Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the striking clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London and is extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower. The official name of the tower in which Big Ben is located was the Clock Tower, but it was renamed Elizabeth Tower in 2012 to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II; the tower was designed by Augustus Pugin in a neo-Gothic style. When completed in 1859, its clock was the largest and most accurate four-faced striking and chiming clock in the world; the tower stands 315 feet tall, the climb from ground level to the belfry is 334 steps. Its base is square. Dials of the clock are 23 feet in diameter. On 31 May 2009, celebrations were held to mark the tower's 150th anniversary. Big Ben is the largest of the tower's five bells and weighs 13.5 long tons. It was the largest bell in the United Kingdom for 23 years; the origin of the bell's nickname is open to question. Four quarter bells chime at 15, 30 and 45 minutes past the hour and just before Big Ben tolls on the hour.
The clock uses its original Victorian mechanism. The tower is a British cultural icon recognised all over the world, it is one of the most prominent symbols of the United Kingdom and parliamentary democracy, it is used in the establishing shot of films set in London. The clock tower has been part of a Grade I listed building since 1970 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987. On 21 August 2017, a four-year schedule of renovation works began on the tower, which are to include the addition of a lift. There are plans to re-glaze and repaint the clock dials. With a few exceptions, such as New Year's Eve and Remembrance Sunday, the bells are to be silent until the work is completed in 2021. Elizabeth Tower called the Clock Tower but more popularly known as Big Ben, was raised as a part of Charles Barry's design for a new palace, after the old Palace of Westminster was destroyed by fire on the night of 16 October 1834; the new parliament was built in a neo-gothic style. Although Barry was the chief architect of the palace, he turned to Augustus Pugin for the design of the clock tower, which resembles earlier Pugin designs, including one for Scarisbrick Hall in Lancashire.
The design for the tower was Pugin's last design before his final descent into madness and death, Pugin himself wrote, at the time of Barry's last visit to him to collect the drawings: "I never worked so hard in my life for Mr Barry for tomorrow I render all the designs for finishing his bell tower & it is beautiful." The tower is designed in Pugin's celebrated Gothic Revival style, is 315 feet high. The bottom 200 feet of the tower's structure consists of brickwork with sand-coloured Anston limestone cladding; the remainder of the tower's height is a framed spire of cast iron. The tower is founded on a 50 feet square raft, made of 10 feet thick concrete, at a depth of 13 feet below ground level; the four clock dials are 180 feet above ground. The interior volume of the tower is 164,200 cubic feet. Despite being one of the world's most famous tourist attractions, the interior of the tower is not open to overseas visitors, though United Kingdom residents were able to arrange tours through their Member of Parliament before the current repair works.
However, the tower has no lift, though one is being installed, so those escorted had to climb the 334 limestone stairs to the top. Due to changes in ground conditions since construction, the tower leans to the north-west, by 230 millimetres over 55 m height, giving an inclination of 1⁄240; this includes a planned maximum of 22 mm increased tilt due to tunnelling for the Jubilee line extension. It leans by about 500 millimetres at the finial. Experts believe. Due to thermal effects it oscillates annually by a few millimetres west. Journalists during Queen Victoria's reign called it St Stephen's Tower; as MPs sat at St Stephen's Hall, these journalists referred to anything related to the House of Commons as news from "St. Stephens"; the usage persists in Welsh, where the Westminster district, Parliament by extension, is known as San Steffan. On 2 June 2012, The Daily Telegraph reported that 331 Members of Parliament, including senior members of all three main parties, supported a proposal to change the name from Clock Tower to Elizabeth Tower in tribute to Queen Elizabeth II in her diamond jubilee year.
This was thought to be appropriate because the large west tower now known as Victoria Tower was renamed in tribute to Queen Victoria on her diamond jubilee. On 26 June 2012, the House of Commons confirmed; the Prime Minister, David Cameron, announced the change of name on 12 September 2012 at the start of Prime Minister's Questions. The change was marked by a naming ceremony in which the Speaker of the House of Commons, John Bercow, unveiled a name plaque attached to the tower on the adjoining Speaker's Green; the clock and dials were designed by Augustus Pugin. The clock dials are set in an iron frame 23 feet in diameter, supporting 312 pieces of opal glass, rather like a stained-glass window; some of the glass pieces may be removed for inspection of the hands. The surround of the dials is gilded. At the base of each clock dial in
Nikolai Dmitrievich Kashirin was a Soviet Komandarm 2nd rank. He fought for the Imperial Russian Army in World War I, receiving the Order of Saint Vladimir and the Order of Saint Anna, he was a recipient of the Order of the Red Banner. He was one of the judges at the trial of Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky in the Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization in June 1937. Kashirin was himself arrested on 19 August 1937 and executed, his younger brother, was arrested on 20/21 June 1937 and executed on 20 September 1937. Краснознамённый Киевский. Очерки истории Краснознамённого Киевского военного округа. Издание второе, исправленное и дополненное. Киев, издательство политической литературы Украины. 1979. Апрелков А.В. Командарм 2-го ранга Н.Д. Каширин//«Военно-исторический журнал», 1988, № 2. - Стр.48-52. Семья Кашириных Каширин Николай Дмитриевич. Биография Каширин Николай Дмитриевич. Уральская историческая энциклопедия. Глава «Отпор» из книги «Революция защищается» Николай Каширин в списке лиц награждённых Орденом Красного Знамени и почётным революционным оружием "Блюхер".
Belschool8.narod.ru. Retrieved 2017-03-03. Http://rkka.ru/cavalry/30/007_kd.html 7 кавалерийская Самарская Краснознаменная дивизия имени Английского пролетариата Акулинин И. Г. Оренбургское казачье войско в борьбе с большевиками
Poor Aim: Love Songs is an EP by The Blow released in 2004 by States Rights Records/Slender Means Society. It was re-released in 2007 by K Records with remixed bonus tracks. Exclaim! gave the album a positive review, calling it "Nintendo music intended for dancing, or folk singer songs remixed by an electro pop-loving hipster." They praised the final track on the re-release, "We Are Over Here". "Hey Boy" "The Sky Opened Wide Like the Tide" "Knowing the Things That I Know" "Let's Play Boys Chase Girls" "The Love That I Crave" "Hock It" "Come on Petunia"All tracks were written by Jona Bechtolt and Khaela Maricich, except "The Sky Opened Wide Like the Tide", written by Bechtolt and Anna Oxygen. The refrain and part of the lyric from "Come on Petunia" was taken from "Every Little Thing She Does Is Magic", a song written by Sting of The Police