The mule deer is a deer indigenous to western North America. The several subspecies include the black-tailed deer. Unlike the related white-tailed deer, found through most of North America east of the Rockies Mountains and in the valleys of the Rocky Mountains from Idaho and Wyoming northward, mule deer are only found on the western Great Plains, in the Rocky Mountains, in the United States southwest, on the West Coast of North America. Mule deer have been introduced to Argentina and Kauai, Hawaii; the most noticeable differences between white-tailed and mule deer are the size of their ears, the color of their tails, the configuration of their antlers. In many cases, body size is a key difference; the mule deer's tail is black-tipped. Mule deer antlers are bifurcated; each spring, a buck's antlers start to regrow immediately after the old antlers are shed. Shedding takes place in mid-February, with variations occurring by locale. Although capable of running, mule deer are seen stotting, with all four feet coming down together.
The mule deer is the larger of the two Odocoileus species on average, with a height of 80–106 cm at the shoulders and a nose-to-tail length ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 m. Of this, the tail may comprise 11.6 to 23 cm. Adult bucks weigh 55–150 kg, averaging around 92 kg, although trophy specimens may weigh up to 210 kg. Does are rather smaller and weigh from 43 to 90 kg, with an average of around 68 kg. Unlike the whitetail, the mule deer does not show marked size variation across its range, although environmental conditions can cause considerable weight fluctuations in any given population. An exception to this is the subspecies the Sitka deer; this race is markedly smaller than other mule deer, with an average weight of 54.5 kg and 36 kg in males and females, respectively. In addition to movements related to available shelter and food, the breeding cycle is important in understanding deer behavior; the "rut" or mating season begins in the fall as does go into estrus for a period of a few days and males become more aggressive, competing for mates.
Does may mate with more than one buck and go back into estrus within a month if they did not become pregnant. The gestation period is about 190–200 days, with fawns born in the spring; the survival rate of the fawns during labor is about 50%. Fawns are weaned in the fall after about 60 -- 75 days. Mule deer females give birth to two fawns, although if it is their first time having a fawn, they have just one. A buck's antlers fall off during the winter; the annual cycle of antler growth is regulated by changes in the length of the day. For a guide to identify the sex and age class of Rocky Mountain mule deer at various seasons see S1 File. For more information see the main article on deer; the size of mule deer groups follows a marked seasonal pattern. Groups are smallest during largest in early gestation. Besides humans, the three leading predators of mule deer are coyotes and cougars. Bobcats, Canadian lynxes, black bears, brown bears may prey upon adult deer, but most only attack fawns or infirm specimens or eat the deer after it has died naturally.
Bears and smaller-sized carnivores are opportunistic feeders, pose little threat to a strong, healthy mule deer. In 99 studies of mule deer diets, some 788 species of plants were eaten by mule deer, their diets vary depending on the season, geographic region and elevation; the studies gave these data for Rocky Mountain mule deer diets: The diets of mule deer are similar to those of whitetail deer in areas where they coexist. Mule deer are intermediate feeders rather than pure grazers. Mule deer adapt to agricultural products and landscape plantings. In the Sierra Nevada range, mule deer depend on the lichen Bryoria fremontii as a winter food source; the most common plant species consumed by mule deer are: Among trees and shrubs: Artemisia tridentata, Cercocarpus ledifolius, Cercocarpus montanus, Cowania mexicana, Populus tremuloides, Purshia tridentata, Quercus gambelii, Rhus trilobata. Among forbs: Achillea millefolium, Antennaria sp. Artemisia frigida, Artemisia ludoviciana, Aster spp. Astragalus sp.
Balsamorhiza sagittata, Cirsium sp. Erigeron spp. Geranium sp. Lactuca serriola, Lupinus spp. Medicago sativa, Penstemon spp. Phlox spp. Polygonum sp. Potentilla spp. Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon dubius, Trifolium sp. and Vicia americana. Among grasses and grasslike species: Agropyron, Elytrigia, Pascopyrum sp. Pseudoroegneria spi
The northern flicker or common flicker is a medium-sized bird of the woodpecker family. It is native to most of North America, parts of Central America and the Cayman Islands, is one of the few woodpecker species that migrate. Over 100 common names for the northern flicker are known, including yellowhammer, gaffer woodpecker, harry-wicket, heigh-ho, wake-up, walk-up, wick-up, gawker bird. Many of these names derive from attempts to imitate some of its calls; the northern flicker is part of the genus Colaptes. Nine subspecies of C. auratus are recognized. The existing subspecies were at one time considered separate species, but they interbreed where ranges overlap and are now considered one species by the American Ornithologists Union; this is an example of the "species problem". The eastern yellow-shafted flicker resides in eastern North America, they have yellow shafts on their primaries. They have a grey cap, a beige face, a red bar at the nape of the neck. Males have a black moustache. Colaptes comes from the Greek verb colapt, meaning "to peck".
As the state bird of Alabama, this subspecies is known by the common name "yellowhammer", a term that originated during the American Civil War to describe Confederate soldiers from Alabama. The western red-shafted flicker resides in western North America, they have red shafts on their primaries. They have a grey face. Males have a red moustache; the subspecific name cafer is the result of an error made in 1788 by the German systematist Johann Gmelin, who believed that its original habitat was in South Africa among the Xhosa people known as the "Kaffirs". C. a. collaris has a range that overlaps that of C. a. cafer, extending along much of the west coast of North America from British Columbia to northwestern Mexico. The boreal red-shafted flicker resides in central Alaska through most of Canada to southern Newfoundland and Labrador and the northeastern United States; the Mexican red-shafted flicker resides in central and southern Mexico from Durango to San Luis Potosí and Oaxaca. The Guatemalan red-shafted flicker resides in the highlands of southern Central America.
The Cuban yellow-shafted flicker is restricted to Cuba. The Grand Cayman yellow-shafted flicker is restricted to Grand Cayman in the Cayman Islands; the Guadalupe red-shafted flicker is an extinct subspecies restricted to Guadalupe Island, off the northwestern coast of Mexico. Its presence was last recorded in 1906, it may be invalid. Adults are brown with black bars on wings. A mid- to large-sized woodpecker measures 28–36 cm in length and 42–54 cm in wingspan; the body mass can vary from 86 to 167 g. Among standard scientific measurements, the wing bone measures 12.2–17.1 cm, the tail measures 7.5–11.5 cm, the bill measures 2.2–4.3 cm and the tarsus measures 2.2–3.1 cm. The largest-bodied specimens are from the northern stretches of the species range, at the latitude of Alaska and Labrador, while the smallest specimens come from Grand Cayman Island. A necklace-like black patch occupies the upper breast, while the lower breast and belly are beige with black spots. Males can be identified by a black or red moustachial stripe at the base of the beak.
The tail is dark on top, transitioning to a white rump, conspicuous in flight. Subspecific plumage is variable; this bird's call is a sustained laugh, ki ki ki ki, quite different from that of the pileated woodpecker. One may hear a constant knocking as they drum on trees or metal objects to declare territory. Like most woodpeckers, northern flickers drum on objects as a form of communication and territory defense. In such cases, the object is to make as loud a noise as possible, so woodpeckers sometimes drum on metal objects. Like many woodpeckers, its flight is undulating; the repeated cycle of a quick succession of flaps followed by a pause creates an effect comparable to a rollercoaster. According to the Audubon field guide, "flickers are the only woodpeckers that feed on the ground", probing with their beak sometimes catching insects in flight. Although they eat fruits, berries and nuts, their primary food is insects. Ants alone can make up 45% of their diet. Other invertebrates eaten include flies, moths and snails.
Flickers eat berries and seeds in winter, including poison oak and poison ivy, sumac, wild cherry, bayberries and elderberries, as well as sunflower and thistle seeds. Flickers break into underground ant colonies to get at the nutritious larvae there, hammering at the soil the way other woodpeckers drill into wood, they have been observed breaking up cow dung to eat insects living within. Their tongues can dart out 50 mm beyond the end of the bill to catch prey; the flicker is a natural predator of the European corn borer, a moth that costs the US agriculture industry more than $1 billion annually in crop losses and population control. As well as eating ants, flickers exhibit a behavior known as anting, in which they use the formic acid from the ants to assist in preening, as it is useful in keeping them free of parasites. Flickers may be observed in open habitats near trees, including woodlands, yard
Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.
In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of a quarter-mile. Seen in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become popular in the United States and in Europe; the Federation Equestre International governs international races, the American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start. Races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.
Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie. Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: one horse; the humans alternately ride. Show jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle commonly known as a jump. There are multiple jumps in a show, if the horse hits or refuses a jump, points will be deducted from the rider score; this is a timed event, the rider is expected to complete the course in a certain amount of time, without error. There are the hunter divisions. In the hunters, riders have to make their horses look good; the judges look at the quality of the course, if there are two or more riders who had put down amazing courses the judge or judges looks at how the horse looks and acts with the rider. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulk
The Bighorn River is a tributary of the Yellowstone 461 miles long, in the states of Wyoming and Montana in the western United States. The river was named in 1805 by fur trader François Larocque for the bighorn sheep he saw along its banks as he explored the Yellowstone; the upper reaches of the Bighorn, south of the Owl Creek Mountains in Wyoming, are known as the Wind River. The two rivers are sometimes referred to as the Wind/Bighorn; the Wind River becomes the Bighorn River at the Wedding of the Waters, on the north side of the Wind River Canyon near the town of Thermopolis. From there, the river flows through the Bighorn Basin in north central Wyoming, passing through Thermopolis and Hot Springs State Park. At the border with Montana, the river turns northeast, flows past the north end of the Bighorn Mountains, through the Crow Indian Reservation, where the Yellowtail Dam forms the Bighorn Lake reservoir; the reservoir and the surrounding canyon are part of the Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area.
The Little Bighorn River joins the Bighorn near the town of Montana. Fifty miles farther downriver, the Bighorn River ends where it joins the Yellowstone; the Bighorn River begins as the Wind River in the Rocky Mountains at Wind River Lake, near Two Ocean Mountain and the summit of Togwotee Pass. The Wind River flows southeast receiving the east fork of the Wind River from the north, enters the Wind River Basin, flowing past Dubois and Johnstown, to Riverton, where it receives the Little Wind River; the river changes direction to the northeast and the north, flowing into Boysen Reservoir, formed by Boysen Dam. Below the dam it enters the Wind River Canyon, where the river forms many rapids. At the end of the canyon the Wind River widens out in an area called the Wedding of the Waters where it becomes the Bighorn River and enters the Bighorn Basin; the Bighorn continues northward, passing through Thermopolis and Basin. At Greybull it receives the Greybull River, about 30 mi north of that confluence it enters Bighorn Lake, where it is joined by the Shoshone River.
North of the confluence with the Shoshone, the reservoir narrows as the river enters the Bighorn Canyon, where it crosses into Montana. At the end of the canyon, the river passes through Afterbay Dam; the river enters the Great Plains. At Hardin the river is joined by the Little Bighorn River. 50 mi downriver from the Little Bighorn, in Big Horn County, the Bighorn empties into the Yellowstone. The Bighorn River has been known as the Great Horn River, Le Corne and Iisaxpúatahcheeaashisee in the Apsáalooke language which translates to English as Large Bighorn Sheep River. List of rivers of Montana List of rivers of Wyoming Montana Stream Access Law Sullivan, Gordon. Saving Homewaters: The Story of Montana's Streams and Rivers. Woodstock, VT: The Countryman Press. ISBN 978-0-88150-679-2. State of Wyoming: Bighorn River Basin U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Wind/Bighorn River Drainage Wyoming Game and Fish map showing the Wind River becoming the Bighorn
Lovell is the largest town in Big Horn County, United States. The population was 2,360 at the 2010 census. Lovell was named for a local rancher. Built in 1925, the EJZ Bridge over Shoshone River is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lovell is located at 44°50′12″N 108°23′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.10 square miles, all of it land. Lovell experiences a temperate desert climate with cold, dry winters and hot wetter summers. At the 2010 census, there were 2,360 people, 909 households and 605 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,145.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,013 housing units at an average density of 920.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.0% White, 0.3% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 3.5% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.8% of the population. There were 909 households of which 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.4% were non-families.
29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.13. The median age was 36 years. 27.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. At the 2000 census, there were 896 households and 613 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,141.6 per square mile. There were 1,013 housing units at an average density of 951.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.93% White, 0.04% African American, 0.70% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 5.66% from other races, 2.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.16% of the population. There were 896 households of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.5% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.14. 29.2% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median household income was $30,745 and the median family income was $35,815. Males had a median income of $30,698 compared with $20,313 for females; the per capita income was $13,772. About 11.0% of families and 14.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.5% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area Big Horn Mountains Big Horn River Buffalo Bill Historical Center Hyart Theater Public education in the town of Lovell is provided by Big Horn County School District #2. Lovell is home to Lovell Elementary School, Lovell Middle School, Lovell High School. Lovell High School is expected to total an average of 50 students per grade through the 2010-2011 school year.
KWHO KTVQ, CBS KULR, NBC KCWC-DT, PBS The dominant religion is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. There are several other churches in town including Roman Catholic and Baptist. There is a small group of Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints living near town. Don G. Despain - botanist and ecologist; the town was the center of a scandal in the 1980s when Dr. John Story was discovered to be sexually abusing patients, he was convicted on six separate charges of sexually assaulting his patients in 1985. Olsen, Jack. "Doc": The Rape of the Town of Lovell. New York: Dell. ISBN 0-440-20668-5; the Lovell Chronicle newspaper
Montana is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more "The Last Best Place". Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In all, 77 named; the eastern half of Montana is characterized by badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the north; the economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, coal, hard rock mining, lumber; the health care and government sectors are significant to the state's economy. The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism.
Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, other attractions. The name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña, which in turn comes from the Latin word Montanea, meaning "mountain", or more broadly, "mountainous country". Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the entire mountainous region of the west; the name Montana was added to a bill by the United States House Committee on Territories, chaired at the time by Rep. James Ashley of Ohio, for the territory that would become Idaho Territory; the name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, who complained Montana had "no meaning"; when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox of Ohio, objected to the name. Cox complained the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one.
Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, so the original name of Montana was adopted. Montana is one of the nine Mountain States, located in the north of the region known as the Western United States, it borders North South Dakota to the east. Wyoming is to the south, Idaho is to the west and southwest, three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, are to the north. With an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is larger than Japan, it is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California. S. state. The state's topography is defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montana's 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the state's western half, most of, geologically and geographically part of the Northern Rocky Mountains; the Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the state's south-central part are technically part of the Central Rocky Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain Front is a significant feature in the state's north-central portion, isolated island ranges that interrupt the prairie landscape common in the central and eastern parts of the state. About 60 percent of the state is part of the northern Great Plains; the Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. Other major mountain ranges west of the Divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, Sapphire Mountains, Flint Creek Range; the Divide's northern section, where the mountains give way to prairie, is part of the Rocky Mountain Front. The front is most pronounced in the Lewis Range, located in Glacier National Park. Due to the configuration of mountain ranges in Glacier National Park, the Northern Divide crosses this region and turns east in Montana at Triple Divide Peak.
It causes the Waterton River and Saint Mary rivers to flow north into Alberta, Canada. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which empties into Hudson Bay. East of the divide, several parallel ranges cover the state's southern part, including the Gravelly Range, the Madison Range, Gallatin Range, Absaroka Mountains and the Beartooth Mountains; the Beartooth Plateau is the largest continuous land mass over 10,000 feet high in the continental United States. It contains Granite Peak, 12,799 feet high. North of these ranges are the Big Belt Mountains, Bridger Mountains, Tobacco Roots, several island ranges, including the Crazy Mountains and Little Belt Mountains. Between many mountain ranges are rich river valleys; the Big Hole Valley, Bitterroot Valley, Gallatin Valley, Flathead Valley, Paradise Valley have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation. East and north of this transition zone are the expansive and sparsely populated Northern Plains, with tableland prairies, smaller island mountain ranges, badlands.
The isolated island ranges east of the Divide include the Bear Paw Mountains, Bull Mountains, Castle Mountains, Crazy Mountains, Highwood Mountains, Judi
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation, unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions. It can have harmful effects on aquatic animals and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids; some governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere with positive results. Nitrogen oxides can be produced by lightning strikes, sulfur dioxide is produced by volcanic eruptions. Acid rain has been shown to have adverse impacts on forests and soils, killing insect and aquatic life-forms, causing paint to peel, corrosion of steel structures such as bridges, weathering of stone buildings and statues as well as having impacts on human health. "Acid rain" is a popular term referring to the deposition of a mixture from wet and dry acidic components. Distilled water, once carbon dioxide is removed, has a neutral pH of 7.
Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acidic, those with a pH greater than 7 are alkaline. "Clean" or unpolluted rain has an acidic pH, but no lower than 5.7, because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid, a weak acid according to the following reaction: H2O + CO2 ⇌ H2CO3 Carbonic acid can ionize in water forming low concentrations of carbonate and hydronium ions: H2O + H2CO3 ⇌ HCO3− + H3O+ Unpolluted rain can contain other chemicals which affect its pH. A common example is nitric acid produced by electric discharge in the atmosphere such as lightning. Acid deposition as an environmental issue would include additional acids other than H2CO3; the corrosive effect of polluted, acidic city air on limestone and marble was noted in the 17th century by John Evelyn, who remarked upon the poor condition of the Arundel marbles. Since the Industrial Revolution, emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere have increased. In 1852, Robert Angus Smith was the first to show the relationship between acid rain and atmospheric pollution in Manchester, England.
In the late 1960s scientists began observing and studying the phenomenon. The term "acid rain" was coined in 1872 by Robert Angus Smith. Canadian Harold Harvey was among the first to research a "dead" lake. At first the main focus in research lay on local affects of acid rain. Waldemar Christofer Brøgger was the first to acknowledge long-distance transportation of pollutants crossing borders from the United Kingdom to Norway. Public awareness of acid rain in the US increased in the 1970s after The New York Times published reports from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire of the harmful environmental effects that result from it. Occasional pH readings in rain and fog water of well below 2.4 have been reported in industrialized areas. Industrial acid rain is areas downwind from them; these areas all burn sulfur-containing coal to generate electricity. The problem of acid rain has not only increased with population and industrial growth, but has become more widespread; the use of tall smokestacks to reduce local pollution has contributed to the spread of acid rain by releasing gases into regional atmospheric circulation.
Deposition occurs a considerable distance downwind of the emissions, with mountainous regions tending to receive the greatest deposition. An example of this effect is the low pH of rain; the earliest report about acid rain in the United States was from the chemical evidence from Hubbard Brook Valley. In 1972, a group of scientists including Gene Likens discovered the rain, deposited at White Mountains of New Hampshire was acidic; the pH of the sample was measured to be 4.03 at Hubbard Brook. The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study followed up with a series of research that analyzed the environmental effects of acid rain. Acid rain that mixed with stream water at Hubbard Brook was neutralized by the alumina from soils; the result of this research indicates the chemical reaction between acid rain and aluminum leads to increasing rate of soil weathering. Experimental research was done to examine the effects of increased acidity in stream on ecological species. In 1980, a group of scientists modified the acidity of Norris Brook, New Hampshire, observed the change in species' behaviors.
There was a decrease in species diversity, an increase in community dominants, a decrease in the food web complexity. In 1980, the US Congress passed an Acid Deposition Act; this Act established an 18-year assessment and research program under the direction of the National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program. NAPAP looked at the entire problem from a scientific perspective, it enlarged a network of monitoring sites to determine how acidic the precipitation was, to determine long-term trends, established a network for dry deposition. It looked at the effects of acid rain and funded research on the effects of acid precipitation on freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, historical buildings and building materials, it funded extensive studies on atmospheric processes and potential control programs. From the start, policy advocates from all sides attempted to influence NAPAP activities to support their particular policy advocacy efforts, or to disparage those of their opponents. For the US Government's scientific enterprise, a significant impact of NAPAP were lessons learned in the assessment process and in environmental research management to a relatively