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Bilbao

Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015; the Bilbao metropolitan area has 1,037,847 inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain. Bilbao is the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region. Bilbao is situated in the north-central part of Spain, some 16 kilometres south of the Bay of Biscay, where the economic social development is located, where the estuary of Bilbao is formed, its main urban core is surrounded by two small mountain ranges with an average elevation of 400 metres. Its climate is shaped by the Bay of Biscay low-pressure systems and mild air, moderating summer temperatures by Iberian standards, with low sunshine and high rainfall; the annual temperature range is low for its latitude. After its foundation in the early 14th century by Diego López V de Haro, head of the powerful Haro family, Bilbao was a commercial hub of the Basque Country that enjoyed significant importance in Green Spain.

This was due to its port activity based on the export of iron extracted from the Biscayan quarries. Throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Bilbao experienced heavy industrialisation, making it the centre of the second-most industrialised region of Spain, behind Barcelona. At the same time an extraordinary population explosion prompted the annexation of several adjacent municipalities. Nowadays, Bilbao is a vigorous service city, experiencing an ongoing social and aesthetic revitalisation process, started by the iconic Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, continued by infrastructure investments, such as the airport terminal, the rapid transit system, the tram line, the Azkuna Zentroa, the under development Abandoibarra and Zorrozaurre renewal projects. Bilbao is home to football club Athletic Club de Bilbao, a significant symbol for Basque nationalism due to its promotion of only Basque players and one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history. On 19 May 2010, the city of Bilbao was recognised with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, awarded by the city state of Singapore, in collaboration with the Swedish Nobel Academy.

Considered the Nobel Prize for urbanism, it was handed out on 29 June 2010. On 7 January 2013, its mayor, Iñaki Azkuna, received the 2012 World Mayor Prize awarded every two years by the British foundation The City Mayors Foundation, in recognition of the urban transformation experienced by the Biscayan capital since the 1990s. On 8 November 2017, Bilbao was chosen the Best European City 2018 at The Urbanism Awards 2018, awarded by the international organisation The Academy of Urbanism; the official name of the town is Bilbao, as known in most languages of the world. Euskaltzaindia, the official regulatory institution of the Basque language, has agreed that between the two possible names existing in Basque and Bilbo, the historical name is Bilbo, while Bilbao is the official name. Although the term Bilbo does not appear in old documents, in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor by William Shakespeare, there is a reference to swords made of Biscayan iron which he calls "bilboes", suggesting that it is a word used since at least the sixteenth century.

There is no consensus among historians about the origin of the name. Accepted accounts state that prior to the 12th century the independent rulers of the territory, named Senores de Zubialdea, were known as Senores de Bilbao la Vieja; the symbols of their patrimony are the church used in the shield of Bilbao to this day. One possible origin was suggested by the engineer Evaristo de Churruca, he said. For Bilbao this would be the result of the union of the Basque words for river and cove: Bil-Ibaia-Bao; the historian José Tussel Gómez argues that it is just a natural evolution of the Spanish words bello vado, beautiful river crossing. On the other hand, according to the writer Esteban Calle Iturrino, the name derives from the two settlements that existed on both banks of the estuary, rather than from the estuary itself; the first, where the present Casco Viejo is located, would be called billa, which means stacking in Basque, after the configuration of the buildings. The second, on the left bank, where now Bilbao La Vieja is located, would be called vaho, Spanish for mist or steam.

From the union of these two derives the name Bilbao, written as Bilvao and Biluao, as documented in its municipal charter. An -ao ending is present in nearby Sestao and Ugao, that could be explained from Basque aho, "mouth"; the demonym is "bilbaíno, -a", although the popular pronunciation bilbaino/a is frequent. In euskera it is bilbotar, sometimes used in Spanish within the Basque Country; the village is affectionately known by its inhabitants as the botxo meaning hole, since it is surrounded by mountains. The nickname "botxero" is derived from this nickname. Another nickname that Bilbao receives is that of "chimbos", which comes from birds that were hunted in large numbers in these places during the 19th century; the titles, the flag and the coat of arms are Bilbao's traditional symbols and belong to its historic patrimony, being used in formal acts, for the identification and decoration of specific places or for the validation of documents. TitlesBilbao holds the historic category of borough, with the titles of "Very noble and loyal and unbeaten" ("Muy Noble

Rochelle Blumenfeld

Rochelle Blumenfeld is an American artist from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Her paintings have been exhibited in many public and private collections, including the Carnegie Museum of Art, Pennsylvania, her work has been included in the Bicentennial Exhibit of “American Painters in Paris” in Paris, Copley Society of Art, Dunfermline Fife and the Westmoreland Museum of American Art, Pennsylvania. Rochelle Blumenfeld was born in Pittsburgh, PA in 1936, her grandparents were immigrants from the Soviet Union. Her father, Lawrence Reznik, was a sign painter making window displays. Blumenfeld's grandfather, Harry Fairman, was an artist and a decorator for the wealthy neighborhoods in the East End of Pittsburgh, he inspired her to pursue art. Blumenfeld started taking art classes at the Carnegie Museum starting in 5th grade. In High School, she took an advanced art class in painting at the Carnegie Tech, which became known as Carnegie Mellon University. After graduation, she applied and was accepted as a Painting and Design student at Carnegie Mellon University.

She left the university to get married. Blumenfeld missed painting, she enrolled in a class at the Young Men and Women's Hebrew Association, taught by Samuel Rosenberg, who taught Andy Warhol. Samuel Rosenberg was a big influence on her future as a painter. Rochelle Blumenfeld married Irving Blumenfeld in 1955, he was a co-founder of Gateway Paint Company in the Strip district of Pittsburgh. Together they had 5 grandchildren. Samuel Rosenberg introduced Blumenfeld to the world of abstract art, she was inspired by life around her to make statements in her paintings. Blumenfeld used bold colors and movement in her art to express herself, she was inspired by the natural shapes of the world around her, paintings represent a period of changes. The artist stated "Life continually alters its course on an unknown journey, coping is not always easy". In 1958, Rochelle Blumenfeld started exhibiting professionally, when she was accepted into the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh; this started a long career of exhibiting her work through the United States and Europe.

In the 1970s Rochelle Blumenfeld had a one-person show at the Carnegie Museum of Art. In 1976 her paintings were included in the Bicentennial Exhibition, “Americans in Paris”, France. Blumenfeld showed her work with the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh in Dunfermline Scotland to honor Andrew Carnegie at his birthplace. In the 1990s, Blumenfeld started a series of paintings representing Shabbat; some of her Judaica paintings were included in the Hallmark Cards "Tree of Life" series in 1999. In 2000, Blumenfeld was inspired by seeing Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, she wanted to keep and share her memories of the dance, which started a series of paintings she named "Celebration of Spirit". In 2004, in conjunction with the Three Rivers Arts Festival, she had a one-person show of her ballet paintings at the One Oxford Centre in Pittsburgh. Blumenfeld's most recent exhibit "Hill District Paintings" is different from her other exhibits, as it tells a story of her family and the streets of the city where she grew up.

In 2011 Blumenfeld had a conversation with her grandchildren that inspired the artist to use her paintings to recreate memories of diverse neighborhood with people of different ethnic backgrounds, all struggling to make a living during the Great Depression and World War II. Her grandson wanted to know. Blumenfeld said that the cash register came from her grandfather's store on Logan Street, Pittsburgh, it came to her house. Cash register became her first painting in this series. Painting the cash register triggered her other memories and she completed a total of 14 Hill District Paintings; the last painting in the series is her memory of a patriotic parade on Fifth Avenue during World War II, honoring the soldiers. Blumenfeld's work has been published by Hallmark Cards, Kennedy Publishing, Allied Publications, Hachai Publishing; as a member of the Associated Artists of Pittsburgh, Rochelle Blumenfeld received many awards including a Carnegie Museum of Art purchase award for their permanent collection in 1960.

In 1966, Blumenfeld won first prize in a nationwide art contest, sponsored by Enjay Chemical Company. Artist's Homepage

A2 motorway (Serbia)

The A2 motorway, called the Miloš the Great Motorway is a motorway in Serbia under construction and when finished it will span for 258 kilometers. It begins in Belgrade and runs southward to Čačak and Požega going further south towards Montenegro ending at future Boljare border crossing; this motorway will thus provide faster link with Montenegro by attaching to its Bar-Boljare motorway under construction. It is referred in Serbian media as part of proposed Corridor XI - an envisioned ferry/motorway corridor linking Bari, Bar and Bucharest. Subsection Surčin—ObrenovacThe northernmost subsection Surčin—Obrenovac starts on interchange “Surčin jug” with A1 motorway, it passes by Jakovo where will be main tool station, it leaves Syrmia region by passing Sava and Kolubara rivers on 1766 meters-long bridge. The section ends close to the bridge on the “Obrenovac” interchange where next subsection, Obrenovac—Ub, starts; the construction of this 17.6 kilometer-long section started in 2017 and is completed by the end of 2019 with main contractor China Communications Construction Company..

Subsection Obrenovac—UbThis 26.2 kilometers-long section was under construction from 2014 to 2019. The main contractor was Chinese company Shandong Hi-Speed Group. On this section there are 14 bridges, one rest area and exit'Ub', it goes through flat terrain in the Kolubara river valley. Subsection Ub—LajkovacSection Ub—Lajkovac, 12.5 kilometers-long is first completed section on A2 motorway. It was constructed from 2011 to 2014, main contractors were Serbian companies'Putevi Užice' and'GP Planum'. Value of this section is 73 million euros and it was funded by the budget of the Government of Serbia. On this section there are 13 bridges, one rest area and exit „Lajkovac“. Though it was completed in 2014, it could not be put into service while sections Obrenovac—Ub and Lajkovac—Ljig were under construction. Subsection Lajkovac—LjigThis 24 kilometers-long section was under construction from 2014 to 2019. Main contractor s Chinese company Shandong Hi-Speed Group. On this section there are 16 bridges, tunnel'Brančići', one rest area and exit'Ljig'.

It goes through flat terrain in valley of Kolubara and Ljig rivers, after Ljig it enters hilly terrain. Subsection Ljig—PreljinaThe 40.3 kilometers-long section Ljig—Preljina is first section of motorway A2, put into service. It was constructed from 2012 to 2016 by Azerbaijani company AzVirt, it starts near Dići, few kilometers from Ljig, passes near Takovo where is exit'Takovo' for Gornji Milanovac. This section ends on exit'Preljina' near to Čačak, where will be interchange with future A5 motorway. On this section there are 66 bridges and 12 overpasses, 4 tunnels:'Veliki Kik','Savinac','Šarani' and'Brđani' and 3 rest areas. Subsection Preljina–PožegaSubsection Preljina—Požega is under construction, it is 30.9 kilometers long and divided on 3 tranches: Preljina—Prijevor, Prijevor—Lučani and Lučani—Požega. Commercial contract with Chinese company China Communications Construction Company worth 450 million euros was signed in 2017. There will be 3 exits:'Pakovraće','Lučani' and'Požega'. One third of this subsection will be under bridges and 3 tunnels:'Trbušani','Laz' and'Munjino Brdo'.

The construction started in 2019. On interchange "Požega" near Prilipac motorway will be divided on two directions: to Boljare and to Kotroman. Motorway will pass through valleys of Čemernica and Zapadna Morava rivers, while from Prijevor it enters hilly terrain and bypasses Ovčar-Kablar Gorge; the last section of A2 motorway is a section from Požega to border with Montenegro near Boljare. This section will be more than 100 kilometers long, the exact route is being chosen. Value of this section is estimated to be more than 1.5 billion euros. Motorway will go from Požega, pass next to Arilje and Ivanjica and reach Pešter plateau where it passes near Sjenica, finishes on future border crossing Boljare with Montenegro. Section is complicated to construct, there will be many bridges and tunnels, it will be contracted after section Preljina—Požega is finished. Exit list is shown just for sections between Belgrade and Požega, because the detailed route for section Požega—Boljare is unknown. Regulation of State Roads Official site of PE Corridors of Serbia