Big Bear Lake is a reservoir in the San Bernardino Mountains, in San Bernardino County, United States. It is a snow-fed lake, having no other means of tributaries or mechanical replenishment. At a surface elevation of 6,743 ft, it has an east-west length of 7 mi and is 2.5 mi at its widest measurement, though the lake's width averages a little more than 1⁄2 mi. These approximations are based on the lake having an optimum retainable water level. At dam's end Big Bear measures its deepest water at 72 ft; the region now known as Big Bear Lake was populated by the indigenous Serrano Indian tribe for 2,500 years. They referred to the territory as "Yuhaviat" which translates into "Pine Place", they inhabited small villages of 10 to 30 round buildings located along fresh water sources and subsisted on berries, tubers and plentiful game harvested along the lush valley. The Serrano looked at the native grizzly bears as ancestors and did not eat the meat or wear the fur of these massive animals. Several contemporary communities in the area feature place names reflecting the Big Bear region's rich Native history.
These include Yucaipa and Muscupiabe. The Big Bear Lake area was first discovered by European explorers when an Indian-hunting party was formed by Benjamin Wilson. Wilson moved to California during the days of Mexican territorial Alta California, he married into the Spanish landholder family, the Yorbas, bought a portion of Rancho Jurupa from Juan Bandini. He became a local rancher statesman of great repute. Wilson had signed on as Justice of the Peace of the Inland Territory and was commissioned by the territorial authorities to locate and pursue Native Americans suspected of raiding ranches in nearby Riverside; this group, led by the fierce Chief Walkara, drove the herd into the Lucerne Valley on the north side of the San Bernardinos. Wilson gathered a posse of 44 men, 22 of whom he sent through the Cajon Pass while he engineered a pincer movement with the other 22 men into the headwaters of the Santa Ana River cutting the Utes off at the other end of Lucerne. On the trip Wilson came upon a broad watershed teeming with wildlife bear.
His posse became a hunting party where the men were split into 11 pairs, each pair bringing back a bear hide. Wilson dubbed the grassy expanse "Bear Valley" and one of the nearby shallow seasonal marshes "Big Bear Lake"; this same ephemeral feature is today called Baldwin Lake after Elias J. "Lucky" Baldwin of Rancho Santa Anita fame, who bought the nearby Gold Mountain Mine, renamed for him in 1876. On Wilson's return trip, the party took 11 more bear pelts. In 1859, the newly discovered valley became a venue for gold prospectors. William F. Holcomb, a prospector from Indiana, moved to Los Angeles from the Northern California mines where he heard about the prospecting at Big Bear, he moved to Starvation Flats the first winter. Because of his marksmanship, he was hired by several of the other miners to hunt bear for meat. With his Indian companion, Holcomb tracked and wounded a grizzly bear one ridge north of Bear Valley. There he noticed a vein of quartz flecked with gold; when this discovery was revealed, the Southern California gold rush was on, Holcomb Valley became the largest populated area in San Bernardino County.
Old Bear Valley DamIn 1884 marshy, nearly flat Bear Valley was dammed with a single arch granite impoundment, which held back some 25,000 acre feet of water for irrigation purposes in the Redlands area. Redlands citrus; the Bear Valley Mutual Water Company hired John S. Eastwood to design a new dam. In 1912 a 72 ft multiple arch dam was constructed about 300 ft downstream of the old dam and increased the lake capacity to 73,000 acre feet; the original granite dam still remains under about 20 feet of water. A highway bridge was built over the arches of the new dam in 1923. A new bypass bridge was built next to the old bridge in 2009, the old bridge on top of the new dam was removed. Elevation at the surface is 6,750 ft, but this level fluctuates according to annual snowmelt and runoff. Big Bear Municipal Water District acquired the dam and other assets from the Mutual Water Company in 1977; the unregulated hunting of grizzly bear in the San Bernardinos took a heavy toll upon the once significant native population, by 1906 all the local Ursus californicus were killed off.
Tourism began with the onset of the automobile and the eventual establishment of highways accessing the remote area. Hollywood soon discovered Big Bear, several movies westerns, have been filmed in the region. Big Bear Lake is geophysically defined by its South Shore. Big Bear Boulevard follows the South Shore and leads into the Big Bear Valley as a continuation of Highway 18. Big Bear Boulevard winds east through Papoose Bay, Boulder Bay and Metcalf Bay leads directly east to the city of Big Bear Lake. At a point called The Village, the road turns toward the lake and curves eastward to Moonridge, the ski resorts at Snow Summit and Bear Mountain, Stanfield Cutoff, a causeway located near the east end of the lake. Big Bear Boulevard continues east into Big Bear City, an unincorporated community despite its name. Bear Creek and Siberia Creek flow into the lake and Bear Creek flows out of the lake, traveling about 9 miles southwest
The 68th Division was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Cypress Division, it was formed on 2 February 1942 in Jiujiang city as a class C division with the 69th and 70th divisions. The backbone of security division has consisted of the eight independent infantry battalions, it does not have an artillery regiment; the nucleus for the formation was the 14th Independent mixed brigade. The 68th division has started a garrison duty from April 1942, covering an area of the former 14th Independent mixed brigade; the 68th division took part in the Battle of West Hubei in April 1943. At the end of 1943, it participated in Battle of Changde. In May 1944, the 68th division was assigned to 11th army and has participated in Operation Ichi-Go on the southern flank of the defense of Hengyang. After the end of the offensive, the 68th division was assigned to 20th army and participated in the Battle of West Hunan from April 1945. List of Japanese Infantry Divisions Independent Mixed Brigades This article incorporates material from Japanese Wikipedia page 第68師団, accessed 19 June 2016 Madej, W. Victor.
Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937-1945 Allentown, PA: 1981
Zeynep Çelik-Butler is a Turkish-American Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Nanotechnology Research and Teaching Facility within the College of Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington. There are two distinctly different areas of research within the group. Çelik-Butler received a B. S. in Physics and a B. S. in Physics from Boğaziçi University, Turkey in 1982. Coming to the United States, she received a 1984 M. S. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Rochester, Rochester, NY. in 1984, a Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering in 1987 from Rochester. The research activities in Microelectromechanical Systems started in the early 1990s with the development of new materials for microbolometers for room temperature infrared detection; this work set the foundation for IR detectors on flexible substrates. The group demonstrated the first IR microbolometer array on a polyimide substrate with performance comparable to those on silicon substrates. Based on the success of this IR radiation detector work on flexible substrates, the group expanded to other sensing functionalities like flow, pressure and most acceleration.
Integration of sensors on conformal substrates necessitated the group to initiate die-level encapsulation for flexible device packaging. Today, the group is focusing on multifunctional, conformal sensor arrays with integrated bias, read-out and power capabilities, the so-called SMART SKIN, for aerospace and medical applications; the second thrust area is reliability of nanoelectronic devices. In the early 1980s, as a graduate student under the supervision of Professor Thomas Hsiang, Celik-Butler has developed one of the first 1/f noise theories based on McWhorter Noise Model and applied to Metal-Oxide Field-Effect Transistors. Most the same model has been revised to account for low-frequency noise observed on multi-stack gate MOSFETs high-k dielectric gate oxides; the research group has investigated and developed noise models for polysilicon emitter bipolar transistors, lateral pnp bipolar transistors and sige heterojunction bipolar transistors. One of the contributions of the research group is the demonstration of Random Telegraph Signal noise as a non-destructive characterization and reliability tool in nanoelectronics.
Today, this research thrust area is investigating the effect of extended drain region on noise and reliability of LDMOS structures. Butler is a Fellow of the Institute of Electronics Engineers. Https://web.archive.org/web/20120425093744/http://contact.rice.edu/uploadedFiles/Participants/Zeynep%20Celik-butler_resume.pdf