Lake Mead National Recreation Area
Lake Mead National Recreation Area is a U. S. National Recreation Area located in southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. Formation of Lake Mead began in 1935, less than a year before Hoover Dam was completed, the area surrounding Lake Mead was established as the Boulder Dam Recreation Area in 1936. In 1964, the area was expanded to include Lake Mohave and its surrounding area, Lake Mead NRA features water recreation, including boating and fishing, on both lakes as well as the stretches of river between the lakes. It features hiking trails and views of the desert landscape. Three of the four desert ecosystems found in the United States — the Mojave Desert, the Great Basin Desert, tours of Hoover Dam – administered by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation – are a major attraction within the recreation area. About 200,000 acres of the area are managed separately under the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument. Water covers about 186,000 acres of the recreation area, there are currently nine officially designated wilderness areas under the National Wilderness Preservation System lying within Lake Mead National Recreation Area.
All are in the Nevada portion
Chickasaw National Recreation Area
Chickasaw National Recreation Area is a National Recreation Area situated in the foothills of the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma near Sulphur in Murray County. It includes the former Platt National Park and Arbuckle Recreation District, of the parks 9,888.83 acres, water covers 2,409 acres. The park contains many examples of 1930s Civilian Conservation Corps architecture. CCC workers created pavilions, park buildings, and enclosures for the many natural springs. The Chickasaw National Recreation Area preserves partially forested hills of south-central Oklahoma near Sulphur, as part of the Chickasaw tribes arrangement with the U. S. government, the park does not charge an admission fee. The reservation officially opened to the public April 29,1904, on June 29,1906, Congress re-designated the reservation as Platt National Park, named for the senator, a year after his death. It had the distinctions of being the seventh and smallest national park created in the United States, visitors soon thronged to the new national park.
Both the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway and the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway had built lines to Sulphur. According to the National Park Service, in 1914, Platt had more visitors than either Yellowstone or Yosemite, in the 1930s, crews of the New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps developed the parks infrastructure, applying then-popular ideas of landscape design to create a tranquil and scenic oasis. The environment built during this time has remained well-preserved, and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2011, Platt National Park was abolished by Congress and made part of the much larger Chickasaw National Recreation Area in 1976, which included Lake of the Arbuckles. In 1983, the city of Sulphur traded the 67-acre Veterans Lake to the area in exchange for a strip of land above the State Highway Seven bridge. Travertine district, embracing the old Platt National Park, is like a city park. A narrow road circles the district, passing by parking areas and picnic grounds, the Travertine Nature Center, swimming holes, and a bison pasture.
Travertine Creek, joined by Rock Creek, flows through the district, rising in Antelope Springs, the springs produce 5 million gallons per day of cool, crystal clear-water and form Travertine Creek which is joined by Rock Creek about 2 miles from its source. A number of fresh water and mineral springs contribute to Travertine and Rock Creek as they flow through Travertine District. Several miles of walking and biking trails wind through the forested creek bottomland. Very popular and often crowded in summer, the Travertine district has been described as an oasis in the Oklahoma prairie, most of the National Recreational Area is taken up by the 2,350 acre Lake of the Arbuckles and the prairie and woodland along its shores. The scenic lake is a water supply reservoir for the city of Ardmore
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area
Overall administration is by the National Park Service, coordinating with state, county and university agencies. The Santa Monica Mountains Recreation Area preserves one of the best examples of a Mediterranean climate ecosystem in the world and it protects one of the highest densities of archaeological resources in any mountain range in the world. The Santa Monica Mountains NRA contains 156,671 acres in the Santa Monica Mountains of the Transverse Ranges between the Pacific Ocean and inland valleys and its southeastern slopes are part of the headwaters of the Los Angeles River. In size the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area is the largest urban park in the United States. Besides geologic forces, people who inhabited the area in the past have been ones to affect the land, there were different reasons for people to come into the area. Some came to live and others to work the land, the first groups to live in the mountains were the Native American tribes called the Chumash and the Tongva who lived here for thousands of years.
Then came the Spanish Explorers and Homesteaders from other areas of the country, the Homesteaders brought new ideas and cultures that shaped the landscape and mindset of the area, and California overall. Up to this day, people continue to live, places such as Paramount Ranch, Solstice Canyon, and Rancho Sierra Vista/ Satwiwa still have that history that has been left behind by people in the past. The past stories from people are discovered through photographs, letters. Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area strives to make sure the collections, the first area in the Santa Monica Mountains set aside for public use was Griffith Park which was donated to the city of Los Angeles by Griffith J. Griffith in 1896. During the first decade of the century, Frederick H. Rindge made several attempts to create a forest reserve in the Santa Monica Mountains. These reserves were precursors to national forests, in 1902 California’s State Mining Bureau examined the area being considered for the establishment of a forest reserve.
The resulting report was sent to Washington where the proposal for a reserve was denied, in 1907 an application was submitted to the Secretary of the Interior requesting that at least 70,000 acres in the mountains be designated a forest reserve. This time state mineralogist Lewis E. Aubury opposed the venture and he wrote the L. A. C. and endeavor to ascertain his views on the subject, and further protest against the creation of this proposed reserve”. Days the U. S. Limestone deposits were discovered in the mountains behind Pacific Palisades in 1925 which led to a battle between wealthy home owners of the area and land developers. The quarry site was in Traylor Canyon, three miles inland from the sea, between Santa Ynez and Temescal Canyons. Alphonzo Bell, Sr. was the real estate developer behind the scheme while local opposition was led by Sylvia Morrison. After much criticism of his plan, Bell offered a new proposal
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earths crust, like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages, first, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Typically, sedimentation occurs by the settling out from suspension.
The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colours will usually be tan or yellow, a predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe. The regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a building material or as a facing stone. These physical properties allow the grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from rock, which are felsic in origin. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in sandstones, Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions, alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope, below is a description of the different types of feldspar.
Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase feldspar is a group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone, commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area preserves a series of sites between Atlanta and Lake Sidney Lanier along the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, U. S. The 48-mile stretch of the river affords public recreation opportunities and access to historic sites, the National Recreation Area, a National Park Service unit, was established on August 15,1978, by President Jimmy Carter. The park headquarters and visitor center are located at the Island Ford Unit of the park, at 1978 Island Ford Parkway in Sandy Springs, the Chattahoochee River is a stocked trout stream with 23 species of game fish. Year-round fishing is available with a Georgia fishing license and a trout stamp, in 2012, the Chattahoochee National Recreation Area was designated as the Chattahoochee River Water Trail to become the first river named a National Water Trail. The historic Marietta Paper Mill ruins along Sope Creek are preserved within the Sope Creek unit of the area, the Akers Mill ruins along Rottenwood Creek are found within the West Palisades unit.
Steep rock cliffs rise from the flood plain in the East Palisades unit of the park. Powers Island was named for James Power, in 1835, he established Powers ferry on the Chattahoochee River, connecting what is now Sandy Springs to Cobb County. Powers Ferry, now spelled Powers Ferry, was used by units of General William Shermans army in July 1864, the ferry was eventually replaced by a bridge, which was built in 1903. The Vickery Creek unit preserves a rugged and scenic stretch of Vickery Creek from Grimes Bridge Road to its mouth at the Chattahoochee River. The ruins of Ivy Mill, which was a mill that produced fabric for Confederate soldiers, are located in this unit along with the historic Allenbrook House. Ivy Mill was destroyed by the Union Army in 1864, the Allenbrook House, completed in 1857, was the home and office of the manager of Ivy Mill. The Roswell Mill building currently standing was built in 1882 and is now used as an office complex. The Chattahoochee River itself is one of Georgias premier trout streams and it offers picturesque areas for boating and rafting.
It is very popular in the months for visitors to rent tubes. United State Park Rangers patrol the 48 miles of river and 10,000 acres of land units with patrol vehicles, jet-powered boats and mountain bikes, and they hike the trails on foot. Rangers enforce the U. S. Code of Federal Regulations as well as Georgia criminal and traffic codes and are authorized to carry firearms and make arrests
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area
The Glen Canyon NRA was established in 1972 to provide for public use and enjoyment and to preserve the areas scientific and scenic features. The stated purpose of Glen Canyon NRA is for recreation as well as preservation, as such, the area has been developed for access to Lake Powell via 5 marinas,4 camping grounds, two small airports, and houseboat rental concessions. The southwestern end of Glen Canyon NRA in Arizona can be accessed via U. S. Route 89, State Route 95 and State Route 276 lead to the northeastern end of the recreation area in Utah. The current Lake Powell lies above Glen Canyon, which was flooded by the Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1966. Lake Powell has nearly 2,000 miles of fish-holding shoreline and provides opportunity to fish for bass, smallmouth bass. Lake Powell National Golf Course Championship is an 18-hole course sitting on a mesa overlooking the Glen Canyon Dam, Lake Powell. Several local marinas provide houseboats, jet skis, fishing gear, the Geology of the area is dominated by the Glen Canyon Group, consisting of the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, and Wingate Sandstone.
The entire stratigraphic section included rocks dating from the Cretaceous to Pennsylvanian, with over one million visitors per year, it is inevitable that some will deface the rock faces of the canyon. The Glen Canyon NRA has implemented a program wherein volunteers sign up for a five-day houseboat trip to remove graffiti from the canyon walls
McCreary County, Kentucky
McCreary County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,306 and its county seat is Whitley City. The county is named for James B, McCreary, a Confederate war hero and Governor of Kentucky from 1875 to 1879, and 1911 to 1915. During his second term as Governor of Kentucky, McCreary County was named in his honor, McCreary County is the only Kentucky county to not have a single incorporated city. Because of this, county government is the local government agency for the entire county. In popular culture, McCreary County is mentioned in the FX drama Justified, since it is home to FCI McCreary, the majority of the county is owned by the federal government. 43% is owned and managed by the Daniel Boone National Forest, McCreary County was formed on March 12,1912, the 120th and final county in order of formation. The present county boundaries contain 427.7 square miles of land area, the early history of the area is that of those counties, and is related in the historic perspectives for them.
The map to the shows the network of roadways that had been established by the 1860s. A dotted blue line and settlement names have been added for reference, the most significant early feature of the future county was the Jacksboro Road. Running from Jacksboro, Tennessee, to Point Isabel and Somerset, this road was simply an enlargement of the Tellico Trail. Several other trails intersected this road, and led to the growth settlement villages such as Pine Knot, Dripping Springs/Coolidge, other settlement occurred in far flung, sequestered hollows. The economy of the times was based upon small-scale subsistence agriculture, timber products such as ties and barrel staves. Beginning in the early 19th century, Cumberland Falls gained attention as an tourism destination. Later development increased visitation, and the Brunsen Inn was a destination for seasonal visitors. Until a road was built from Whitley County in 1931, the access to the Falls was through McCreary. With a generous contribution from one of the DuPont family heirs, the completion of the Cincinnati Southern Railway line through the county in 1880 changed its economic characteristics forever.
Access to distant markets for timber and coal caused the emergence of small mining and logging companies
A natural arch, natural bridge or, less commonly, a rock arch is a natural rock formation where an arch has formed with an opening underneath. Natural arches commonly form where inland cliffs, coastal cliffs, fins or stacks are subject to erosion from the sea, most natural arches are formed from narrow fins and sea stacks composed of sandstone or limestone with steep, often vertical, cliff faces. The formations become narrower due to erosion over time scales. The softer rock stratum erodes away creating rock shelters, or alcoves, on sides of the formation beneath the relatively harder stratum, or caprock. The alcoves erode further into the formation eventually meeting underneath the harder caprock layer, the choice between bridge and arch is somewhat arbitrary. The Natural Arch and Bridge Society identifies a bridge as a subtype of arch that is primarily water-formed, by contrast, the Dictionary of Geological Terms defines a natural bridge as a natural arch that spans a valley of erosion. The largest natural arch, by a significant margin, is the Xianren Bridge in China, on coasts two different types of arches can form depending on the geology.
On discordant coastlines rock types run at 90° to the coast, wave refraction concentrates the wave energy on the headland, and an arch forms when caves break through the headland. Two examples of type of arch are London Arch—previously known as London Bridge—in Victoria, Australia. When these arches eventually collapse, they form stacks and stumps, on concordant coastlines rock types run parallel to the coastline, with weak rock such as shale protected by stronger rock such as limestone. The wave action along concordant coastlines breaks through the strong rock, good examples of this type of arch are the Durdle Door and Stair Hole near Lulworth Cove on Dorsets Jurassic Coast in south England. When Stair Hole eventually collapses it will form a cove, weather-eroded arches begin their formation as deep cracks which penetrate into a sandstone layer. Erosion occurring within the cracks wears away exposed rock layers and enlarges the surface cracks isolating narrow sandstone walls which are called fins, alternating frosts and thawing cause crumbling and flaking of the porous sandstone and eventually cut through some of the fins.
The resulting holes become enlarged to arch proportions by rockfalls and weathering, the arches eventually collapse leaving only buttresses that in time will erode. Many weather-eroded arches are found in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, some natural bridges may look like arches, but they form in the path of streams that wear away and penetrate the rock. Pothole arches form by chemical weathering as water collects in natural depressions, Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah protects the area surrounding three large natural bridges all of which were formed by streams running through canyons. The largest of which is named Sipapu Bridge with a span of 225 feet, Natural bridges can form from natural limestone caves, where paired sinkholes collapse and a ridge of stone is left standing in between, with the cave passageway connecting from sinkhole to sinkhole. Like all rock formations, natural bridges are subject to continued erosion, one example of this was the double-arched Victorian coastal rock formation, London Bridge, which lost an arch after storms increased erosion
Morgan County, Tennessee
Morgan County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,987, Morgan County is part of the Knoxville, TN Combined Statistical Area. Morgan County was formed in 1817 from portions of Anderson and Roane counties, the county had been part of lands relinquished by the Cherokee with the signing of the Third Treaty of Tellico in 1805. The original county seat was Montgomery until 1870, when it was moved to Wartburg, on November 10,2002, a tornado destroyed 50 homes. At least seven people were killed in the Morgan County communities of Mossy Grove, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 522 square miles, of which 522 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. The county, which lies on the edge of the Cumberland Plateau, is known for its rugged mountain terrain. The Crab Orchard Mountains comprise an area of the county, which includes several designated wilderness areas, Frozen Head State Park. The Emory River rises on the slopes of Bird Mountain near Wartburg, the Obed River, a designated national wild and scenic river, empties into the Emory southwest of Wartburg.
The Clear Fork, which part of Morgans boundary with Fentress County. The Cumberland Trail passes through Morgan County, the population density was 38 people per square mile. There were 7,714 housing units at a density of 15 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96. 72% White,2. 23% Black or African American,0. 20% Native American,0. 12% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 14% from other races, and 0. 59% from two or more races. 0. 61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,22. 10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9. 30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was out with 23. 20% under the age of 18,8. 80% from 18 to 24,31. 90% from 25 to 44,24. 50% from 45 to 64. The median age was 36 years, for every 100 females there were 114.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.40 males, the median income for a household in the county was $27,712, and the median income for a family was $31,901.
Males had an income of $25,683 versus $18,606 for females
The Cumberland River is a major waterway of the Southern United States. The 688-mile-long river drains almost 18,000 square miles of southern Kentucky, the river flows generally west from a source in the Appalachian Mountains to its confluence with the Ohio River near Paducah and the mouth of the Tennessee River. Major tributaries include the Obey, Caney Fork, although the Cumberland River basin is predominantly rural, there are some large cities on the river, including Nashville and Clarksville, both in Tennessee. In addition, the system has been extensively developed for flood control. Its headwaters are three separate forks that begin in Kentucky and converge in its Harlan County, Martins Fork starts in Hensley Settlement on Brush Mountain in Bell County and snakes its way north through the mountains to Baxter. Clover Fork starts on Black Mountain in Holmes Mill, near the Virginia border, poor Fork begins as a small stream on Pine Mountain in Letcher County near Flat Gap, Virginia. It flows southwest in parallel with Pine Mountain until it merges with the two forks in Baxter.
From there, the river continues flowing west through the mountains of Kentucky. The 68-foot falls is one of the largest waterfalls in the southeastern United States and is one of the few places in the Western Hemisphere where a moonbow can be seen. Beyond Cumberland Falls, the river turns abruptly west once again and continues to grow as it converges with other creeks and it receives the Laurel and Rockcastle Rivers from the northeast and the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River from the south. From here it flows into the man-made Lake Cumberland, formed by Wolf Creek Dam, the more than 100-mile reservoir is one of the largest artificial lakes in the eastern US. Near Celina, the river crosses south into Tennessee, where it is joined by the Obey River, northeast of Nashville, the river is dammed twice more, forming Cordell Hull Lake and Old Hickory Lake. After flowing through Nashville and picking up the Stones River, the river is dammed to form Cheatham Lake, the river flows north and merges with the Ohio River at Smithland, northeast of Paducah.
The explorer Thomas Walker of Virginia in 1758 named the river, the Cumberland River was called Wasioto by the Shawnee Native Americans, who lived in this area. French traders called it the Riviere des Chaouanons, or river of the Shawnee for this association, the river was known as the Shawnee River for years after Walkers trip. Important first as a passage for hunters and settlers, the Cumberland River supported riverboat trade, villages and cities were located at landing points along its banks. Through the middle of the 19th century, settlers depended on rivers as the transportation routes for trading. In more recent history, a number of floods have struck various regions that the river flows through
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its content, since the 1880s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore, in the United Kingdom and South Africa a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine a pit, the above-ground structures the pit head. In Australia, colliery generally refers to a coal mine. In the United States colliery has been used to describe a coal mine operation, Coal mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines. Mining at this scale requires the use of draglines, conveyors, hydraulic jacks, small-scale mining of surface deposits dates back thousands of years. For example, in Roman Britain, the Romans were exploiting most of the major coalfields by the late 2nd century AD. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the 18th century and spread to continental Europe, international trade expanded rapidly when coal-fed steam engines were built for the railways and steamships.
Until the late nineteenth century coal was mined using a pick and shovel. Coal-cutting machines were introduced in the 1880s, by 1912, surface mining was conducted with steam shovels designed for coal mining. The most economical method of extraction from coal seams depends on the depth and quality of the seams. Coal mining processes are differentiated by whether they operate on the surface or underground, many coals extracted from both surface and underground mines require washing in a coal preparation plant. Surface mining and deep underground mining are the two methods of mining. Coal that occurs at depths of 180 to 300 ft are usually deep mined, for example, some western U. S. coal that occur at depths in excess of 200 ft are mined by the open pit methods, due to thickness of the seam 60–90 feet. Coals occurring below 300 ft are usually deep mined, there are open pit mining operations working on coal seams up to 1000–1500 feet below ground level, for instance Tagebau Hambach in Germany. When coal seams are near the surface, it may be economical to extract the coal using open cut mining methods, open cast coal mining recovers a greater proportion of the coal deposit than underground methods, as more of the coal seams in the strata may be exploited.
In this mining method, explosives are first used in order to break through the surface or overburden, the overburden is removed by draglines or by shovel and truck. Once the coal seam is exposed, it is drilled, the coal is loaded onto large trucks or conveyors for transport to either the coal preparation plant or directly to where it will be used