The Crow, called the Apsáalooke in their own Siouan language, or variants including the Absaroka, are Native Americans, who in historical times lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River. In the 21st century, the Crow people are a Federally recognized tribe known as the Crow Tribe of Montana, have a reservation located in the south central part of the state. Pressured by the Ojibwe and Cree peoples, who had earlier and better access to guns through the fur trade, the Crow had migrated to this area from the Ohio Eastern Woodland area of present-day Ohio, settling south of Lake Winnipeg. From there, they were pushed to the west by the Cheyenne. Both the Crow and the Cheyenne were pushed farther west by the Lactoaakota who took over the territory west of the Missouri River, reaching past the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming and Montana; the Cheyenne became allies of the Lakota, as they sought to expel European Americans from the area.
The Crow remained bitter enemies of both the Cheyenne. The Crow managed to retain a large reservation of more than 9300 km2 despite territorial losses. Since the 19th century, Crow people have been concentrated on their reservation established south of Billings, Montana, they live in several major western, cities. Tribal headquarters are located at Montana; the name of the tribe, Apsáalooke, meaning "children of the large-beaked bird," was given to them by the Hidatsa, a neighboring Siouan-speaking tribe. French interpreters translated the name as gens du corbeaux, they became known in English as the Crow. Other tribes refer to the Apsáalooke as "crow" or "raven" in their own languages. In 1743 the Absaroka encountered their first people of European descent, the two La Vérendrye brothers from New France; the explorers called. The Crow called the French explorers baashchíile; the early home of the Crow-Hidatsa ancestral tribe was near Lake Erie. Driven from there by armed, aggressive neighbors, they settled for a while south of Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba.
The people moved to the Devil's Lake region of North Dakota before the Crow split from the Hidatsa and moved westward. The Crow have pushed westward due to intrusion and influx of the Cheyenne and subsequently the Sioux known as the Lakota. To acquire control of their new territory, they warred against Shoshone bands, drove them westward, they allied with local Kiowa Apache bands. The Kiowa and Kiowa Apache bands migrated southward, the Crow remained dominant in their established area through the 18th and 19th centuries, the era of the fur trade, their tribal territory stretched from what is now Yellowstone pop r he west, north to the Musselshell River northeast to the Yellowstone's mouth at the Missouri River southeast to the confluence of the Yellowstone and Powder rivers, south along the South Fork of the Powder River, confined in the SE by the Rattlesnake Mountains and westwards in the SW by the Wind River Range. Their tribal area included the river valleys of the Judith River, Powder River, Tongue River, Big Horn River and Wind River as well as the Bighorn Mountains, Pryor Mountains, Wolf Mountains and Absaroka Range.
Once established in the Valley of the Yellowstone River and its tributaries on the Northern Plains in Montana and Wyoming, the Crow divided into four groups: the Mountain Crow, River Crow, Kicked in the Bellies, Beaver Dries its Fur. Semi-nomad hunters and farmers in the northeastern woodland, they adapted to the nomadic lifestyle of the Plains Indians as hunters and gatherers, hunted bison. Before 1700, they were using dog travois for carrying goods. From about 1740, the Plains tribes adopted the horse, which allowed them to move out on to the Plains and hunt buffalo more effectively. However, the severe winters in the North kept their herds smaller than those of Plains tribes in the South; the Crow, Eastern Shoshone and Northern Shoshone soon became noted as horse breeders and dealers and developed large horse herds. At the time, other eastern and northern tribes were moving on to the Plains, in search of game for the fur trade and more horses; the Crow were subject to raids and horse thefts by horse-poor tribes, including the powerful Blackfoot Confederacy, Gros Ventre, Assiniboine and Ute.
They had to face the Lakota and their allies, the Arapaho and Cheyenne, who stole horses from their enemies. Their greatest enemies became the tribes of the Blackfoot Confederacy and the Lakota-Cheyenne-Arapaho alliance; the Crow were friendly with the northern Plains tribes of the Flathead. The powerful Iron Confederacy, an alliance of northern plains Indian nations based around the fur trade, developed as enemies of the Crow, it was named after the dominating Plains Cree and Assiniboine peoples, included the Stoney, Ojibwe, Métis. The Apsaalooke by the early 19th century were divided into three independent groupings, who came together only for common defense: Ashalaho, Awaxaawaxammilaxpáake, or Ashkúale; the Ashalaho or Mountain Crow
Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the waterfowl family Anatidae which includes swans and geese. Ducks are divided among several subfamilies in the family Anatidae. Ducks are aquatic birds smaller than the swans and geese, may be found in both fresh water and sea water. Ducks are sometimes confused with several types of unrelated water birds with similar forms, such as loons or divers, grebes and coots; the word duck comes from Old English *dūce "diver", a derivative of the verb *dūcan "to duck, bend down low as if to get under something, or dive", because of the way many species in the dabbling duck group feed by upending. This word replaced Old English ened/ænid "duck" to avoid confusion with other Old English words, like ende "end" with similar forms. Other Germanic languages still have similar words for "duck", for example, Dutch eend "duck", German Ente "duck" and Norwegian and "duck"; the word ened/ænid was inherited from Proto-Indo-European. A duckling is a young duck in downy plumage or baby duck, but in the food trade a young domestic duck which has just reached adult size and bulk and its meat is still tender, is sometimes labelled as a duckling.
A male duck is called a drake and the female is called a duck, or in ornithology a hen. The overall body plan of ducks is elongated and broad, the ducks are relatively long-necked, albeit not as long-necked as the geese and swans; the body shape of diving ducks varies somewhat from this in being more rounded. The bill is broad and contains serrated lamellae, which are well defined in the filter-feeding species. In the case of some fishing species the bill is long and serrated; the scaled legs are strong and well developed, set far back on the body, more so in the aquatic species. The wings are strong and are short and pointed, the flight of ducks requires fast continuous strokes, requiring in turn strong wing muscles. Three species of steamer duck are flightless, however. Many species of duck are temporarily flightless; this moult precedes migration. The drakes of northern species have extravagant plumage, but, moulted in summer to give a more female-like appearance, the "eclipse" plumage. Southern resident species show less sexual dimorphism, although there are exceptions like the paradise shelduck of New Zealand, both strikingly sexually dimorphic and where the female's plumage is brighter than that of the male.
The plumage of juvenile birds resembles that of the female. Over the course of evolution, female ducks have evolved to have a corkscrew shaped vagina to prevent rape. Ducks eat a variety of food sources such as grasses, aquatic plants, insects, small amphibians and small molluscs. Dabbling ducks feed on the surface of water or on land, or as deep as they can reach by up-ending without submerging. Along the edge of the beak, there is a comb-like structure called a pecten; this strains the water squirting from traps any food. The pecten is used to preen feathers and to hold slippery food items. Diving ducks and sea ducks forage deep underwater. To be able to submerge more the diving ducks are heavier than dabbling ducks, therefore have more difficulty taking off to fly. A few specialized species such as the mergansers are adapted to swallow large fish; the others have the characteristic wide flat beak adapted to dredging-type jobs such as pulling up waterweed, pulling worms and small molluscs out of mud, searching for insect larvae, bulk jobs such as dredging out, turning head first, swallowing a squirming frog.
To avoid injury when digging into sediment it has no cere, but the nostrils come out through hard horn. The Guardian published an article advising that ducks should not be fed with bread because it damages the health of the ducks and pollutes waterways. Ducks are monogamous, although these bonds last only a single year. Larger species and the more sedentary species tend to have pair-bonds that last numerous years. Most duck species breed once a year. Ducks tend to make a nest before breeding, after hatching, lead their ducklings to water. Mother ducks are caring and protective of their young, but may abandon some of their ducklings if they are physically stuck in an area they cannot get out of or are not prospering due to genetic defects or sickness brought about by hypothermia, starvation, or disease. Ducklings can be orphaned by inconsistent late hatching where a few eggs hatch after the mother has abandoned the nest and led her ducklings to water. Most domestic ducks neglect their eggs and ducklings, their eggs must be hatched under a broody hen or artificially.
Female mallard ducks make the classic "quack" sound while males make a similar but raspier sound, sometimes written as "breeeeze", but despite widespread misconceptions, most species of duck do not "quack". In general, ducks make a wide range of calls, ranging from whistles, cooing and grunts. For example, the scaup – which are diving ducks – make a noise like "scaup" (hence
In the Western United States and Canada, open range is rangeland where cattle roam regardless of land ownership. Where there are "open range" laws, those wanting to keep animals off their property must erect a fence to keep animals out. Land in open range, designated as part of a "herd district" reverses liabilities, requiring an animal's owner to fence it in or otherwise keep it on the person's own property. Most eastern states and jurisdictions in Canada require owners to herd their livestock; the Western open-range tradition originated from the early practice of unregulated grazing in newly acquired western territories, codified in the laws of Western US states as they developed written statutes. Over time, as the Western lands became more developed the open range laws started to be challenged and were curtailed, but they still exist in certain areas of most western states. Open range conditions existed in Western Canada prior to amendments the Dominion Lands Act in 1889 which prohibited cattle from grazing on unleased land, though the practice did not disappear immediately.
Open range management has been practiced in other areas, such as Caribbean and the eastern state of South Carolina during the colonial period. The practice was used in Mexico, some argue it may have been the predecessor to the open range practice in the American West, which borrowed many other cattle raising techniques from Mexico. Unlike the eastern United States, the western prairies of the 19th century were vast and uncultivated, with scarce separated sources of water; until the invention of barbed wire in the 1870s, it was more practical to fence the livestock out of developed land, rather than to fence it in. As the United States government acquired western territories, land not yet placed into private ownership was publicly owned and available for grazing cattle, though conflicting land claims and periodic warfare with Native Americans of the Great Plains placed some practical limits on grazing areas at various times. Free-roaming range cattle calved, were moved between grazing lands, driven to market by cowboys.
Branding was used to identify cattle belonging to different owners. Unbranded cattle were known as "mavericks" and could become the property of anyone able to capture and brand the unmarked animal; the invention of barbed wire in the 1870s allowed cattle to be confined to designated areas to prevent overgrazing of the range. In Texas and surrounding areas, increased population required ranchers to fence off their individual lands; this brought considerable drama to western rangeland. Its invention made fencing huge expanses cheaper than hiring cowboys for handling cattle, indiscriminate fencing of federal lands occurred in 1880s without any regards to land ownership or other public needs, such as mail delivery and movement of other kinds of livestock. Various state statutes, as well as vigilantes, tried to enforce or combat fence-building with varying success. In 1885, federal legislation outlawed the enclosure of public land. By 1890, illegal fencing had been removed. In the north, overgrazing stressed the open range, leading to insufficient winter forage for the cattle and starvation during the harsh winter of 1886–1887, when hundreds of thousands of cattle died across the Northwest, leading to collapse of the cattle industry.
By the 1890s, barbed wire fencing was standard in the northern plains, railroads had expanded to cover most of the nation, meat packing plants were built closer to major ranching areas, making long cattle drives from Texas to the railheads in Kansas unnecessary. Hence, the age of the open range was gone and large cattle drives were over. Meanwhile, ranches multiplied all over the developing West. Where there are "open range" laws, people wanting to keep animals off their property must erect a legal fence to keep animals out, as opposed to the "herd district" where an animal's owner must fence it in or otherwise keep it on the person's own property. Most eastern states and jurisdictions in Canada require owners to herd their livestock. Many states in the west, e.g. Texas, are at least nominally still open-range states. In modern times, free roaming cattle can be a danger in developed areas. Most western states those that are nominally open at the state level, now limit open range to certain areas.
Under open range law today, if livestock break through a "legal fence" the livestock owner is liable for damages of the fenced property. Conversely, the livestock owner is not liable in the absence of the "legal fence." An exception exists for "unruly" animals meaning breeding bulls and stallions, which are supposed to be restricted by the owner. On roadways within an open range area, in a cow-car collision on a roadway, the rancher was at one time not liable, but recent law changes beginning in the 1980s increased rancher liability, first requiring cattle be kept off federal highways other developed roads, in some cases, limited open range grazing only to certain times of the year. In some states, such as Montana, case law on the open range has, for all practical purposes, eliminated it altogether, though statutes may remain on the books. Today, a vehicle has a much higher chance of hitting a wild animal than livestock. Laws are still in flux. In Arizona, livestock must be fenced in within incorporated areas, but are still listed only as a potential nuisance for unincorporated suburbs.
Therefore, in that state, bills are being pushed "to get rid of this antiquated law from 19th cen
The Pryor Mountains are a mountain range in Carbon and Big Horn counties of Montana. They are located on the Crow Indian Reservation and the Custer National Forest, portions of them are on private land, they lie south of Billings and north of Lovell, Wyoming. The mountains are named for Sergeant Nathaniel Hale Pryor, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition who vainly pursued horses stolen from the expedition in the area; the Crow Nation, a Native American tribe which lived nearby, called the mountains Baahpuuo Isawaxaawuua because of the abundance of flint there. According to Crow Nation folklore, Little People lived in these mountains; the Pryor Mountains are a 145,000-square-mile region of Wyoming. The Pryor Mountains consists of Paleozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks the most prominent unit is limestone laid down about 300 million years ago; the limestone and older sediments rest on Archean metamorphic rock consisting of schists. The gneiss is exposed along the northeast escarpment of East Pryor Mountain.
During the Laramide orogeny in the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene Period, the limestone was faulted and uplifted. The 705 to 740 feet thick limestone blocks were tilted and uplifted as large blocks with the northeastern corner of the blocks forming the Bighorn and the Pryor Mountains. Caves, carved by groundwater, can be found in the limestone throughout the Pryors. Among the better known are Big Ice Cave on the eastern edge of Pryor Mountain, Mystery Cave. Among the more notable are False Cougar Cave on East Pryor Mountain, Shield Trap Cave, Little Ice Cave, Bell Trap Cave. Other popular features of the Pryors include Froggs Fault, a huge fissure in the earth, a buffalo jump near Dry Head Lookout. Just below Dry Head Lookout is a small pocket in the cliff face surrounded by a low man-made fence of rock; this is a place used by several Native American tribes for vision quests, as of 1971 was the last undisturbed such place in the United States. The tallest peak in the Pryor Mountains is East Pryor Mountain.
The Bighorn River flows north from Wyoming and through the plateau between the Bighorn and Pryor mountains. The river flows between the two mountain ranges, has cut the Bighorn Canyon deep into the limestone. Crooked Creek, one of the few perennial streams in the area, divides the Pryors in two and is one of the few places where Yellowstone cutthroat trout may be found; the Pryors contain the most diverse bat habitat in Montana as well, with 10 species found there. The Pryor Mountains are home to the Pryor Mountains Wild Horse Range, a protected area, home to a herd of free-roaming feral horses; this herd was the subject of the 1995 documentary film Cloud: Wild Stallion of the Rockies and its sequel, the 2003 documentary film Cloud's Legacy: The Wild Stallion Returns. List of mountain ranges in Rich. Montana Place Names From Alzada to Zortman. Helena, Mont.: Montana Historical Society Press, 2009. Clawson and Shandera, Katherine A. Billings: The City and the People. Billings, Mont.: Billings Gazette, 1993.
Committee on Ungulate Management in Yellowstone National Park, National Research Council. Ecological Dynamics on Yellowstone's Northern Range. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 2002. Cruise and Griffiths, Alison. Wild Horse Annie and the Last of the Mustangs: The Life of Velma Johnston. New York:Scribner, 2010. Frey, Rodney; the World of the Crow Indians: As Driftwood Lodges. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993. Gordon and Krumm, Bob. Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Tucson, Ariz.: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, 1999. Hill, Cherry. Cherry Hill's Horsekeeping Almanac: The Essential Month-by-Month Guide for Everyone Who Keeps or Cares for Horses. North Adams, Mass.: Storey Publishing, 2007. Hodges and Feldman, Robert. Rockhounding Montana. Guiford, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press, 2006. Holt, John. Kicking Up Trouble: Upland Bird Hunting in the West. Bozeman, Mont.: Wilderness Adventures Press, 1994. Holt and Diers, Ginny. Coyote Nowhere: In Search of America's Last Frontier.
Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press, 2004. Lopez, David A. Geologic Map of the Bridger 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Geologic Map Series No. 58, 2000 with the U. S. Geological Survey Massingham, Rhonda. Among Wild Horses: A Portrait of the Pryor Mountain Mustangs. North Adams, Mass.: Storey Publishing, 2006. McRae, W. C. and Jewell, Judy. Montana. Berkeley, Calif.: Avalon Travel, 2009. Montgomery, M. R. Many Rivers to Cross: Of Good Running Water, Native Trout, the Remains of Wilderness. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996. Rowles, Genevieve. Adventure Guide to Montana. Edison, N. J.: Hunter Publishing, 2000. Saindon, Robert A. Explorations Into the World of Lewis and Clark. Great Falls, Mont.: Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation, 2003. Voight and Voight, Mary Anne. Rock Mechanics, the American Northwest. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University, 1974
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area
The Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area preserves the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries in northeastern Tennessee and southeastern Kentucky. In addition, the former mining community of Blue Heron is interpreted via signage; the Big South Fork region contains one of the highest concentrations of natural bridges in the eastern United States and the area is located in parts of Scott, Fentress and Morgan counties in Tennessee, McCreary County in Kentucky. Charit Creek Lodge is a wilderness lodge, accessible by trail, located within the park; the Big South Fork was legally designated a Kentucky Wild River by the Kentucky General Assembly through the Office of Kentucky Nature Preserves' Wild Rivers Program. The Big South Fork's most prominent feature is the river gorge cutting through the softer Mississippian age rock beneath the hard Pennsylvanian capstone of the Cumberland Plateau. Water is the most influential agent of geologic change in the Big South Fork region.
Over time water action has left many unique and amazing geologic features ranging from the river gorge with its magnificent bluffs to the natural arches and unusual hoodoos. Due to the substantial amount of annual rainfall of the region and the action of the Cumberland River and surrounding tributaries the water acts to erode the softer Mississippian rock composed of limestone and calcareous sandstone from beneath the much harder and erosion resistant capstone composed of Pennsylvanian sandstone. Flowing water hollows out the softer layers beneath and forms waterfalls and gorges. Where there is hard capstone intact, arches can form creating natural bridges across streams or a dry ravines. Direct erosion widens a joint and forms a cavity below the more resilient rock thus creating a void between the hard capstone and the area below; as result, water eroded. Hoodoos are a intriguing feature occurring in the Big South Fork; these hoodoos form in a similar manner to those found in the western United States.
Where tough capstone still exists on the side of a hill for instance, it prevents the erosion of the softer material below. The result is a formed erect columnar rock where once was located a hill. "Big South Fork NPS Site". National Park Service. Retrieved 2011-08-08. "Big South Fork Landforms". Tom Dunigan. Retrieved 2011-08-08
A mountain man is an explorer who lives in the wilderness. Mountain men were most common in the North American Rocky Mountains from about 1810 through to the 1880s, they were instrumental in opening up the various Emigrant Trails allowing Americans in the east to settle the new territories of the far west by organized wagon trains traveling over roads explored and in many cases, physically improved by the mountain men and the big fur companies to serve the mule train based inland fur trade. They arose in a natural geographic and economic expansion driven by the lucrative earnings available in the North American fur trade, in the wake of the various 1806–07 published accounts of the Lewis and Clark expeditions' findings about the Rockies and the Oregon Country where they flourished economically for over three decades. By the time two new international treaties in early 1846 and early 1848 settled new western coastal territories in the United States and spurred a large upsurge in migration, the days of mountain men making a good living by fur trapping had ended.
This was because the fur industry was failing due to reduced demand and over trapping. With the rise of the silk trade and quick collapse of the North American beaver-based fur trade in the 1830s–1840s, many of the mountain men settled into jobs as Army Scouts or wagon train guides or settled throughout the lands which they had helped open up. Others, like William Sublette, opened up fort-trading posts along the Oregon Trail to service the remnant fur trade and the settlers heading west. Mountain men were most common in the North American Rocky Mountains from about 1810 through to the 1880s. 3,000 mountain men ranged the mountains between 1820 and 1840, the peak beaver-harvesting period. While there were many free trappers, most mountain men were employed by major fur companies; the life of a company man was militarized. The men had mess groups and trapped in brigades and always reported to the head of the trapping party; this man was called a bastardization of the French term bourgeois. He was the leader of the head trader.
Donald Mackenzie, representing the North West Company, held a rendezvous in the Boise River Valley in 1819. The rendezvous system was implemented by William Henry Ashley of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, whose company representatives would haul supplies to specific mountain locations in the spring, engage in trading with trappers, bring pelts back to communities on the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, like St. Louis, in the fall. Ashley sold his business to the outfit of Jedediah Smith and Sublette, he continued to earn revenue by selling that firm their supplies. This system of rendezvous with trappers continued when other firms the American Fur Company owned by John Jacob Astor, entered the field; the annual rendezvous was held at Horse Creek on the Green River, now called the Upper Green River Rendezvous Site, near present-day Pinedale, Wyoming. Another popular site in the same general area was Pierre's Hole. By the mid-1830s, it attracted 450-500 men annually all the American trappers and traders working in the Rockies, as well as numerous Native Americans.
In the late 1830s, the Canadian-based Hudson's Bay Company instituted a policy to destroy the American fur trade. The HBC's annual Snake River Expedition was transformed to a trading enterprise. Beginning in 1834, it visited the American Rendezvous to buy furs at low prices; the HBC was able to offer manufactured trade goods at prices far below that with which American fur companies could compete. Combined with a decline in demand for and supply of beaver, by 1840 the HBC had destroyed the American system; the last rendezvous was held in 1840. During the same years, fashion in Europe shifted away from the popular beaver hats. After achieving an American monopoly by 1830, Astor got out of the fur business before its decline. By 1841 the American Fur Company and the Rocky Mountain Fur Company were in ruins. By 1846 only some 50 American trappers still worked in the Snake River country, compared to 500-600 in 1826. Soon after the strategic victory by the HBC, the Snake River route was used for emigrants as the Oregon Trail, which brought a new form of competition.
Former trappers earned money as hunters for the emigrant parties. A second fur trading and supply center grew up in Taos in; this trade attracted numerous French Americans from Louisiana and some French Canadian trappers, in addition to Anglo-Americans. Some New Mexican residents pursued the beaver trade, as Mexican citizens had some legal advantages. Trappers and traders in the Southwest covered territory, inaccessible to the large fur companies, it included parts of New Mexico, Nevada and central and southern Utah. After the decline in beaver and the fur trade, with some emigrants to the West using the Mormon Trail, former trappers found work as guides and hunters for the traveling parties. After the short-lived American Pacific Fur Company was sold, the British controlled the fur trade in the Pacific Northwest, under first the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. To prevent American fur traders from competing, the British companies adopted a policy of destroying fur resources west of the Rocky Mountains in the upper Snake River country.
After the Hudson's Bay Company took over operations in the Pacific Northwest in 1821, the Snake River country was trapped out. Thi