Many of the rhythm section instruments, such as keyboard instruments and guitars, are used to play the chord progression upon which the song is based. The bass instrument plays the bassline that supports the chord progression. The term is common in small musical ensembles, such as bands that play jazz, blues. In modern rock music, a rhythm guitarist specializes in rhythmic and chordal playing, often repeating quaver, in the louder genres, such as hard rock, heavy metal and punk rock, rhythm guitarists often play power chords with distortion. Rhythm guitarists often strum open chords in pop, rock and folk music and play barre chords in many pop, a typical rhythm section comprises one or more guitars, and/or a keyboard instrument a double bass or electric bass, and drums. In some styles of music, there may be additional percussionists playing instruments such as the djembe or shakers, some styles of music often have two electric guitarists, such as rock genres like heavy metal music and punk rock.
Some styles of music use multiple keyboard instrument performers simultaneously for a fuller sound, the instrumentalists used in a rhythm section vary according to the style of music and era. Modern pop and jazz band rhythm sections typically consist of a drummer, a bass player, the term rhythm section may refer to the instruments in this group. In music industry parlance, the amplifiers and some of the instruments are nicknamed the backline, backline instruments are commonly provided for bands at music festivals and other concerts where several bands will play during an event. By providing these backline instruments, this speeds up the process when new bands take the stage. Even when a venue or festival provides a backline, musicians must still supply some instruments themselves, such as guitars, a bass, and, in some cases. Although rhythm sections spend much of the time providing accompaniment for songs, in some cases, in some songs or styles of music, instruments from the rhythm section may play soloistic roles on occasion or play a melodic role.
However, since rhythm sections provide the underpinning for a performance by the lead instruments and vocalists. Some of the most accomplished rhythm sections have become famous, such as The Band, The E Street Band and Sly Dunbar, as well, in some popular bands, all of the band members, including rhythm section members, have become famous as individuals. In each style of music, there are different musical approaches and styles that rhythm section members are expected to use and percussionists are expected to be able to improvise or prepare rhythm parts that suit the style of a given song. In some cases, an arranger, orchestrator or composer will provide a bass part or drum part written in music notation. Rhythm section members may be expected to sing backup vocals or harmony parts in some styles of music, in some types of heavy metal music, rhythm section members may be expected to be able to headbang while performing. Less commonly, some rhythm section members may sing lead vocals, in some groups, one rhythm section member may have other roles, such as bandleader, songwriter, composer or arranger
The French horn is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The double horn in F/B♭ is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras, a musician who plays any kind of horn is generally referred to as a horn player. Most horns have lever-operated rotary valves, but some, especially older horns, use piston valves, the backward-facing orientation of the bell relates to the perceived desirability to create a subdued sound, in concert situations, in contrast to the more piercing quality of the trumpet. A horn without valves is known as a horn, changing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument. Pitch may be controlled by the position of the hand in the bell, the pitch of any note can easily be raised or lowered by adjusting the hand position in the bell. Three valves control the flow of air in the single horn, the more common double horn has a fourth valve, usually operated by the thumb, which routes the air to one set of tubing tuned to F or another tuned to B♭.
Triple horns with five valves are made, tuned in F, B♭. Also common are descant doubles, which typically provide B♭ and alto F branches and this configuration provides a high-range horn while avoiding the additional complexity and weight of a triple. A crucial element in playing the horn deals with the mouthpiece, when playing higher notes, the majority of players exert a small degree of additional pressure on the lips using the mouthpiece. It is the goal of all serious brass musicians to develop their technique such that additional mouthpiece pressure is avoided altogether, or at the very least, the name French horn is found only in English, first coming into use in the late 17th century. At that time, French makers were preeminent in the manufacture of hunting horns, as a result, these instruments were often called, even in English, by their French names, trompe de chasse or cor de chasse. The International Horn Society has recommended since 1971 that the instrument be simply called the horn, there is a more specific use of French horn to describe a particular horn type, differentiated from the German horn and Vienna horn.
In this sense, French horn refers to an instrument with three Périnet valves. It retains the narrow bell-throat and mouthpipe crooks of the orchestral hand horn of the late 18th century, and most often has an ascending third valve. This is a whole-tone valve arranged so that with the valve in the up position the valve loop is engaged, the horn is the third-highest-sounding instrument in the brass family, below the trumpet and the cornet. Horns are mostly tuned in B♭ or F, or a combination of both, in some traditions, novice players use a single horn in F, while others prefer the B♭ horn. The F horn is used more commonly than the B♭ horn, sound is produced by vibrating the players lips into the mouthpiece of the instrument. Different partials in the series can be played by adjusting the air pressure and lip tension
Arthur G. Hickman was a drummer and band leader whose orchestra is sometimes seen as an ancestor to Big band music. It fits into what are termed sweet bands, something like that of Paul Whiteman and his orchestra is credited, perhaps dubiously, with being among the first jazz bands. Jelly Roll Morton disputed this notion, as did Hickman himself, at first he even disputed that jazz was music at all, alternatively calling it a kind of bubbling water or just noise. Although born in Oakland, he lived in San Francisco, California for most of his life and his father had various jobs, but his mother had been in vaudeville. He had little to no training, but by 1913 he played piano. By 1914 he was leading a band which would sometimes be deemed a jazz band and he strongly associated jazz with African Americans, sometimes disparagingly and other times in a flattering way, and he was not one. In 1917 he had one of his biggest successes with the song Rose Room, in 1919 Columbia Records paid to have the band come from San Francisco to New York City to make a series of phonograph records.
By the 1920s he had one of the, if not the and he was one of the first dance bands to have a saxophone section. In 1920 and 1926 he did the Ziegfeld Follies and he had intended to do a history of jazz, and had other projects, but by 1929 he was suffering from Bantis syndrome. English musician Ben Black was among those who worked in his orchestra, article by Bruce Vermazen Art Hickmans Orchestra, The San Francisco Sound, Volume 1
Paul Samuel Whiteman was an American bandleader, orchestral director and violinist. He co-wrote the 1925 jazz classic Flamin Mamie and his popularity faded in the swing music era of the middle 1930s, and by the 1940s Whiteman was semi-retired from music. But he experienced a revival and had a comeback in the 1950s with his own television series on ABC, Paul Whitemans Goodyear Revue. He hosted the 1954 ABC talent contest show On the Boardwalk with Paul Whiteman, Whitemans place in the history of early jazz is somewhat controversial. Detractors suggest that Whitemans ornately-orchestrated music was jazz in name only, in his autobiography, Duke Ellington declared, Paul Whiteman was known as the King of Jazz, and no one as yet has come near carrying that title with more certainty and dignity. Whitemans crowning of the term King of Jazz was likely not meant to take anything away from the performers of the more pure jazz style, Whiteman was born in Denver, Colorado. His father insisted that he learn an instrument, preferably the violin, but young Paul preferred the viola, and that was what he learned to play.
His skill at playing the viola led him to an opportunity to perform in the Denver Symphony Orchestra, he was a member from 1907, from 1917 to 1918, Whiteman conducted a 40-piece U. S. Navy band. After the war, he formed the Paul Whiteman Orchestra, with his classical violinist and violist start, he led a jazz-influenced dance band, which became popular locally in San Francisco, California in 1918. In 1920 he moved with his band to New York City where they started recording for the Victor Talking Machine Company which made the Paul Whiteman Orchestra famous nationally, Whiteman became the most popular band director of that decade. In a time when most dance bands consisted of six to ten men, Whiteman directed a much larger, by 1922, Whiteman already controlled some 28 ensembles on the East Coast and was earning over a $1,000,000 a year. Whiteman recorded Hoagy Carmichael singing and playing Washboard Blues to the accompaniment of his orchestra in 1927, in May 1928 Whiteman signed with Columbia Records, and recorded for the label until September 1931, when he returned to RCA Victor.
He would remain with Victor until March 1937, in the early 1960s, he played in Las Vegas before retiring. In the 1920s the media referred to Whiteman as The King of Jazz, Whiteman emphasized the way he had approached the already well-established style of music, while organizing its composition and style in his own fashion. There were musicians, such as Eddie Condon, who criticized Whiteman for being a bad influence on the due to his attempts to make a lady out of jazz. However, Whitemans recordings were still popular critically and successful commercially, in all, the King of Jazz wrote more than 3000 arrangements. For more than 30 years Whiteman, referred to as Pops and encouraged musicians, composers, arrangers, in 1924 Whiteman commissioned George Gershwins Rhapsody in Blue, which was premiered by Whitemans orchestra with George Gershwin at the piano. Another familiar piece in Whitemans repertoire was Grand Canyon Suite, by Ferde Grofé, Whiteman crossed racial lines behind-the-scenes, hiring black arrangers like Fletcher Henderson and engaging in mutually beneficial efforts with recording sessions and scheduling of tours
The Lindy hop is an American dance that evolved in Harlem, New York City, in the 1920s and 1930s and originally evolved with the jazz music of that time. It was very popular during the Swing era of the late 1930s, Lindy was a fusion of many dances that preceded it or were popular during its development but is mainly based on jazz, tap and Charleston. It is frequently described as a dance and is a member of the swing dance family. Lindy hop is sometimes referred to as a dance, referring to its improvisational and social nature. In 1932, twelve-year-old Norma Miller did the Lindy hop outside the Savoy Ballroom with her friends for tips, in 1935,15,000 people danced on Bradhurst Avenue for the second of a dance series held by the Parks Department. Between 147th and 148th street, Harlem threw itself into the Lindy hop with abandon as Sugar Hill residents watched from the bluffs along Edgecombe Avenue. The Lindy hop was born in African-American communities in Harlem, New York, in the United States and it originated from four possible sources, or some combination thereof, the breakaway, the Charleston, the Texas Tommy, and the hop.
A recorded source of the name is famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, nicknamed Lucky Lindy. After Lindberghs solo non-stop flight from New York to Paris in 1927 he became popular and many people named businesses. Te Roy Williams and His Orchestra recorded the song Lindbergh Hop, written by Ted Nixon and Elmer Snowden, the Memphis Jug Band on September 13,1928 recorded Lindberg Hop- Overseas stomp, written by Jab Jones and Will Shade. Just 10 days after Lindbergh landed at Le Bourget, a Lindy Hop dance was described by columnist Gilbert Swan. The journalist reports that Miss Johnson showed a very fast little step, with hops, the foot work is described as dum-de-dum, dum-de-dum, dum-de-dum. According to Ethel Williams, the Lindy hop was similar to the known as the Texas Tommy in New York in 1913. The basic steps in the Texas Tommy were followed by an identical to that found in the Lindy. Savoy dancer Shorty George Snowden stated that We used to call the basic step the Hop long before Lindbergh did his hop across the Atlantic and it had been around a long time and some people began to call it the Lindbergh Hop after 1927, although it didnt last.
Then, during the marathon at Manhattan Casino, I got tired of the old steps. According to Snowden, Fox Movietone News covered the marathon and took a close-up of Shortys feet, as told to Marshall and Jean Stearns, he was asked What are you doing with your feet, and replied, The Lindy. The date was June 17,1928, the first generation of Lindy hop is popularly associated with dancers such as Shorty George Snowden, his partner Big Bea, and Leroy Stretch Jones and Little Bea
Jazz is a music genre that originated amongst African Americans in New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in Blues and Ragtime. Since the 1920s jazz age, jazz has become recognized as a form of musical expression. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals, Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Although the foundation of jazz is deeply rooted within the Black experience of the United States, different cultures have contributed their own experience, intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as one of Americas original art forms. As jazz spread around the world, it drew on different national and local musical cultures, New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging musicians music which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed in the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments. In the early 1980s, a form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin, the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a term dating back to 1860 meaning pep. The use of the word in a context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune.
Its first documented use in a context in New Orleans was in a November 14,1916 Times-Picayune article about jas bands. In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, When Broadway picked it up. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, the American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz has proved to be difficult to define, since it encompasses such a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, in the opinion of Robert Christgau, most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz. As Duke Ellington, one of jazzs most famous figures, although jazz is considered highly difficult to define, at least in part because it contains so many varied subgenres, improvisation is consistently regarded as being one of its key elements
A musical ensemble, known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental and/or vocal music, with the ensemble typically known by a distinct name. Some music ensembles consist solely of instruments, such as the jazz quartet or the orchestra, some music ensembles consist solely of singers, such as choirs and doo wop groups. In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families or group together instruments from the instrument family. In jazz ensembles, the instruments typically include wind instruments, one or two chordal comping instruments, an instrument, and a drummer or percussionist. Jazz ensembles may be instrumental, or they may consist of a group of instruments accompanying one or more singers. In rock and pop ensembles, usually called rock bands or pop bands, there are usually guitars and keyboards, one or more singers, Music ensembles typically have a leader. In jazz bands and pop groups and similar ensembles, in classical music, concert bands and choirs are led by a conductor.
In orchestra, the concertmaster is the instrumentalist leader of the orchestra, in orchestras, the individual sections have leaders, typically called the principal of the section. Conductors are used in big bands and in some very large rock or pop ensembles. In Western classical music, smaller ensembles are called chamber music ensembles, the terms duet, quartet, sextet, octet and dectet describe groups of two up to ten musicians, respectively. A group of musicians, such as found in The Carnival of the Animals, is called either a hendectet or an undectet. A soloist playing unaccompanied is not an ensemble because it contains one musician. A string quartet consists of two violins, a viola and a cello, there is a vast body of music written for string quartets, as it is seen as an important genre in classical music. A woodwind quartet usually features a flute, an oboe, a clarinet, a brass quartet features two trumpets, a trombone and a tuba. A saxophone quartet consists of a saxophone, an alto saxophone, a tenor saxophone.
The string quintet is a type of group. It is similar to the quartet, but with an additional viola, cello, or more rarely. Terms such as piano quintet or clarinet quintet frequently refer to a string quartet plus a fifth instrument
The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia, local varieties of this dance are found in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, Latin America and the United States. The name polka possibly comes from the Czech word půlka, referring to the short half-steps featured in the dance. e, the absence of diacritics, both referring to the half-tempo 24 and the half-jump step of the dance. Zíbrt ironically dismisses the etymology suggested by A. Fähnrich that polka comes from the Czech word pole, on the other hand, Zdeněk Nejedlý suggests that the etymology given by Fr. Doucha is nothing but an effort to prove the true Czech folk origin of Polka, Nejedlý writes that Václav Vladivoj Tomek claims the Hradec Králové roots of a Polka. OED suggests that the name may have derived from the Czech polka meaning Polish woman. The word was introduced into the major European languages in the early 1840s.
It should not be confused with the polska, a Swedish 34-beat dance with Polish roots, a related dance is the redowa. Polkas almost always have a 24 time signature, folk music of Polka style appeared in written music about 1800. She is said to have called the dance Maděra, because of its liveliness, the dance was further propagated by the music teacher Josef Neruda, who witnessed Anna dance in an unusual way, put the tune to paper, and taught other young men to dance it. Čeněk Zíbrt notices that a claim that the events happened in Týnec nad Labem. Zibrt writes that when he published this story in 1894 in Narodni Listy newspaper. In particular, he wrote according to further witness, the originating event actually happened in 1830, in Kostelec nad Labem. Zíbrt writes that he published the first version of the story in Bohemia, from where it was reprinted all over Europe and in the United States. Zíbrt wrote that simple Czech folk claimed that knew and danced Polka long before the nobles got hold of it.
By 1835, this dance had spread to the ballrooms of Prague, from there, it spread to Vienna by 1839, and in 1840 was introduced in Paris by Raab, a Prague dance instructor. It was so well received by both dancers and dance masters in Paris that its popularity was referred to as polkamania, the dance soon spread to London and was introduced to America in 1844. It remained a popular dance until the late 19th century
Swing music, or simply swing, is a form of American music that dominated in the 1930s and 1940s. The name swing came from the swing feel where the emphasis is on the off–beat or weaker pulse in the music, Swing bands usually featured soloists who would improvise on the melody over the arrangement. The danceable swing style of big bands and bandleaders such as Benny Goodman was the dominant form of American popular music from 1935 to 1946, the verb to swing is used as a term of praise for playing that has a strong groove or drive. Notable musicians of the era include Louis Armstrong, Cab Calloway, Benny Goodman, Duke Ellington, Glenn Miller, Count Basie, Woody Herman. Swing has roots in the late 1920s as larger ensembles began using written arrangements, a typical song played in swing style would feature a strong, anchoring rhythm section in support of more loosely tied wind and brass. The most common style consisted of having a soloist take center stage, Swing music began to decline in popularity during World War II because of several factors.
By the late 1940s, swing had morphed into traditional pop music, or evolved into new styles such as jump blues, Swing music saw a revival in the late 1950s and 1960s with pop vocalists such as Frank Sinatra, Nat King Cole, and Ella Fitzgerald. Swing blended with other genres to create new styles, in country music, artists such as Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican and Bob Wills introduced many elements of swing along with blues to create a genre called western swing. Gypsy swing is an outgrowth of Venuti and Langs jazz violin swing, in the 1970s, and 1980s, fans of big band music attended swing music performances at supper clubs. In the late-1980s a trendier, more urban-styled swing-beat emerged called new jack swing, in the late 1990s and into the 2000s there was a swing revival, led by Squirrel Nut Zippers, Brian Setzer, Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, and Lavay Smith. In Canada, some of the early 2000s records by The JW-Jones Blues Band included swing revival elements, the 1920s saw parallel trends in jazz and popular music that would converge into the swing style.
New Orleans style jazz was based on a meter and contrapuntal improvisation led by a trumpet or cornet, typically followed by a clarinet. The rhythm section consisted of a tuba and drums, and sometimes a banjo, by the early 1920s guitars and pianos sometimes substituted for the banjo and a string bass sometimes substituted for the tuba. Further innovations in small ensemble playing led to development of the Chicago style identified with Louis Armstrong, a stint with the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra familiarized him with arranged ensemble playing that differed from the New Orleans style, in which saxophones became the dominant sound among the reeds. Armstrong brought those back to his smaller ensembles, the soloist played over an ensemble relegated to a supporting role in the background. The string bass lent itself to playing in a 4/4 rhythm rather than the 2/4 rhythm dictated by the tuba. The new format gave the soloist the opportunity to play with more rhythmic freedom, but playing with swing remained the province of the soloist, not the ensemble.
The late 1920s saw increasingly sophisticated arrangements used by bigger ensembles, some arrangements used call-response between horn sections to build the melody
The foxtrot is a smooth, progressive dance characterized by long, continuous flowing movements across the dance floor. It is danced to big band music, the dance is similar in its look to waltz, although the rhythm is in a 44 time signature instead of 34. Developed in the 1910s, the foxtrot reached its height of popularity in the 1930s, the dance was premiered in 1914, quickly catching the eye of the husband and wife duo Vernon and Irene Castle, who lent the dance its signature grace and style. The exact origin of the name of the dance is unclear, although one theory is that it took its name from its popularizer, two sources credit African American dancers as the source of the Foxtrot, Vernon Castle himself, and dance teacher Betty Lee. Castle saw the dance, which had been danced by negroes, to his knowledge, for fifteen years. Handy notes in his autobiography that his The Memphis Blues was the inspiration for the Foxtrot, during breaks from the fast paced Castle Walk and One-step and Irene Castles music director, James Reese Europe, would slowly play the Memphis Blues.
The Castles were intrigued by the rhythm and Jim asked why they didnt create a dance to go with it. The Castles introduced what they called the Bunny Hug in a magazine article. Shortly after, they went abroad and, in mid-ocean, sent a wireless to the magazine to change the name of the dance from Bunny Hug to the Foxtrot and it was subsequently standardized by Arthur Murray, in whose version it began to imitate the positions of Tango. At its inception, the foxtrot was originally danced to ragtime, from the late teens through the 1940s, the foxtrot was certainly the most popular fast dance and the vast majority of records issued during these years were foxtrots. The waltz and tango, while popular, never overtook the foxtrot, even the popularity of the lindy hop in the 1940s did not affect the foxtrots popularity, since it could be danced to the same records used to accompany the lindy hop. When rock and roll first emerged in the early 1950s, record companies were uncertain as to style of dance would be most applicable to the music.
Notably, Decca Records initially labeled its rock and roll releases as foxtrots, most notably Rock Around the Clock by Bill Haley and His Comets. Since that recording, by some estimates, went on to more than 25 million copies. Today, the dance is accompanied by the same big band music to which swing is danced. Over time, the split into slow and quick versions, referred to as foxtrot. In the context of International Standard category of dances, for some time the foxtrot was called Slow Foxtrot. These names are still in use, to distinguish from other types of foxtrots, three distinct styles of foxtrot are in common use among ballroom dancers today, the American Social Style, the American Continuity Style, and the International Style
A trumpet is a musical instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles. The trumpet group contains the instruments with the highest register in the brass family, trumpets are used in art music styles, for instance in orchestras, concert bands, and jazz ensembles, as well as in popular music. They are played by blowing air through almost-closed lips, producing a sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have primarily been constructed of brass tubing, there are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, most trumpets have valves of the piston type, while some have the rotary type. The use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, each valve, when engaged, increases the length of tubing, lowering the pitch of the instrument. A musician who plays the trumpet is called a trumpet player or trumpeter, the earliest trumpets date back to 1500 BC and earlier.
The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamuns grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, trumpets from the Oxus civilization of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, which is considered a technical wonder. The Shofar, made from a ram horn and the Hatzotzeroth and they were played in Solomons Temple around 3000 years ago. They were said to be used to blow down the walls of Jericho and they are still used on certain religious days. The Salpinx was a straight trumpet 62 inches long, made of bone or bronze, Salpinx contests were a part of the original Olympic Games. The Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to AD300, the earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense, and the modern bugle continues this signaling tradition. Improvements to instrument design and metal making in the late Middle Ages, the natural trumpets of this era consisted of a single coiled tube without valves and therefore could only produce the notes of a single overtone series.
Changing keys required the player to change crooks of the instrument, the development of the upper, clarino register by specialist trumpeters—notably Cesare Bendinelli—would lend itself well to the Baroque era, known as the Golden Age of the natural trumpet. During this period, a vast body of music was written for virtuoso trumpeters, the art was revived in the mid-20th century and natural trumpet playing is again a thriving art around the world. The melody-dominated homophony of the classical and romantic periods relegated the trumpet to a role by most major composers owing to the limitations of the natural trumpet. Berlioz wrote in 1844, Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded. The attempt to give the trumpet more chromatic freedom in its range saw the development of the keyed trumpet, the symphonies of Mozart, and as late as Brahms, were still played on natural trumpets
The jitterbug is a kind of dance popularized in the United States in the early twentieth century and is associated with various types of swing dances such as the Lindy Hop and East Coast Swing. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the word jitterbug is a combination of the jitter and bug. To which Isabelle answers You know, he makes all the time. The second quote in the OED is from the N. Y, to dance, esp to jazz or swing music and usu in an extremely vigorous and athletic manner. He has the jitters evry morn, Thats why jitter sauce was born, regarding the Savoy Ballroom, dance critic John Martin of The New York Times wrote the following, The white jitterbug is oftener than not uncouth to look at. But his Negro original is quite another matter and his movements are never so exaggerated that they lack control, and there is an unmistakable dignity about his most violent figures. there is a remarkable amount of improvisation. Mixed in. with Lindy Hop figures, of all the ballroom dances these prying eyes have seen, this is unquestionably the finest.
One text states that the shag and single lindy represented the earlier popular basics of jitterbug, a young, white middle-class man from suburban Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania learned to dance jitterbug in 1939 by going to the Hill City section of that city to watch black dancers. They danced smoothly, without hopping and bouncing around the dance floor, the hardest thing to learn is the pelvic motion. I suppose I always felt these motions are somehow obscene and you have to sway and backwards, with a controlled hip movement, while your shoulders stay level and your feet glide along the floor. Your right hand is held low on the back, and your left hand down at your side. They were poor and less educated than my friends. In fact, at time it seemed that the lower class a girl was. A number called The Jitterbug was written for the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, the jitterbug was a bug sent by the Wicked Witch of the West to waylay the heroes by forcing them to do a jitterbug-style dance. Although the sequence was not included in the version of the film.
The song as sung by Judy Garland as Dorothy and some of the establishing dialogue survived from the soundtrack as the B-side of the release of Over the Rainbow. In 1944, with the United States continuing involvement in World War II, although the tax was reduced to 20%, No Dancing Allowed signs went up all over the country. Jazz drummer Max Roach argued that, This tax is the story why dancing