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The bilge of a ship or boat is the part of the hull that would rest on the ground if the vessel were unsupported by water. The "turn of the bilge" is the transition from the bottom of a hull to the sides of a hull. Internally, the bilges is the lowest compartment on a ship or seaplane, on either side of the keel and between the floors; the first known use of the word is from 1513. The word is sometimes used to describe the water that collects in this area. Water that does not drain off the side of the deck or through a thru hull via a scupper, drains down into the ship into the bilge; this water may be from rough seas, leaks in the hull or stuffing box, or other interior spillage. The collected water must be pumped out to prevent the bilge from becoming too full and threatening to sink the ship. Bilge water can be found aboard every vessel. Depending on the ship's design and function, bilge water may contain water, urine, solvents, pitch and other materials. Discharge of bilge liquids may be restricted and for commercial vessels is regulated under Marpol Annex I.

By housing water in a compartment, the bilge keeps these liquids below decks, making it safer for the crew to operate the vessel and for people to move around in heavy weather. Methods of removing water from bilges have included pumps. Modern vessels use electric bilge pumps controlled by automated bilge switches. Bilge coatings are applied to protect the bilge surfaces; the water that collects is noxious, "bilge water" or just "bilge" has thus become a derogatory colloquial term used to refer to something bad, fouled, or otherwise offensive. Bilges may contain partitions to damp the rush of water from side to side and fore and aft to avoid destabilizing the ship due to the free surface effect. Partitions may contain limber holes to allow water to flow at a controlled rate into lower compartments. Cleaning the bilge and bilge water is possible using "passive" methods such as bioremediation, which uses bacteria or archaea to break down the hydrocarbons in the bilge water into harmless byproducts.

Of the two general schools of thought on bioremediation, the one that uses beneficial microbes local to the bilge is regarded as being more "green" because it does not introduce foreign bacteria to the waters that the vessel sits in or travels through. But archaea that are non-indigenous can be used and discharged, since the archaea will die off anyway, leaving only local indigenous microbes remaining. Large commercial vessels need bilge alarms to notify the crew how much and where the bilge is rising; these bilge alarms are electric devices that are designed to detect leakages in the ship early before major damage is done to the vessel. Oil content meters are sometimes referred to as bilge alarms. Basement

David Stern (businessman)

David Stern was a German-born American businessman who helped to found Levi Strauss & Co. with his brother-in-law Levi Strauss. David Stern was born to a Jewish family in Bavaria in 1820. In the 1840s, he immigrated to the United States first to New York the American South and to San Francisco in 1853 or 1855 where he was joined by his brother-in-law Levi Strauss. Strauss had been sent to San Francisco -, booming due to the gold rush - to scout out a larger location for the family merchandising company. In 1858, he was listed as a co-owner of the company under the name Strauss, Levi importers clothing in the San Francisco Directory where Stern served as its manager and Strauss as its sales manager. In 1860, the company was renamed as Levi Co.. In 1873, the company received the patent for its jeans, the first to use metal rivets on workpants made with denim cloth. In 1850, he married the sister of Levi Strauss in New York, they had 8 children: Caroline. He was a member of the Eureka Benevolent Congregation Emanu-El.

Two of his sons married sisters, the daughters of Lazard Frères head Marc Eugene Meyer: his son, Sigmund Stern, married Rosalie Meyer. Sigmund's only child, married Walter A. Haas, the son of Abraham Haas, whose descendants are the current owners of Levi Strauss & Co. David Stern died in 1875 in San Francisco; the company incorporated in 1890 with Levi Strauss as President, Jacob Stern as First Vice President, Sigmund Stern as Second Vice President, Louis Stern as Treasurer, Abraham Stern as Secretary. After the death of Levi Strauss in 1902 - who had no children - Stern's sons took over ownership of the company; the Sigmund Stern Recreation Grove is named for his son

Terence Beesley

Terence Beesley was an English actor and writer. He was born in London, to Irish parents, trained at the City Lit in London in 1980 and the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, his television work included Cadfael, The Bill, Where the Heart Is, Midsomer Murders, EastEnders, Down to Earth, She's Out and What Remains. He starred in Peter Kosminsky's 15, The Life and Death of Phillip Knight, played General Bennigsen in the BBC adaptation of War and Peace, his stage work included British theatre performances as the title role in Shakespeare's Richard III and as the Vicomte de Valmont in Les Liaisons Dangereuses for multi Barrymore award winner director Mark Clements and his own adaptation of Nikolai Gogol's Diary of a Madman at the Royal Exchange Theatre, Manchester. Along with Jonathan Church and Jules Melvin, he was a founder of the Triptych Theatre Company, their first production, Jack Shepherd's In Lambeth at the Lyric Studio, received much critical acclaim. He met Ashley Jensen in 1999 during a production at the Manchester Royal Exchange, they married in California in 2007.

He died at the family home in Somerset in November 2017. Beesley was found unconscious in a car in his garage. An inquest in 2018 ruled. Terence Beesley on IMDb Terence Beesley

Norris Castle

Norris Castle is located on the Isle of Wight and can be seen from the Solent standing on the northeast point of East Cowes. It was designed by the famous architect James Wyatt for Lord Henry Seymour; the estate adjoins the neighbouring Osborne House, country home to Queen Victoria, which includes the nine-hole Osborne Golf Club. On the other side of Norris Castle sits the Spring Hill estate, bought by William Goodrich in 1794. Norris Castle sits in 225 acres of land, with a mile of waterfront; the Castle is a Grade I listed building. In October 2016, the parks and gardens at Norris Castle were upgraded by Historic England to Grade I, making them the Isle of Wight's only Grade I listed landscape; this change in status was achieved as a result of the new owners working in partnership with Historic England. The landscape at Norris Castle is thought to have been designed in 1799 by Humphry Repton, one of England’s greatest landscape designers, it includes one of the best examples of a castellated walled garden anywhere in England.

Despite its grandeur, the castle's condition has suffered over recent years, with the huge cost of trying to keep it maintained. Again in October 2016, Historic England confirmed that its Heritage at Risk Register includes not only Norris Castle itself, but its lands and outbuildings as well, they noted the'failure in the external walling of Norris Castle' and the'immediate risk of further rapid deterioration to Norris Castle Farm'. In 2014, part of one of the outbuildings was vandalised when eight foot high graffiti was daubed across one of its sides. At the present time, the castle is closed to the public. Norris Castle has a galleted facade with crenellations, but all of this is for show, as the castle has no defensive fortifications; the building's original function was as a residence. The main castle has a grand hall, a circular drawing room and extensive cellars; the estate includes a two-bedroom Lodge Cottage, four-bedroom Farmhouse, three-bedroom Farmhouse Cottage and a two-bedroom Landing House.

James Wyatt designed the farmyard buildings that are further inland, which have a similar design to the castle itself. There are extensive traditional farm buildings and stabling, a walled garden, a modern two-bedroom farm building and parkland and woodland; the first owner and builder of Norris Castle was the politician, Lord Henry Seymour, who bought the estate in 1795, at the age of 49. Having retired, he spent the rest of his life improving the Norris Castle estate, it is said that it cost £195,000 to build. He had a reputation for both benevolence, his personal habits were said to be those of extreme simplicity and frugality. There is an account of a visit by J and H Oldershaw to the island in 1826 and their reminiscences of Lord Seymour, they described him as an eccentric character and an old retired bachelor, who by accounts had not left the island for 20 or 30 years. They said that his normal attire of blue jacket and trousers, together with hobnailed boots, made him look more like a labourer, for which he was mistaken.

He would work in hedges and ditches with his men and would go into town in his dung cart. He would play jokes on his visitors by pretending to be a labourer, whilst showing them around the estate, he was known to accept money from them, which he would give to his servants, saying "Here you are. I have got you something today!". After completing his work on the estate, Lord Seymour opened the castle up to the public, to allow them to share its charm and magnificent views. After his death in 1830 at the age of 84, the castle remained closed to the public for over 140 years, when it was opened up again in 1975. In August 1830, the Dauphiness and Duchess De Berri, accompanying the expatriated King of France, visited Norris Castle; the king had abdicated on 2 August and left France for England on 16 August, when it seemed that their safety was in jeopardy from angry mobs of French citizens. One of their first ports of call was East Cowes; the Princesses were said to be charmed by the scenery of the island, although they complained of their'stinted' lodgings at the Fountain Hotel.

They did however. Following the death of Lord Henry Seymour, the estate passed to his brother, Lord George Seymour, 67 at the time. George Seymour was a politician who represented Orford between 1784 and 1790 and Totnes between 1796 and 1801, he kept the Castle for nine years, before selling it in 1839 to Robert Bell. Mr Robert Bell was a newspaper tycoon, who owned amongst others, the Weekly Dispatch, which he founded in 1801. In 1928 the newspaper was renamed to the Sunday Dispatch, which in turn was merged with the Sunday Express in 1961. One of the accomplishments of Mr Bell, was that it was he who built the mile long sea wall, which both protects the estate's coastline and gives a view of the castle; the cost of building the wall was said to be over £20,000. In 1940, a pair of silver 7-light candelabra engraved with the inscription "Presented by Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent to Robert Bell, Esq. Norris Castle, 1859" was sold at Christies for £40 11s. 6d. Norris Castle was sold to the Duke of Bedford by Robert Bell in 1880.

In 1880, Elizabeth Russell, the Duchess of Bedford was appointed Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria. So that they could be near Osborne, her husband, Francis Russell, the Duke of Bedford bought Norris Castle in 1880. In July 1890, Viscount Cantelupe and his bride spent their honeymoon at Norris Castle, as guests of the Duke and Duchess; the Viscount was killed at sea in whilst on active service during the First World War. The Duke of Bedford died


Katakhal is a town and railway station in Hailakandi tehsil of Hailakandi district in the Indian state of Assam. The Hailakandi district is one of the three districts of Southern Assam i.e. Barak Valley. Indian Railway has converted the current 84 km railline from Katakhal to Bairabi 2 km inside Mizoram, its further 51.38 km Bairabi Sairang Railway extension from Bairabi to Sairang in Mizoram is under construction with target completion date of March 2019 as per status update in March 2016. In August 2015, India railway completed a survey for a possible new route extension from Sairang to Hmawngbuchhuah on Mizoram's southern tip on the border of Myanmar, where at nearby Zochachhuah village the National Highway 502 enters Myanmar, leaving a possibility open for yet-unplanned future rail connections to Paletwa. Railway survey in Hmawngbuchhuah Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project

Château de Fléville

The Château de Fléville is a castle located in the commune of Fléville-devant-Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle, in Lorraine, France. The current structure was completed in 1533 in the French Renaissance architecture style, but includes a donjon built in 1320. Fléville was one of the few châteaux in Lorraine spared by Cardinal Richelieu after the Thirty Years' War. Fléville's architecture is typical of the early French Renaissance architecture – however, it includes an unusual balcony running along the entire façade that reflects the influence of Italian architecture of the time on Lorraine, it was built around the ruins of an earlier feudal castle, including a moat that has long since been drained. The entire Château, including the furnished interior, is open to the public and includes several rooms dedicated to the history of Lorraine; the Lambel family has owned Fléville since 1812. It was designated a historic monument in 1982. Galerie des Ducs de Lorraine au Château de Fléville, Nancy, 1857, 101 p. Victor-Melchior Jacques, Cérutti et le salon de la duchesse de Brancas à Fléville, impr. de Berger-Levrault, Nancy, 1888, 53 p. Georges Poull, Fléville: son histoire et ses seigneurs, XIIIe-XIXe s.: histoire détaillée de cette demeure et de ses possesseurs, les Fléville, les Lutzelbourg et les Beauvau, G. Poull, Rupt-sur-Moselle, 1988, 143 p.

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