Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Korçë County is one of the 12 counties of Albania, located in the eastern part of the country. The population at the 2011 census was 220,357, in an area of 3711 km², it is the largest county of Albania by area. Its capital is the city Korçë. Topographically, most of Korçë County is elevated, including the Gramos range, which forms the connection between the Scardus to the north and the Pindus range to the south. Korçë's eastern border is Albania's eastern border, as the county borders North Macedonia to the northeast and Greece to the southeast. Domestically, it borders on Gjirokastër County. Berat County and Elbasan County. Most of the region's inhabitants are ethnic Albanians, but there are important communities of Greeks, Macedonians and Roma. With regards to religion, the region hosts large concentrations of both Muslims and Orthodox Christians. According to the last national census from 2011, the county has 220,357 inhabitants. Ethnic groups in the county include Albanians, Macedonians, Aromanians, Egyptians.
Until 2000, Korçë County was subdivided into four districts: Devoll, Kolonjë, Korçë, Pogradec. Since the 2015 local government reform, the county consists of the following 6 municipalities: Devoll, Kolonjë, Korçë, Maliq and Pustec. Before 2015, it consisted of the following 37 municipalities: The municipalities consist of about 340 towns and villages in total. See Villages of Korçë County for a structured list. Regional Council of Korçë Korçë County Tourist Guide
Kâtip Çelebi. He was Muṣṭafa ibn'Abd Allāh, a celebrated Ottoman-Turkish polymath, a leading literary author of the 17th-century Ottoman Empire, he compiled bibliographic and historical encyclopaedias, in addition to writing many treatises and essays. Regarded a “a deliberate and impartial historian… of extensive learning”, Franz Babinger claimed him to be the greatest encyclopaedist among the Ottomans. With equal facility in Alsina-i Thalātha - the three languages of Ottoman imperial administration, Arabic and Persian – he wrote principally in Arabic and in Turkish, his native tongue, he collaborated on translations from French and Latin. His magnum opus, the famous bibliographic encyclopaedia, Kaşf az-Zunūn ‘an'asāmī ‘l-Kutub wa-l’fanūn, or Kaşf az-Zunūn, was published in seven volumes under the Latin title Lexicon Bibliographicum et Encyclopaedicum by the German orientalist Gustav Leberecht Flügel; the great compendium, Bibliothèque Orientale by the French orientalist Barthélemy d'Herbelot de Molainville was principally a translation of Kaşf az-Zunūn with additional material.
He combined a complete acceptance of Islam with adherence to Ishrāqī. Muṣṭafā ibn ‘Abd Allāh was born in Istanbul in February 1609, his father was a sipahi and silāhdār of the Sublime Porte and secretary in the Anadolı muhasebesi in Istanbul. His mother came from a wealthy Istanbul family. From age five or six he began learning the Qur’ān, Arabic grammar and calligraphy, at the age of fourteen his father found him a clerical position in the imperial financial bureaucracy, he excelled in penmanship and siyāqat. As the accountant of the commissariat department of the Ottoman army in Anatolia, he fought alongside his father on the Terjan campaign, in the failed expedition to recapture Baghdād from Persian control. On the return home his father died at Mosul, his uncle died a month later. In 1626-27 he was at the siege of Erzurum. In 1628 Çelebi returned to Istanbul. From an early age his father had instilled in him the love of learning, the charismatic preacher inspired him to resume his studies, he continued with interruptions for military campaigns to Baghdad and Hamadan.
In 1633 he left his corps' winter quarters in Aleppo earning the title Hajji. He rejoined the imperial army at Diyarbakr, where he had exchange with scholars, he took part in the recapture of Erivan by Sultan Murad, expedition to Tabriz, Baghdad. On his return in 1635 to Istanbul, Mehmed Kalfa, an old associate of his father's, secured him an apprentice position as Khalifa, in the Audit Office of the Cavalry, he obtained a post in the head office of the Commissariat Department. In 1645 a legacy left to him by a wealthy relative enabled him to dedicate himself fulltime to scholarship and acquire books. With his master and friend A'rej Mustafa Efendi, he studied the commentary of al- Baydawi, The Roots of Law, commentaries on Ashkāl al-ta’sīs, al-Mulakhkhas of Chaghmīnī, ‘arūd of Andalusī, Ulugh Beg’s Zīj, he attended the ders-i'amm, Kurd'Abd Allāh Efendi at Ayia Sophia and Kechi Mehmed Efendi at the Suleymānīye. In 1642 in order to carry on the chain of oral teaching he attended Veli Efendi's lectures on the Nukhba, the Alfiya, The Principles of Tradition.
He studied the Tawdīh, Isfahānī, Qādī-Mīr, al-Maqāsid, the Ādāb al-bahth, Fanārī, the Tahdhīb and the Shamsiya. He taught medicine, geometry, the Sí fasl and the Bīst bāb on the astrolabe, Elements of Accidence, al-Fanārī, the Shamsīya on logic, Jāmī, Farā’id, Multaqā, Ali Qushji's treatises titled al-Muhammadiya on arithmetic and al-Fathīya on astronomy, he wrote his teaching method was “to enter every plurality by way of unity, to master first principles by comprehending universals.” The astronomer Mevlana Mehmed ibn Ahmed Rumi al-Aqhisar was among those. His research ranged across lexicology, logic, tafsīr and hadīth, medicine, mysteries of religion, genealogy and chronicling. Among his academic circle he acquired the sobriquet “Kâtip Çelebi”, a term used for scholars not of the Ulāma, included among his friends the politician Köprülü Mehmed Paşa, it seems his tireless dedication to an arduous study regime, may have contributed to ill health and premature death in 1657 from a heart-attack, aged just 49.
On his death Kâtip Çelebi left unfinished works. His only son died young and in 1659, after his widow was deceased, his library was acquired by Levinus Warner for Leiden University. Çelebi’s taste for book acquisition had begun in Aleppo, he would expend a substantial part of his inheritance building his famous library, which came to be the largest in Istanbul in its day. Kâtip Çelebi was most productive in the decade up to his death in 1657, he authored at least 23 books, in addition to shorter essays and treatises: Fadhlakat a
Population exchange between Greece and Turkey
The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey. It involved at least 1.6 million people, most of whom were forcibly made refugees and de jure denaturalized from their homelands. The population exchange was envisioned by the new state of Turkey as a way to formalize, make permanent, the flight of its native Greek Orthodox peoples following their genocide, while initiating a new exodus of a smaller number of native Muslims from Greece to supply settlers for the now depopulated Greek Orthodox villages of Turkey, while Greece saw it as a way to supply its masses of propertyless Greek Orthodox refugees from Turkey with lands to settle from the exchanged native Muslims of Greece; this major compulsory population exchange, or agreed mutual expulsion, was based not on language or ethnicity, but upon religious identity, involved nearly all the indigenous Orthodox Christian citizens of Turkey, including Turkish-speaking Orthodox citizens, most of the native Muslims of Greece, including Greek-speaking Muslim citizens.
Each group were citizens, native peoples, of the state seeking to expel them, neither had representation in the state purporting to speak for them in the exchange treaty. By the end of 1922, the vast majority of native Asia Minor Greeks had fled the new state of Turkey due to the Greek genocide there, as well as the defeat of the Greek army in the Greco-Turkish War. According to some calculations, during the autumn of 1922, around 900,000 Greeks arrived in Greece. According to Fridtjof Nansen, before the final stage, in 1922, of the 900,000 Greek refugees a third were from Eastern Thrace, with the other two thirds being from Asia Minor; the Ottoman census of 1914 counted 13.4 million Muslims, 1.2 million Armenians and 1.8 million Greeks an undercount of 1,200,000 Christians: 2.1 million Greeks, 1.9 million Armenians, 0.4 million Assyrians - 4.4 million. The Ottoman estimate of Christian population of 3 million within the present borders of Turkey was 4.4 million of the 17.5 million total. The estimate for the Greeks living within the present day borders of Turkey in 1914 is 2.130 million a figure higher than the 1.8 million Greeks in the Ottoman census of 1910 which included Western Thrace and Epirus.
A revised count suggests 620,000 in Eastern Thrace including Constantinople, 550,000 Pontic Greeks, 900,000 Anatolian Greeks and 60,000 Cappadocian Greeks. Christians were close to 25% of the population in 1912, not 18.9% as reported. There were 8.5 million people in the Ottoman governed Arabic-speaking regions of the Levant and Arabia of whom 1.6 million were Christian giving the total number of Christians in the Empire as just short of 5.8-6 million or less than 23%. The most given figure for Ottoman Greeks killed during WWI until 1923 is 550,000; some estimates go as high as 750,000 which would suggest the Greek population was closer to 2.4 million, if true (the numbers of Armenians killed is 1.1-1.5 million and Assyrians 275-300,000 for a total including Greeks: 1.925-2.550 million. Arrivals in Greece from the exchange numbered 1,310,000: 260,000 from Eastern Thrace, 20,000 from the southern shore of the Sea of Marmara, 650,000 from Anatolia, 60,000 from Cappadocia, 280,000 Pontic Greeks, 40,000 left Constantinople.
Additionally 50,000 Greeks came from the Caucasus, 50,000 from Bulgaria and 12,000 from Crimea 1.42 million from all regions. 340,000 Greeks remained in Turkey, 220,000 of them in Istanbul in 1924. By 1924 the Christian population of Turkey proper had been reduced from 4.4 million in 1912 to 700,000, 350,000 Armenians, 50,000 Assyrians and the rest Greeks, 70% in Constantinople. The Greek–Turkish population exchange came out of the Turkish military's reaction against Christian minorities in the late days of the Ottoman Empire and its subsequent massacres of them: Adana massacre of 1909, Armenian Genocide of 1914-1923, Greek genocide 1914-1922. By January 31, 1917, the Chancellor of Germany, allied with the Ottomans during World War I, was reporting that: The indications are that the Turks plan to eliminate the Greek element as enemies of the state, as they did earlier with the Armenians; the strategy implemented by the Turks is of displacing people to the interior without taking measures for their survival by exposing them to death and illness.
The abandoned homes are looted and burnt or destroyed. Whatever was done to the Armenians is being repeated with the Greeks. At the end of World War I one of the Ottoman's foremost generals, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, continued the fight against the attempted Allied occupation of Turkey in the Turkish War of Independence; the surviving christian minorities within Turkey the Armenians and the Greeks, had sought protection from the Allies and thus continued to be seen as an internal problem, as an enemy, by the Turkish National Movement. This was exacerbated by the Allies authorizing Greece to occupy Ottoman regions with a large surviving Greek minority population in 1919 and by an Allied proposal to protect the remaining
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
A khanqah or khaniqah known as a ribat – among other terms – is a building designed for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation. In the past, to a lesser extent nowadays, they served as hospices for saliks and talibs. Khanqahs are often found adjoined to dargahs and madrasas. In the Arab world North Africa, the khanqah is known as a zāwiyah. In Turkey and Ottoman areas like Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina, they are locally referred to as tekije. In South Asia, the words khanqah and dargah are used interchangeably for Sufi shrines. In addition, there are lodges in Central and South Asia referred to as Qalander Khane that serve as rest houses for the unaffiliated malang and fakirs. Khanqahs spread across the Islamic world, from Morocco to Indonesia; the first khanqah in India is located in Maner Sharif. It is established approx more than 800 years ago. Khanquah Maner Sharif has been the centre of fourteen Sufi's Order. Of them, Soharvardia order and Firdausia order have spread vastly throughout the Indian sub-continent.
The Khanqah Maner Sharif still exists and are following on the path shown by Imam Taj Faqih and Sultan-ul-Makhdoom. All khanqahs, regardless of size, feature a large central hall; the daily ritual prayers incumbent on all Muslims, are held in this hall, as are the Sufi forms of dhikr and celebration of the divine. Large khanqahs grew up around the dargah of a tariqa's founder or of a Sufi saint; some khanqahs include dwellings for the Sufi sheikh or pir, his family, or cells for Sufis who wish to pursue their dhikr in quiet and isolation. They may include lodgings for traveling Sufis and pilgrims and premises for charities such as hospitals. Sufi movements have been banned in some Muslim-majority countries such as Turkey, Saudi Arabia, or the communist and post-communist states of Central Asia. In these countries, khanqahs have been converted to other purposes, turned into mosques. In other countries, Sufism survives and the old khanqahs are still in use. Darbar-e-Sadria Khanqah-e-Moula Teqe of Frashër, an historical Bektashi site in Albania Khanquah Emadia Qalandaria Zawiyya Sufism Dervishes Islamic architecture Ottoman architecture Architecture of Iran Nizami, Khaliq Ahmad.
"Some Aspects of Khānqah Life in Medieval India". Studia Islamica. 8: 51–69. Doi:10.2307/1595247. Fernandes, Leonor E.. The Evolution of a Sufi Institution in Mamluk Egypt: The Khanqah. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz. ISBN 3-922968-68-6. Hattstein, M. and P. Delius -- Islam: Art and Architecture, 2000, ISBN 3-8290-2558-0 Berkey, Jonathan -- The Formation of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-58813-8 ḴĀNAQĀH. Encyclopedia Iranica. "Khanaqah" article in Oxford Islamic Studies Online
Treaty of San Stefano
The 1878 Preliminary Treaty of San Stefano was a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano a village west of Constantinople, on 3 March 1878 by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. The treaty ended the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78. According to the official Russian position, by signing the treaty, Russia had never intended anything more than a temporary rough draft, so as to enable a final settlement with the other Great Powers; the treaty provided for the creation of an autonomous Principality of Bulgaria following 500 years of Ottoman domination. The day the treaty was signed, 3 March 1878, is celebrated as Liberation Day in Bulgaria. However, the enlarged Bulgaria envisioned by the treaty alarmed neighboring states as well as France and Great Britain; as a result, it was never implemented, being superseded by the Treaty of Berlin following the Congress of the same name that took place three months later.
The treaty established the autonomous self-governing Principality of Bulgaria, with a Christian government and the right to keep an army. Though still de jure tributary to Turkey, the Principality de facto functioned as independent nation, its territory included the plain between the Danube and the Balkan mountain range, the region of Sofia and Vranje in the Morava valley, Northern Thrace, parts of Eastern Thrace and nearly all of Macedonia. Bulgaria would thus have had direct access to the Mediterranean; this carried the potential of Russian ships using Bulgarian Mediterranean ports as naval bases - which the other Great Powers disliked. A prince elected by the people, approved by Turkey, recognized by the Great Powers was to take the helm of the country. A council of Bulgarian noblemen was to draft a constitution. Ottoman troops were to withdraw from Bulgaria. Under the treaty, Montenegro more than doubled its territory, acquiring Ottoman-controlled areas including the cities of Nikšić, Bar, the Ottoman Empire recognized its independence.
Serbia became independent. Turkey recognized the independence of Romania. Romania ceded Southern Bessarabia in a forced exchange. In exchange for the war reparations, the Porte ceded Armenian and Georgian territories in the Caucasus to Russia, including Ardahan, Batum, Olti and Alashkert. Additionally, it ceded Northern Dobruja, which Russia handed to Romania in exchange for Southern Bessarabia; the Vilayet of Bosnia was supposed to become an autonomous province like Serbia was. The Straits — the Bosporus and the Dardanelles — were declared open to all neutral ships in war and peacetime; the Great Powers British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, were unhappy with this extension of Russian power, Serbia feared the establishment of Greater Bulgaria would harm its interests in former and remaining Ottoman territories. These reasons prompted the Great Powers to obtain a revision of the treaty at the Congress of Berlin, substitute the Treaty of Berlin. Romania, which had contributed to the Russian victory in the war, was disappointed by the treaty, the Romanian public perceived some of its stipulations as Russia breaking the Russo-Romanian pre-war treaties that guaranteed the integrity of Romanian territory.
Austria-Hungary was disappointed with the treaty as it failed to expand its influence in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The Albanians, dwelling in provinces controlled by the Ottoman Empire, objected to what they considered a significant loss of their territory to Serbia and Montenegro and realized they would have to organize nationally to attract the assistance of foreign powers seeking to neutralize Russia's influence in the region; the implications of the treaty led to the formation of the League of Prizren. In the "Salisbury Circular" of 1 April 1878, the British Foreign Secretary, made clear his and his government's objections to the Treaty of San Stefano and the favorable position in which it left Russia. According to British historian A. J. P. Taylor, writing in 1954, "If the treaty of San Stefano had been maintained, both the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary might have survived to the present day; the British, except for in his wilder moments, had expected less and were therefore less disappointed.
Salisbury wrote at the end of 1878'We shall set up a rickety sort of Turkish rule again south of the Balkans. But it is a mere respite. There is no vitality left in them.'" Treaty of Berlin History of Bulgaria "Preliminary Treaty of Peace between Russia and Turkey: Signed at San Stefano, February 19/ March 3, 1878". The American Journal of International Law. II: 387–401. October 1908. Doi:10.2307/2212669. JSTOR 2212669; the Preliminary Treaty of Peace, signed at San Stefano -