Painted Turtle and Great Lakes Books Series; the Press has strong subject areas in Africana studies. Wayne State University Press publishes eleven academic journals, including Marvels & Tales, several trade publications, including Yamasaki in Detroit: A Search for Serenity by author John Gallagher and The Detroit Symphony Orchestra: Grace and Glory, by authors Laurie Lanzen Harris and Paul Ganson, as well as the Made in Michigan Writers Series. WSU Press is located in the Leonard N. Simons Building designed by famed architect Albert Kahn and is located on Wayne State University's main campus in the heart of Midtown Detroit. An editorial board approves the Wayne State University Press's titles; the board considers manuscripts presented by WSU Press's acquisitions department. WSU Press has a fundraising group, the Board of Visitors, dedicated to raising funds for the Press to support the publication of specific titles.
WSU Press is an auxiliary unit of the university and receives an annual subvention that covers the cost of its operation. For the most part, WSU Press relies on revenue generated through the sale of its publications to meet its operating expenses; the Wayne State University Press was founded in 1941 when faculty members of Wayne University volunteered to establish a publishing entity to "assist the University in the encouragement and dissemination of scholarly learning". An English professor ran the press known as Wayne University Press, for years as a side project only, it was not until 1954 that WSU Press developed into a full-fledged publisher destined to have a national and international role in the creation of scholarly and trade books and journals. Painted Turtle Great Lakes Books Wayne State University Press