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Big Brother and the Holding Company

Big Brother and the Holding Company is an American rock band that formed in San Francisco in 1965 as part of the same psychedelic music scene that produced the Grateful Dead, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Jefferson Airplane. They are best known as the band, their 1968 album Cheap Thrills is considered one of the masterpieces of the psychedelic sound of San Francisco. The album is included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. Leader Peter Albin, a country-blues guitarist who had played with future Grateful Dead founders Jerry Garcia and Ron McKernan, met Sam Andrew, a professional rock guitarist with a jazz and classical background. After playing together at Albin's home, Andrew suggested; the pair approached guitarist James Gurley, the resulting threesome playing open jam sessions hosted by entrepreneur Chet Helms in 1965. Helms found them a drummer, Chuck Jones, Big Brother and the Holding Company was formed at their first gig, the Trips Festival in January 1966. In the audience was painter and jazz drummer David Getz, who soon displaced Jones.

Big Brother went on to become the house band at the Avalon Ballroom, playing a progressive style of instrumental rock. Feeling a need for a strong vocalist, Helms contacted Janis Joplin, who at the time was considering joining up with Roky Erickson of The 13th Floor Elevators, she traveled to San Francisco from Austin and debuted with Big Brother at the Avalon on June 10, 1966. Joplin sang for the first time with Big Brother in 1966. Years Andrew described the band's first impressions of her: We were the established rock and roll band. We were heavy. We were like: all right, out of three or four bands in this city, we are one of them. We're in the newspapers all the time. We're working out. We are doing this woman a favor to let her come and sing with us, she came in and she was dressed like a little Texan. She didn't look like a hippie, she looked like my mother, from Texas, she sang real well but it wasn't like, "Oh we're bowled over." It was more like, our sound was loud. It was bowling her over.

I am sure. She wrote letters home about; the names of the bands. That kind of thing. In other words, we weren't flattened by her and she wasn't flattened by us, it was a pretty equal meeting. She was a real intelligent, Janis was, she always rose to the occasion, she sang the songs. It wasn't like this moment of revelation. Like in a movie or something, it wasn't like. We have got Janis Joplin." I mean she was good but she had to learn how to do that. It took her about a year to learn how to sing with an electric band, it took a while for some of the band's followers to accept the new singer. Her music was different from that which Big Brother was playing at that time. Big Brother had a experimental and unconventional sound, but with Joplin, they became more disciplined musicians, their songs adopted a more traditional structure, the band started to increase its popularity in the San Francisco psychedelic scene. In September 1966, the band was stranded in Chicago after finishing a gig there at a venue called Mother Blues located on Wells Street.

The venue's owner paid them for two weeks' worth of their concerts but could not pay them enough money for them to buy plane tickets to San Francisco. Big Brother signed a contract with Mainstream Records, they recorded four of the songs for the album Big Brother & the Holding Company The remainder of the record was recorded in Los Angeles on December 12–14. Mainstream was known for its jazz records, Big Brother was the first rock band to appear on the label; this may have influenced the final result, since the album sounded different from what the band expected: acoustic and folk instead of heavy acid rock. The first single released was "Blind Man" b/w "All Is Loneliness," both from the album sessions, in July 1967, it did not garner much national attention. A second single, "Down on Me" b/w "Call On Me" was released along with their self-titled debut album in August 1967, following the band's national success after the Monterey Pop Festival; the album debuted on Billboard charts on September 2, 1967, peaking at No. 60.

It stayed on the charts for a total of 30 weeks. The Pop Chronicles criticized the record as difficult to find and "technically disappointing". "Down On Me" had a long gestation in the marketplace and debuted on the Billboard Hot 100 chart on August 31, 1968, peaking at No. 43. It stayed on the charts for 8 weeks. Other singles from the album were released through the end of 1967 and in 1968. One final Mainstream single, "Coo Coo" b/w "The Last Time," was released in November, 1968; these last songs were from the original 1966 album sessions, but were not included on the LP until Columbia acquired all of the band's Mainstream recordings and reissued the album in the 1970s. In the summer of 1966, the band members moved to Lagunitas, in Marin County, California, to a house, built by the ethnologist Clinton Hart Merriam, they lived in there until the beginning of 1967 at which time they put an ad in the San Francisco Oracle with the apparent intention of moving back to the "City". The ad read: "Big Brother is returning to the city.

Need rehearsal hall and a place to live. Write to B. B.& the H. C. at Box 94 Lagunitas." One of the band's earliest major performances in 1967 was the Mantra-Rock Dance—a musical event held on January 29, 1967, at the Avalon Ballroom by t

Simon Lewis (public relations officer)

Simon Lewis OBE is the chief executive of the Association for Financial Markets in Europe. He was Director of Communications for the former Labour Prime Minister Gordon Brown, he held this position for the Queen and Centrica. He attended Whitefield School before studying PPE at Oxford. Lewis was appointed an OBE in the 2014 New Year Honours List for public service and services to international education through the Fulbright Commission, his brother is Will Lewis. Lewis has held down a number of positions. September 2010 Chief executive of the Association for Financial Markets in Europe 2009 Downing Street Director of Communications 2004 Group director of corporate affairs, Vodafone 2004 Director of comms and public policy, Centrica 2000 MD Europe, Centrica 1998 Communications secretary to The Queen 1996 Director of corporate affairs, British Gas/Centrica 1992 Director of corporate affairs, NatWest 1987 Head of PR, SG Warburg & Co 1986 Head of PR, Social Democratic Party

Diego Hidalgo Schnur

Diego Hidalgo Schnur is a Spanish philanthropist and businessman. He is the son of Diego Hidalgo y Durán, a prominent jurist, author and Minister of War under the Second Spanish Republic, of Gerda Schnur de Hidalgo an intellectual who lived in Paris from 1926 and 1939, he speaks several languages, is fluent in Spanish, English. Born in Madrid on 5 November 1942, he studied Law in the Complutense University of Madrid and obtained a Master in Business administration from Harvard, he was a PhD candidate in Political Sciences in the City University of New York. Hidalgo worked at the World Bank from 1968 to 1977 where he was upgraded and in 1974 became Chief of Division, with responsibilities over the projects of the World Bank in the 45 Sub-Saharan African countries, he was the first Spaniard occupying that position. He is the founder of FRIDA and President of DFC, from 1977, he took part in the foundation of PRISA, the main Spanish media group and one of the most important in Spanish. He sits on the board of PRISA, as well as the daily El Pais since 1980 and the radio channel Cadena SER since 1984.

He took part in the administration of several publishing houses and magazines. In 1994, he was selected in the Fellow's Program of Weatherhead Center for International Affairs of Harvard University, where between 1996 and 1999 he was Senior Associate of the European Studies Center. In 2009 he was the winner of the Commitment to Development “Ideas in Action” Award of the Center for Global Development, he is the founder and presently honorary president of FRIDE, of the Club of Madrid, an association of more than seventy former democratically elected heads of State and Government, the CITPax and the Fundacio Maimona. He is the Chairman of the Board for DARA and Concordia 21, he is a founding member and senior fellow of the Gorbachev Foundation of North America, an active member of the Club of Rome and its council of Governors. He has published books as El futuro de españa Taurus 1996, in the top 10 best sellers in Spain during 23 weeks and Europa, Globalización y Unión Monetaria Siddarth Mehta, 1998

Pierre-Paul River

The Pierre-Paul River flows into the Mékinac Regional County Municipality, in the administrative area of the Mauricie, in the province of Quebec, through these three municipalities of the Batiscanie: Saint-Tite, Sainte-Thècle and Saint-Adelphe. This river flowing over 14 kilometres rooted at the mouth of Pierre-Paul Lake, located in Rang Saint-Pierre, in the eastern part of the territory of Saint-Tite; because sometimes mountainous terrain, the main course of the river described a big "Z" through a predominantly agricultural land. From its source, the river flows through the "road Pierre-Paul" and headed straight north across four lots in row St-Thomas situated in the territory of Saint-Tite continuous in Sainte-Thècle, draining 10 lots in row St-Thomas, where it crosses the first time the road Charest. At around 2.5 kilometres from its source, the river is a small prank on two lots in row St-George in Sainte-Thècle. Pierre-Paul river receives water from most largest tributaries of the row St-George, including Gagnon creek that empties into the river Pierre-Paul on the lot 351-116 of rang St-Thomas.

The second segment of its course is in a straight line and flows on 6.4 kilometres. Pierre-Paul river bifurcates in rang St-George to 160 degrees to the right to head straight south. In this segment of its course, the river flow back into row St-Thomas where it crosses again the road Charest and crossing in diagonal six lots, its path crosses the limit of Saint-Adelphe and cut nine lots of row St-Emile. The river is only 1.6 kilometres from its source. The river continues to flow on six lots in row St-Pierre, before making a small prank on three lots in the 4th row Northeast Rivière des Envies. With its tributaries streams, Pierre-Paul River receives the waters of 4th row Northeast Rivière des Envies and a small area of northern territory of Saint Séverin; the third segment of the route is along 3.4 kilometres. Pierre-Paul river branches off into Saint-Tite on 120 degrees to the left to go straight north through four lots in the row St-Pierre Saint-Adelphe, it course cut some lots of the Southwest of the Batiscan River.

In the end of course, the river makes a few curves before throwing in the Batiscan River, up to the village of Saint-Adelphe. In 1925, the municipality built a new covered bridge on Pierre-Paul River at its mouth, the current road 352. At the end of the 19th and early 20th Century, Pierre-Paul River was used in the spring for timber transport by flotation this which involved activities loggers or "cageux". In spring 1872, Felix Lafontaine and his men (Edward Methot, Irvine Johnson, Alfred Buist, Pierre Bordeau, Pierre Lafontaine and Georges Thiffeau were down logs in-beyond the causeway on the small river and owned by Price Brothers. On May 9, 1872, these men were arrested and accused of taking possession of the road May 9, 1872 the Constitutional. At the end of the 19th century, an ice road was laid from December to March on Pierre-Paul River to flow more to woodlots or to Saint-Tite before the land routes were fit for wheeled freight vehicles to cross the streams. Close to its mouth, the bridge of the route 352 crosses Pierre-Paul river at the village.

The creek "Piché" drains much of the farmland in row St-Thomas of Sainte-Thècle cutting perpendicularly twenty lots on about 5 kilometres up to Rompré road designated route 352. The crossing of creek Piché and route 352 marks the boundary between the two municipalities. On its path in row St-Thomas, creek Piché has collected the waters of two small tributaries that drain two areas of southeastern row Saint-Georges. After the foundation of Sainte-Thècle, the settlers built a forestry road in this area in order to connect Sainte-Thècle to Batiscan river; this forestry road was necessary for logging industry, to more reach Saint-Stanislas and allow the priest of Sainte-Thècle to make the trip for serving families of the futur Saint-Adelphe parish. This road was hardly suitable in summer for wagon until the 19th Century; the overflow of the creek Piché blocked temporarily the road every spring, preventing them from circulating. From the Rompré road, this small stream is called "Arm of Pierre-Paul River".

This river flows south crossing on 3 kilometres 11 farm lots in row St-Émile in Saint-Adelphe up to the bridge of St-Emile road. From this bridge, this small river flows in a more sinuous path on 2.3 kilometres by water in the Southwest Batiscan River row and empties into the Pierre-Paul River. There is about 0.6 kilometres by water from the mouth of the "Arm of Pierre-Paul river" and the mouth of "Pierre-Paul river", which flows into the Batiscan river at the level of the village of Saint-Adelphe. Native Americans artifacts in row St-Thomas Long before the arrival of the first French-Canadian settlers, Native Americans were present in the Saint-Thomas row in Sainte-Thècle. In the 1970s, Emile Tessier, found some Native American artifacts on lots 351-107 and 351-108 of St-Thomas row, which he has owned from 1949 to 1981; these artifacts dated from the "prehistoric archaic" period were cut and polished stones, a

I Malavoglia

I Malavoglia is the best known novel by Giovanni Verga. It was first printed in 1881. An English edition, The House by the Medlar-Tree, translated by Mary A. Craig, was published in the Continental Classics series; this work belongs to the Ciclo dei vinti, together with Mastro-don Gesualdo, La Duchessa di Leyra, L'Onorevole Scipioni and L'uomo di lusso, works which deal with the problem of social and economical advancement. La Duchessa de Leyra remained only a draft, while the last two novels planned for the Ciclo, L'Onorevole Scipioni and L'Uomo di Lusso, were not started. I Malavoglia deals with a family of fishermen who work and live in Aci Trezza, a small Sicilian village near Catania; the novel possesses a choral aspect, depicts characters united by the same culture, but divided by ancient rivalries. Verga adopts the impersonality technique, reproducing some features of the dialect and adapting himself to the point of view of the characters. In doing so, he renounces the customary mediation of the narrator.

A film, based on the story of I Malavoglia, La Terra Trema, was directed by Luchino Visconti in 1948. In the book by Silvia Iannello Le immagini e le parole dei Malavoglia the author selects some passages of the Verga novel I Malavoglia, adds original comments and Acitrezza's photographic images, devotes a chapter to the origins and frames taken from the film La terra trema. In the village of Aci Trezza in the Province of Catania lives the Toscano family, although hardworking, has been nicknamed the Malavoglia; the head of the family is Padron Ntoni, a widower, who lives at the house by the medlar tree with his son Bastian, the wife of the latter called Maria. Bastian has five children: Ntoni, Filomena and Rosalia; the main source of income is la Provvidenza, a small fishing boat. In 1863, the eldest of the children, leaves for the military service. To try to make up for the loss of income which his absence will cause, Padron Ntoni attempts a business venture and buys a large amount of lupins.

The load is entrusted to his son Bastianazzo, the plan being to sell them in Riposto to make a profit. However and the merchandise are tragically lost during a storm. Following this misfortune, the family finds themselves with a triple misfortune: the debt caused by the lupins which were bought on credit, the Providence to repair, the loss of Bastianazzo, an important and loved member of the family. Having finished his military service, Ntoni returns to the laborious life of his family reluctantly, having seen the riches and splendour outside his small village, does not represent any support to the precarious economic situation of his family; the family’s misfortunes are far from over. Luca, one of Padron Ntoni’s grandsons, dies at the battle of Lissa, which leads to the breaking off of the betrothal of Mena to Brasi Cipolla; the debt from the lupin venture causes the family to lose their beloved “Casa del Nespolo” – the house by the medlar tree, the reputation of the family worsens until they reach humiliating levels of poverty.

A further wreck of the Providence leaves Padron Ntoni near death, although he manages to recover. Maruzza, his daughter-in-law, dies of cholera; the firstborn, decides to go away from the village to seek his fortune, only to return destitute. He loses any desire to work; the departure of Ntoni had forced the family to sell the Providence to get the money needed to get back the Casa del Nespolo, which had never been forgotten. The mistress of the osteria, coveted by the sharkish Don Michele, becomes infatuated with Ntoni, serving him for free in the tavern; the conduct of Ntoni and the lamentations of her father convince her to turn her emotions from him, to return to Don Michele. This leads to a brawl between the two. Ntoni ends up in prison. At his trial, after hearing rumours about a relationship between Don Michele and his granddaughter Lia, Padron Ntoni passes out and falls to the ground. Now old, his conversation is disjointed and he recites his proverbs without much awareness of what is going on.

Lia, the younger sister, becomes the victim of vicious village gossip, runs away and becomes a prostitute. Mena, because of the shameful situation of her sister, feels that she cannot marry Alfio though they love each other, instead remains at home to care for Alessi and Nunziata’s children. Alessi, the youngest of the brothers, has remained a fisherman and with hard work manages to rebuild the family fortunes to the point at which they can repurchase the house by the medlar tree. Having bought the house, what is left of the family visits the hospital where the old Padron Ntoni is being kept, to inform him of the good news and to announce his imminent return home, it is the last moment of happiness for the old man. His desire to die in the house where was born is never granted; when Ntoni is released from prison and comes back to the village, he realises that he cannot stay because of all that he has done. He has excluded himself from his family by systematically denouncing their values; the house by the Medlar Tree at Internet Archive

Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466)

The Thirteen Years' War called the War of the Cities, was a conflict fought in 1454–1466 between the Prussian Confederation, allied with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, the State of the Teutonic Order. The war began as an uprising by Prussian cities and local nobility to win independence from the Teutonic Knights. In 1454 Casimir IV married Elisabeth of Habsburg and the Prussian Confederation asked Poland's King Casimir IV Jagiellon for help and offered to accept the king as protector instead of the Teutonic Order; when the King assented, war broke out between supporters of the Prussian Confederation, backed by Poland, backers of government by the Teutonic Knights. The Thirteen Years' War ended in the victory of the Prussian Confederation and Poland and in the Second Peace of Thorn; this was soon followed by the War of the Priests, a drawn-out dispute over the independence of the Prussian Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, in which the Knights sought revision of the Peace of Thorn. A dispute between Poland and the Teutonic Order over control of Gdańsk Pomerania had lasted since the 1308 Teutonic takeover of Danzig, when the territory was contested and annexed by the Teutonic Order.

This event resulted in a series of Polish–Teutonic Wars throughout the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 15th century, the towns of Prussia grew economically. However, this was not followed by an increase in their political influence; the rule of the Teutonic Knights was seen as more and more anachronistic — taxes and the system of grain licenses were hindering economic development in the province. At the same time the nobility wanted a larger say in the running of the country and were looking enviously at neighbouring Poland, where the Polish nobility enjoyed wider privileges; the Knights were accused of violating the few existing privileges of the nobility and the cities. Craftsmen were discontented because of competition from so-called partacze, or artisans settled by the Knights near their castles. Kashubians, Poles and Prussians were melting into one nation, as national differences disappeared, the common goals of all the ethnic and social groups of Prussia became more prominent, the Prussian estates leaned towards Poland.

In 1397 Prussian knights had founded a secret organisation called the Eidechsenbund, more or less against the Teutonic Knights, but that organization had failed as it was not supported by the urban population. After the victory by the Polish and Lithuanian forces at Grünfelde near Tannenberg during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, the Prussian estates eagerly pledged allegiance to King Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland, but they returned to the order's rule after the Poles were unable to conquer Marienburg. A clause in the peace treaty stated that it was guaranteed by the Prussian states, which would gain the right to defy the Teutonic Order if it broke the treaty. In the succeeding wars the Prussian estates opposed any conflict, pushed the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights to make peace. On February 21, 1440, a group made up of individuals from the Prussian cities and clergy, formed the Prussian Confederation; the main contributors were from the nobility of Culmerland, Thorn and from the Hanseatic cities of Elbing and Danzig.

Grand Master Paul von Rusdorf was seen to approve the existence of the confederacy, but his successor, Konrad von Erlichshausen, opposed it. His non-compromising policy was followed and intensified by Ludwig von Erlichshausen who took that office in 1449 or 1450. In 1452, the Prussian Confederation asked Emperor Frederick III for mediation in their conflict with the Teutonic Order. Disagreeing with the confederacy, Frederick banned it and ordered it to obey the Teutonic Order on 5 December 1453. Faced with that situation the Prussians sent envoys to Poland — although the Prussian Confederation, under the influence of Thorn and the Pomeranian and Culmerland nobility, had sought contact with the Poles, they received support from Greater Poland and from the party of Queen Sophia of Halshany, mother of King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland. The Bishop of Kraków, Zbigniew Oleśnicki, tried to prevent war. In January 1454, the year that Casimir IV was married to Elisabeth Habsburg, the Prussian faction asked Casimir IV and protection by the Kingdom of Poland.

Casimir asked the Prussian Confederation for a more formal petition. On 4 February 1454, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederation sent a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. Two days the confederacy started its rebellion and soon all Prussia, except for Marienburg and Konitz, were free from Teutonic rule. Most of the captured Ordensburg castles were destroyed. On 10 February 1454, the confederacy sent an official delegation to Poland, headed by Johannes von Baysen. By 20 February, the delegates were in Kraków and asked Casimir to bring Prussia into the Polish kingdom. After negotiating the exact conditions of incorporation, the king agreed and delegates of the Prussian Confederation pledged allegiance to Casimir on 6 March 1454. On the same day, the king agreed to all the conditions of the Prussian delegates — for instance Thorn demanded the destruction of the Polish city of Nieszawa — giving wide privileges to the Prussian cities and nobility. Three days Johannes von Baysen was named as the first governor of Prussia.

After 15 April, most of the Prussian estates, with the exception