William Henry Cosby Jr. is an American stand-up comedian, musician and convicted sex offender. Cosby began his career as a stand-up comic at the hungry i in San Francisco during the 1960s, he landed a starring role in the television show I Spy, followed by his own sitcom The Bill Cosby Show, which ran for two seasons from 1969 to 1971. In 1972, using the Fat Albert character developed during his stand-up routines, Cosby created and hosted the animated comedy television series Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids which ran until 1985, centering on a group of young friends growing up in an urban area. Throughout the 1970s, Cosby starred in about half a dozen films, he returned to film in his career. In 1976, he earned his Doctor of Education from the University of Massachusetts Amherst, his dissertation discussed the use of Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids as a teaching tool in elementary schools. Beginning in the 1980s, Cosby produced and starred in the television sitcom The Cosby Show, which aired from 1984 to 1992 and was rated as the number one show in America for 1985 through 1989.
The sitcom highlighted the experiences and growth of an affluent African-American family. Cosby produced the spin-off sitcom A Different World, which aired from 1987 to 1993, he starred in The Cosby Mysteries from 1994 to 1995 and in the sitcom Cosby from 1996 to 2000 and hosted Kids Say the Darndest Things from 1998 to 2000. Cosby's reputation was tarnished during the mid-2010s when numerous women made sexual assault accusations against him, the earliest dating back decades. More than 60 women have accused him of either attempted sexual assault, drug-facilitated sexual assault, sexual battery, child sexual abuse, or sexual misconduct, all of which he has denied, the statute of limitations had by the mid-2010s expired in nearly all cases. Cosby was found guilty of three counts of aggravated indecent assault and sentenced to three to ten years in prison in September 2018. Cosby was born on July 1937, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he is one of four sons of Anna Pearl, a maid, William Henry Cosby Sr. who served as a mess steward in the U.
S. Navy. Cosby was the class president as well as captain of both the baseball and track and field teams at Mary Channing Wister Public School in Philadelphia. Teachers noted his propensity for joking around instead of studying, he described himself as the class clown. At FitzSimons Junior High School, Cosby continued to compete in sports. Cosby attended Philadelphia's Central High School, a magnet school and academically rigorous college prep school, where he ran track and played baseball and basketball, he failed the tenth grade. In 1956, Cosby enlisted in the Navy and served as a hospital corpsman at the Marine Corps Base Quantico in Virginia, he worked in physical therapy with Navy and Marine Corps personnel who were injured during the Korean War. Cosby earned his high school equivalency diploma through correspondence courses and was awarded a track and field scholarship to Temple University in 1961. At Temple, he studied physical education while he ran track and played fullback on the college's football team.
He began bartending at a Philadelphia club, where he earned bigger tips by making the customers laugh. He took his talent to the stage. Cosby left Temple to pursue a career in comedy, he lined up stand-up jobs at clubs in Philadelphia and in New York City, where he appeared at The Gaslight Cafe beginning in 1961. He booked dates in cities such as Chicago, Las Vegas, San Francisco, Washington, D. C. In the summer of 1963, he received national exposure on NBC's The Tonight Show; this led to a recording contract with Warner Bros. Records, who, in 1964, released his debut LP Bill Cosby Is a Very Funny Fellow... Right!, the first of a series of comedy albums. His album To Russell, My Brother, Whom I Slept With was number one on Spin magazine's list of "The 40 Greatest Comedy Albums of All Time", calling it "stand-up comedy's masterpiece". While many comics of the time were using the growing freedom of that decade to explore controversial and sometimes risqué material, Cosby was making his reputation with humorous recollections of his childhood.
Many Americans wondered about the absence of race as a topic in Cosby's stories. As Cosby's success grew he had to defend his choice of material regularly. Okay. He's white. I'm Negro, and we both see things the same way. That must mean. Right? So I figure this way I'm doing as much for good race relations as the next guy."In 1983, Cosby released the concert film Bill Cosby: Himself. Younger, well-established comics like Jerry Seinfeld have credited Cosby as an innovator both as a practitioner of stand-up comedy, as well as a person who paved the way for comics to break into sitcom television. Seinfeld said of Cosby: "He opened a door for all of us, for all of the networks to consider that this was a way to create a character, was to take someone who can hold an audience just by being up there and telling their story, he created that. He created the whole idea of taking a quote-unquote'comic' and developing a TV show just from a persona that you see on stage." Comedian Larry Wilmore saw a connection between Bill Cosby: Himself and the success of The Cosby Show, saying: "It's clear that the concert is the template for The Cosby Show."Cosby performed his first TV stand-up special in 30 years, Bill Cosby: Far from Finished, on Comedy Ce
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nanning is an archdiocese located in the city of Nanning in China. August 6, 1875: Established as Apostolic Prefecture of Guangxi 廣西 from the Apostolic Vicariate of Guangdong 廣東 June 6, 1914: Promoted as Apostolic Vicariate of Guangxi 廣西 December 3, 1924: Renamed as Apostolic Vicariate of Nanning 南寧 April 11, 1946: Promoted as Metropolitan Archdiocese of Nanning 南寧 Archbishops of Nanning Archbishop Joseph Tan Yanquan Archbishop Joseph Meng Ziwen Archbishop Paulin-Joseph-Justin Albouy, M. E. P. Vicars Apostolic of Nanning 南寧 Bishop Paulin-Joseph-Justin Albouy, M. E. P. Bishop Maurice-François Ducoeur, M. E. P. Prefects Apostolic of Guangxi 廣西 Bishop Maurice-François Ducoeur, M. E. P. Bishop Joseph-Marie Lavest, M. E. P. Bishop Jean-Benoît Chouzy, M. E. P. Bishop Pierre-Noël-Joseph Foucard, M. E. P. Fr. Aloysius Jolly, M. E. P. Wuzhou 梧州 GCatholic.org Catholic Hierarchy
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles, which they emit. Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos, certain dioxins, tobacco smoke. Although the public associates carcinogenicity with synthetic chemicals, it is likely to arise in both natural and synthetic substances. Carcinogens are not immediately toxic. Cancer is any disease in which normal cells are damaged and do not undergo programmed cell death as fast as they divide via mitosis. Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells, which interferes with biological processes, induces the uncontrolled, malignant division leading to the formation of tumors.
Severe DNA damage leads to programmed cell death, but if the programmed cell death pathway is damaged the cell cannot prevent itself from becoming a cancer cell. There are many natural carcinogens. Aflatoxin B1, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus growing on stored grains and peanut butter, is an example of a potent occurring microbial carcinogen. Certain viruses such as hepatitis B and human papilloma virus have been found to cause cancer in humans; the first one shown to cause cancer in animals is Rous sarcoma virus, discovered in 1910 by Peyton Rous. Other infectious organisms which cause cancer in humans include some helminths. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, kepone, EDB, asbestos have all been classified as carcinogenic; as far back as the 1930s, Industrial smoke and tobacco smoke were identified as sources of dozens of carcinogens, including benzopyrene, tobacco-specific nitrosamines such as nitrosonornicotine, reactive aldehydes such as formaldehyde, a hazard in embalming and making plastics.
Vinyl chloride, from which PVC is manufactured, is a carcinogen and thus a hazard in PVC production. Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not cause cancer on their own, but promote the activity of other carcinogens in causing cancer. After the carcinogen enters the body, the body makes an attempt to eliminate it through a process called biotransformation; the purpose of these reactions is to make the carcinogen more water-soluble so that it can be removed from the body. However, in some cases, these reactions can convert a less toxic carcinogen into a more toxic carcinogen. DNA is nucleophilic. For example, some alkenes are toxicated by human enzymes to produce an electrophilic epoxide. DNA attacks the epoxide, is bound permanently to it; this is the mechanism behind the carcinogenicity of benzopyrene in tobacco smoke, other aromatics and mustard gas. CERCLA identifies all radionuclides as carcinogens, although the nature of the emitted radiation, its consequent capacity to cause ionization in tissues, the magnitude of radiation exposure, determine the potential hazard.
Carcinogenicity of radiation depends on the type of radiation, type of exposure, penetration. For example, alpha radiation has low penetration and is not a hazard outside the body, but emitters are carcinogenic when inhaled or ingested. For example, Thorotrast, a suspension used as a contrast medium in x-ray diagnostics, is a potent human carcinogen known because of its retention within various organs and persistent emission of alpha particles. Low-level ionizing radiation may induce irreparable DNA damage leading to pre-mature aging and cancer. Not all types of electromagnetic radiation are carcinogenic. Low-energy waves on the electromagnetic spectrum including radio waves, infrared radiation and visible light are thought not to be, because they have insufficient energy to break chemical bonds. Evidence for carcinogenic effects of non-ionizing radiation is inconclusive, though there are some documented cases of radar technicians with prolonged high exposure experiencing higher cancer incidence.
Higher-energy radiation, including ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, gamma radiation is carcinogenic, if received in sufficient doses. For most people, ultraviolet radiations from sunlight is the most common cause of skin cancer. In Australia, where people with pale skin are exposed to strong sunlight, melanoma is the most common cancer diagnosed in people aged 15–44 years. Substances or foods irradiated with electrons or electromagnetic radiation are not carcinogenic. In contrast, non-electromagnetic neutron radiation produced inside nuclear reactors can produce secondary radiation through nuclear transmutation. Chemicals used in processed and cured meat such as some brands of bacon and ham may produce carcinogens. For example, nitrites used as food preservatives in cured meat such as bacon have been noted as being carcinogenic with demographic links, but not causation, to colon cancer. Cooking food at high temperatures, for example grilling or barbecuing meats, may lead to the formation of minute quantities of many potent carcinogens that are comparable to those found in cigarett