The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Westslope cutthroat trout
The westslope cutthroat trout known as the black-spotted trout, common cutthroat trout and red-throated trout is a subspecies of the cutthroat trout and is a freshwater fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. The cutthroat is the Montana state fish; this subspecies is a species of concern in its Montana and British Columbia ranges and is considered threatened in its native range in Alberta. The scientific name of the westslope cutthroat trout is Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi; the subspecies was first described in the journals of explorer William Clark from specimens obtained during the Lewis and Clark Expedition from the Missouri River near Great Falls, Montana. Cutthroat trout were given the name Salmo clarki in honor of William Clark, who co-led the expedition of 1804–1806. One of Lewis and Clark's missions was to describe the flora and fauna encountered during the expedition; the type specimen of S. clarki was described by naturalist John Richardson in 1836 from a tributary of the lower Columbia River, identified as the "Katpootl", the Lewis River as there was a Multnomah village of similar name at the confluence.
This type specimen was most the coastal cutthroat subspecies. In 1853, naturalist George Suckley while working for the Pacific Railroad Survey led by Isaac Stevens collected specimens of westslope cutthroat trout by fly fishing below the Great Falls on the Missouri River. In 1856, he described the trout as Salar lewisi to honor explorer Meriwether Lewis. In David Starr Jordan and Barton Warren Evermann's A Check-list of the Fishes and Fishlike Vertebrates of North and Middle America, the name Salmo mykiss lewisi was given to Yellowstone trout or cut-throat trout and included a reference to specimens collected from the Missouri River by George Suckley. In 1898, Jordan and Evermann changed the name of cutthroat trout to Salmo clarki. Salmo clarki lewisi persisted as the subspecies name for both the Yellowstone cutthroat and westslope cutthroat trout until 1971 when fisheries biologist Robert J. Behnke gave the name Salmo clarki bouvieri to the Yellowstone cutthroat with Salmo clarki lewisi reserved for the westslope cutthroat trout.
In 1989, morphological and genetic studies indicated trout of the Pacific basin were genetically closer to Pacific salmon than to the Salmos–brown trout or Atlantic salmon of the Atlantic basin. Thus, in 1989, taxonomic authorities moved the rainbow and other Pacific basin trout into the genus Oncorhynchus; the fish has teeth under its tongue, on the roof of the mouth, in the front of the mouth. Westslope cutthroat are common in stream environments, they feed on insects and zooplankton. The average length of the fish is about 8-12 inches and exceeds 18 inches; the skin has small dark freckle-like spots clustered towards the tail, is orange-hued. They can be distinguished from rainbow trout by the pink, or orange marking beneath the jaw. Westslope cutthroat trout are native in northern Idaho's and British Columbia's upper Columbia River system and northern tributaries of the Snake River, but not the Snake River's main stem to the south. East of the Continental Divide in Alberta and Montana, westslope cutthroat trout are native to the upper Missouri and North Saskatchewan rivers, but not the Yellowstone River to the south.
In Montana, the historic range extended east to the mouth of the Judith River and south into the Madison and Jefferson river systems. Isolated populations of westslope cutthroat trout exist in upper tributaries of the John Day River in the Strawberry Mountains of Oregon and Columbia River tributaries along the eastern side of the Cascade range in Washington. Isolated populations exist in the Fraser River basin in British Columbia. Existing populations of genetically pure westslope cutthroat trout exist in less than three percent of its historic range. Westslope cutthroat trout reflect three life strategies -- fluvial, or stream resident. Adfluvial fish live in the large lakes in the upper Columbia River drainage and spawn in lake tributaries. Fluvial fish migrate to tributaries for spawning. Most adults return to the lake after spawning. Stream resident fish complete their entire life in tributaries. All three forms occur in most basins. Genetically pure westslope cutthroat trout have been extirpated throughout most of their historic range due to habitat loss and introduction of non-native species.
Remaining populations survive in isolated populations in headwater streams above natural downstream barriers. The introduction of rainbow and brown trout into Missouri River tributaries eliminated the westslope cutthroat trout from most of its eastern range in Montana. Introductions of non-native kokanee salmon, lake trout and lake whitefish into Flathead Lake and the Flathead River system caused drastic declines in westslope cutthroat trout populations. Existing populations are in imminent danger from land-use activities and hybridization with introduced rainbow trout and Yellowstone cutthroat trout; the strongest populations in Glacier National Park and the Flathead Basin of Montana are in serious decline. Reasons for the critical condition of the subspecies include habitat destruction from logging, road building, mining, urban development and dams, introduction of non-native hatchery strains and hybridization from introduced non-native fish species. Trotter, Patrick C.. Cutthroat: Native Trout of the West.
Berkeley, CA: Unive
George F. Grant
George F. Grant was an American angler and conservationist from Butte, Montana, he was active for many years on the Big Hole River. George F. Grant began an innovative style of fly tying in the early 1930s, patented a unique method in 1939. Grant's method for weaving hackles is distinct from that of Francis Potts. Grant was one of the first anglers to realize that large trout fed beneath the surface on nymphs, that one needed to imitate and learn to fish this insect-stage if one wanted to catch large trout. Grant's nymphs imitated large stoneflies such as the giant salmonfly, which grows up to two inches in length. In 1973, the Federation of Fly Fishers awarded Grant the Buz Buszek Memorial Award-an award plaque presented annually to that person who has made significant contributions to the arts of fly tying. In 1947, Grant married Annabell Thomson, opened his own tackle shop that same year. Grant's Fly Shop was in operation until 1951. Shortly after closing his shop, he began working for Treasure State Sporting Goods.
Throughout those years and his wife Annabell enjoyed spending time wading the Big Hole River, Grant proud that his "dyed in the wool tomboy" wife could fly cast like a pro. In 1967 Grant retired, lived summers on the Big Hole River, fished nearly every day, began writing. Grant edited the newsletter River Rat for Montana Trout Unlimited, writing many of the articles himself, he wrote many essays published in local newspapers. In addition to Grant's conservation work on the Big Hole, he campaigned in the mid-1970s for the cleanup of the Clark Fork River, polluted by the Anaconda Copper Mining Corporation's mining and smelting activities in the Butte-Anaconda region; this was long before the creation of the Superfund Law and during a time when the Clark Fork River was devoid of aquatic life for 120 miles from its headwaters near Butte to its confluence with the Blackfoot River, near Missoula. Grant fished the Big Hole River of southwest Montana, near his hometown of Butte, his dedication to this river led him to become an active conservationist.
Grant led an effort to defeat the Bureau of Reclamation's proposed "Reichle Dam" from 1965 to 1967. Grant's leadership involved the national organization Trout Unlimited in its first major conservation battle. Today, the 150-mile long Big Hole River is one of America's last free-flowing rivers. While George is most noted for his fly tying and conservation efforts - one of his greatest contributions was supporting his sister, Marcella Pitts, raising his nephew, Francis C. Johnson. Fran opened Fran Johnson's Sport Shop in Butte Montana in 1965, operated it until his death in 1985. George, Marcella and his younger brother Howie, lived on the Big Hole River near Dewey during the Depression. George and Fran operated a small Fly and Tackle shop named Trout Shop, located in West Yellowstone, in the years following WWII. Grant established the River Rat Chapter of Trout Unlimited in 1972, his political leadership through this group and Montana Trout Unlimited led to passage of the Montana Streambed Protection Act in 1975.
Grant helped promote early efforts to insure anglers public access to streams and rivers, which in 1985 culminated in the Montana Stream Access Law. This local Montana Trout Unlimited group is now called the George Grant Chapter. In 1988 Grant established the Big Hole Foundation to focus conservation efforts on the river he had saved through his earlier conservation activities. Grant funded the organization's start-up through the sale of his split cane rod collection, his angling book collection, through donations solicited from a nationwide cohort of supporters. Grant's contributions were recognized in a public television film documentary made by the Montana Department of Fish and Parks titled Three Men, Three Rivers in 1988; this video is a source for instructors in the Boy Scouts of America Fly Fishing Merit Badge. Grant authored two books: Master Fly Weaver. Montana Trout Flies. A collection of Grant's newspaper essays was published as Grant's Riffle. Grant's personal papers from 1973-1985 are held by the Trout & Salmonid Collection at Montana State University in the Merrill G. Burlingame Special Collections Library, Montana State University Library, Montana.
Pat Munday, George Grant and the Conservation of the Big Hole River Watershed Montana: The Magazine of Western History: 20-37. George F. Grant, ed; the Upper Clark Fork River, a special edition of the River Rat. Bill Rooney review of Three Rivers in American Forests. Wilkinson, Todd. "Dan Bailey". In Wetmore, Jeff. Flylines-The Best of Big Sky Journal Fishing. Bozeman, Mt: Bangtail Press. ISBN 0-9653336-5-5. Valla, Mike. "George F. Grant"; the Founding Flies-43 American Masters Their Influences. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. Pp. 210–216. ISBN 9780811708333. Grant, George. "Montana Odyessy". The American Fly Fisher. Manchester, VT: American Museum of Fly Fishing. 8: 24–27. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2014-11-20. Grant, George. "Bunyan Bugs". The American Fly Fisher. Manchester, VT: American Museum of Fly Fishing. 8: 12–14. Archived from the original on 2014-11-29. Retrieved 2014-11-20. Montana The Magazine of Western History. Scott Sanchez, Living a legacy of conservation and hair-hackle flies Lefty's World George F. Grant, An Old Angler Talks About The Clark Fork
Nez Perce people
The Nez Perce are an Indigenous people of the Plateau who have lived on the Columbia River Plateau in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States for a long time. Members of the Sahaptin language group, the Niimíipuu were the dominant people of the Columbia Plateau for much of that time after acquiring the horses that led them to breed the appaloosa horse in the 18th century. Prior to "first contact" with Western civilization the Nimiipuu were economically and culturally influential in trade and war, interacting with other indigenous nations in a vast network from the western shores of Oregon and Washington, the high plains of Montana, the northern Great Basin in southern Idaho and northern Nevada. After first contact, the name "Nez Perce" was given to the Niimíipuu and the nearby Chinook people by French explorers and trappers; the name means "pierced nose", but only the Chinook used that form of decoration. Today they are a federally recognized tribe, the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho, govern their Indian reservation in Idaho through a central government headquartered in Lapwai, Idaho known as the Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee.
They are one of five federally recognized tribes in the state of Idaho. Some still speak their traditional language, the Tribe owns and operates two casinos along the Clearwater River in Idaho in Kamiah and outside of Lewiston, health clinics, a police force and court, community centers, salmon fisheries, radio station, other things that promote economic and cultural self-determination. Cut off from most of their horticultural sites throughout the Camas Prairie by an 1863 treaty, confinement to reservations in Idaho and Oklahoma Indian Territory after the Nez Perce War of 1877, Dawes Act of 1887 land allotments, the Nez Perce remain as a distinct culture and political economic influence within and outside their reservation. Today, hatching and eating salmon is an important cultural and economic strength of the Nez Perce through full ownership or co-management of various salmon fish hatcheries, such as the Kooskia National Fish Hatchery in Kooskia, Idaho or the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Orofino, Idaho.
Their name for themselves is Nimíipuu, meaning, "The People", in their language, part of the Sahaptin family. Nez Percé is an exonym given by French Canadian fur traders who visited the area in the late 18th century, meaning "pierced nose". English-speaking traders and settlers adopted the name in turn. Since the late 20th century, the Nez Perce identify most as Niimíipuu in Sahaptin; the Lakota/ Dakota named them the Watopala, or Canoe people, from Watopa. However, after Nez Perce became a more common name, they changed it to Watopahlute; this comes from pahlute, nasal passage and is a play on words. If translated it would come out as either "Nasal Passage of the Canoe" or "Nasal Passage of the Grass"; the tribe uses the term "Nez Perce", as does the United States Government in its official dealings with them, contemporary historians. Older historical ethnological works and documents use the French spelling of Nez Percé, with the diacritic; the original French pronunciation is, with three syllables.
The interpreter of the Lewis and Clark Expedition mistakenly identified this people as the Nez Perce when the team encountered the tribe in 1805. Writing in 1889, anthropologist Alice Fletcher, who the U. S. government had sent to Idaho to allot the Nez Perce Reservation, explained the mistaken naming. She wrote, It is never easy to come at the name of an Indian or of an Indian tribe. A tribe has always at least two names. All the tribes living west of the Rocky Mountains were called "Chupnit-pa-lu", which means people of the pierced noses; the tribes on the Columbia river used to pierce the nose and wear in it some ornament as you have seen some old fashioned white ladies wear in their ears. Lewis and Clark had with them an interpreter whose wife was a Shoshone or Snake woman and so it came about that when it was asked "What Indians are these?" the answer was "They are'Chupnit-pa-lu'" and it was written down in the journal. In his journals, William Clark referred to the people as the Chopunnish, a transliteration of a Sahaptin term.
According to D. E. Walker in 1998, writing for the Smithsonian, this term is an adaptation of the term cú·pŉitpeľu; the term is formed from cú · peľu. By contrast, the Nez Perce Language Dictionary has a different analysis than did Walker for the term cúpnitpelu; the prefix cú- means "in single file". This prefix, combined with the verb -piní, "to come out". With the suffix of -pelú, meaning "people or inhabitants of". Together, these three elements: cú- + -piní + pelú = cúpnitpelu, or "the People Walking Single File Out of the Forest". Nez Perce oral tradition indicates the name "Cuupn'itpel'uu" meant "we walked out of the woods or walked out of the mountains" and referred to the time before the Nez Perce had horses; the Nez Perce language, or Niimiipuutímt, is a Sahaptian language related to the several dialects of Sahaptin. The Sahaptian sub-family is one of the branches of the Plateau Penutian family, which in turn may be related to a larger Penutian g
The Beaverhead River is an 69-mile-long tributary of the Jefferson River in southwest Montana. It drains an area of 4,778 square miles; the river's original headwaters, formed by the confluence of the Red Rock River and Horse Prairie Creek, are now flooded under Clark Canyon Reservoir, which floods the first 6 miles of the river. The Beaverhead flows through a broad valley northward to join the Big Hole River and form the Jefferson River. With the Red Rock River included in its length, the river stretches another 70 miles, for a total length of 139 miles, one of the more significant drainages of south-western Montana; the name of the Beaverhead originates from Beaverhead Rock on the middle river. This rock formation was recognized by Sacajawea when the Lewis and Clark Expedition passed the area in 1805. There were many beavers in the area at the time, but the name does not originate from the animal. In 1805, Captain Meriwether Lewis traveled up the Jefferson and Beaverhead first, but when the rest of the expedition came, a sign Lewis had left at the confluence of the Beaverhead and Big Hole telling them to follow the Beaverhead had been cut down by a beaver, the expedition traveled up the Big Hole instead.
As a result, the swifter current of the Big Hole swamped two of their canoes before they could travel back down to the confluence. Together with the Red Rock River, the Beaverhead forms the uppermost headwaters of the Missouri River, the longest tributary of the Mississippi River; the river is a Class I water from the Clark Canyon Dam to its confluence with the Jefferson river for the purposes of public access for recreational purposes. Beaverhead Watershed Committee - The Beaverhead Watershed Committee is a subcommittee of the Beaverhead Conservation District which operates out of Dillon, Montana, it was formed in August 2001 by a diverse group of landowners and stakeholders with the common goal of improving and repairing the environment across the watershed. It engages in projects related to water quality, water quantity, grazing/fencing, weed management and outreach. Jefferson River Watershed Council — The mission of the Jefferson River Watershed Council is to coordinate efforts, through a spirit of community cooperation and sharing, that will enhance and protect the natural resources, quality of life, economic vitality of the Jefferson River watershed.
Trout Unlimited — Trout Unlimited's mission is to conserve and restore North America's coldwater fisheries and their watersheds. Western Watersheds Project — The mission of Western Watersheds Project is to protect and restore western watersheds and wildlife through education, public policy initiatives and litigation. Montana River Action — The clean flowing waters of Montana belong to the people and are held in trust by the State for a pollution-free healthful environment guaranteed by our Montana Constitution. Montana River Action's mission is to protect and restore rivers and other water bodies. Montana Stream Access Law List of rivers of Montana
The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions: Eastern Shoshone: Wyoming Northern Shoshone: southeastern Idaho Western Shoshone: Nevada, northern Utah Gosiute: western Utah, eastern NevadaThey traditionally speak the Shoshoni language, part of the Numic languages branch of the large Uto-Aztecan language family. The Shoshone were sometimes called the Snake Indians by neighboring tribes and early American explorers, their peoples have become members of federally recognized tribes throughout their traditional areas of settlement colocated with the Northern Paiute people of the Great Basin. The name "Shoshone" comes from a Shoshone word for high-growing grasses; some neighboring tribes call the Shoshone "Grass House People," based on their traditional homes made from sosoni. Shoshones call themselves Newe, meaning "People."Meriwether Lewis recorded the tribe as the "Sosonees or snake Indians" in 1805. The Shoshoni language is spoken by 1,000 people today.
It belongs to the Central Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Speakers are scattered from central Nevada to central Wyoming; the largest numbers of Shoshoni speakers live on the federally recognized Duck Valley Indian Reservation, located on the border of Nevada and Idaho. Idaho State University offers Shoshoni-language classes; the Shoshone are a Native American tribe, who originated in the western Great Basin and spread north and east into present-day Idaho and Wyoming. By 1500, some Eastern Shoshone had crossed the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains. After 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Lakota and Arapaho pushed Eastern Shoshone south and westward; some of them moved as far south as Texas, emerging as the Comanche by 1700. As more European-American settlers migrated west, tensions rose with the indigenous people over competition for territory and resources. Wars occurred throughout the second half of the 19th century; the Northern Shoshone, led by Chief Pocatello, fought during the 1860s with settlers in Idaho.
As more settlers encroached on Shoshone hunting territory, the natives raided farms and ranches for food, attacked immigrants. The warfare resulted in the Bear River Massacre, when US forces attacked and killed an estimated 410 Northwestern Shoshone, who were at their winter encampment. A large number of the dead were civilians, including women and children, deliberately killed by the soldiers; this was the highest number of deaths which the Shoshone suffered at the hands of United States forces. Allied with the Bannock, to whom they were related, the Shoshone fought against the United States in the Snake War from 1864 to 1868, they fought US forces together in 1878 in the Bannock War. In 1876, by contrast, the Shoshone fought alongside the U. S. Army in the Battle of the Rosebud against their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Cheyenne. In 1879 a band of 300 Eastern Shoshone became involved in the Sheepeater Indian War, it was the last Indian war fought in the Pacific Northwest region of the present-day United States.
In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named Mike Daggett known as "Shoshone Mike," killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. The settlers went out after the Native Americans, they killed eight. They lost one man of Ed Hogle; the posse captured a woman. A rancher donated the partial remains of three adult males, two adult females, two adolescent males, three children to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC for study. In 1994, the institution repatriated the remains to the Fort Hall Idaho Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. In 2008 the Northwestern Shoshone acquired the site of the Bear River Massacre and some surrounding land, they wanted to protect the holy land and to build a memorial to the massacre, the largest their nation had suffered. "In partnership with the American West Heritage Center and state leaders in Idaho and Utah, the tribe has developed public/private partnerships to advance tribal cultural preservation and economic development goals." They have become a leader in developing tribal renewable energy.
In 1845 the estimated population of Northern and Western Shoshone was 4,500, much reduced after they had suffered infectious disease epidemics and warfare. The completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 was followed by European-American immigrants arriving in unprecedented numbers in the territory. In 1937 the Bureau of Indian Affairs counted 1,201 Western Shoshone; as of the 2000 census, some 12,000 persons identified as Shoshone. Shoshone people are divided into traditional bands based both on their homelands and primary food sources; these include: Eastern Shoshone people:Guchundeka', Buffalo Eaters Tukkutikka, Mountain Sheep Eaters, joined the Northern Shoshone Boho'inee', Pohogwe, Sage Grass people, Sagebrush Butte PeopleNorthern Shoshone people:Agaideka, Salmon Eaters, Snake River and Lemhi River Valley Doyahinee', Mountain people Kammedeka, Jack Rabbit Eaters, Snake River, Great Salt Lake Hukundüka, Porcupine Grass Seed Eaters, Wild Wheat Eaters synonymous with Kammitikka Tukudeka, Dukundeka', Sheep Eaters, Sawtooth Range, Idaho Yahandeka, Groundhog Eaters, lower Boise and Wiser RiversWestern Shoshone people:Kusiutta, Great Salt Desert and Great Salt Lake, UtahCedar Valley Goshute Deep Creek Goshute Rush Valley G
Pioneer Mountains (Montana)
The Pioneer Mountains cover 2,000 square miles in Beaverhead County in southwestern Montana, USA. The highest peaks in this range include: Tweedy Mountain Torrey Mountain Baldy Mountain Mount Fleecer Odell Mountain The Pioneer Mountains are divided into two subranges by the paved Wise River Road: the East Pioneers and West Pioneers; the highest mountains in the entire range are in the East Pioneers - Tweedy Mountain and nearby Torrey Mountain, these two peaks are the highest on the Beaverhead National Forest. The two subranges are quite different from each other in appearance; the East Pioneers have rugged glaciated peaks. About 145,000 acres of the East Pioneers are roadless, the range holds more than 30 high lakes, including Grayling Lake, which contains Arctic grayling. Golden trout are present in Hidden Lakes. Mountain goats inhabit the high crags of the range, while pronghorn utilize the lower elevation grassland foothills; the East Pioneers receive little use from recreationists, a number of lake basins are trailless.
In marked contrast to the East Pioneers, the West Pioneers are rolling forested mountains. The highest point in the West Pioneers is Stine Mountain, el. 9,497 ft. 148,000 acres of the West Pioneers are a Wilderness Study Area. All told, about 239,000 acres of the West Pioneers were roadless as of 1992, including the Wilderness Study Area. Lakes in the West Pioneers contain the last pure strain population of Arctic grayling south of Canada. Old growth whitebark pine and lodgepole pine is present in the West Pioneers. Wolke describes the West Pioneers region as an ecological treasure. Wildlife in the West Pioneers includes elk, black bear, pine marten and northern goshawk. A site on the Beaverhead National Forest just off the Wise River Road, called Crystal Park, is available for the public to dig for quartz crystals. List of mountain ranges in Montana Article on Goingoutside.com. Pioneer Mountains on Google Maps