William Henry Gates III is an American business magnate, software developer and philanthropist. He is best known as the co-founder of Microsoft Corporation. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, chief executive officer and chief software architect, while being the largest individual shareholder until May 2014, he is one of the best-known entrepreneurs and pioneers of the microcomputer revolution of the 1970s and 1980s. Born and raised in Seattle, Gates co-founded Microsoft with childhood friend Paul Allen in 1975 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Gates led the company as chairman and CEO until stepping down as CEO in January 2000, but he remained chairman and became chief software architect. During the late 1990s, Gates had been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive; this opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning to a part-time role at Microsoft and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the private charitable foundation that he and his wife, Melinda Gates, established in 2000.
He transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014 and assumed a new post as technology adviser to support the newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella. Since 1987, he has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest documented individuals. From 1995 to 2017, he held the Forbes title of the richest person in the world all but four of those years. In October 2017, he was surpassed by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, who had an estimated net worth of US$90.6 billion compared to Gates' net worth of US$89.9 billion at the time. As of November 9, 2019, Gates had an estimated net worth of US$107.1 billion, making him the second wealthiest person in the world, behind Bezos. In his career and since leaving day-to-day operations at Microsoft in 2008, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, he donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, reported to be the world's largest private charity.
In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy. The foundation works to save lives and improve global health, is working with Rotary International to eliminate polio. Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1955, he is the son of Mary Maxwell Gates. His ancestry includes English and Irish/Scots-Irish, his father was a prominent lawyer, his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way of America. Gates' maternal grandfather was a national bank president. Gates has a younger sister Libby, he is the fourth of his name in his family but is known as William Gates III or "Trey" because his father had the "II" suffix. The family lived in the Sand Point area of Seattle in a home, damaged by a rare tornado when Gates was seven years old. Early in his life, Gates observed; when he was young, his family attended a church of the Congregational Christian Churches, a Protestant Reformed denomination.
Gates was bullied as a child. He preferred to stay in his room where he would shout "I'm thinking" when his mother asked what he was doing; the family encouraged competition. At 13, he enrolled in the private Lakeside prep school, he wrote his first software program; when he was in the eighth grade, the Mothers' Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School's rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric computer for the students. Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, he was excused from math classes to pursue his interest, he wrote his first computer program on this machine, an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine. After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation which banned for the summer Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, Gates' best friend and first business collaborator Kent Evans after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.
The four students had formed the Lakeside Programmers Club to make money. At the end of the ban, they offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for extra computer time. Rather than use the system remotely via Teletype, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including Fortran and machine language; the arrangement with CCC continued until 1970. The following year, a Lakeside teacher enlisted Gates and Evans to automate the school's class-scheduling system, providing them computer time and royalties in return; the two friends wrote the school's student information system software to schedule students in classes, Gates modified the code so that he was placed in classes with "a disproportionate number of interesting gir
Rasul Rza, was an Azerbaijani writer, Hero of Socialist Labour, People's Poet of Azerbaijan, Laureate of Soviet State Award and the Chairman of the Writers' Union of Azerbaijan. He was the father of writer Anar Rzayev. Rasul Rza was born Rasul Ibrahim oglu Rzayev on May 1910 in Goychay, he studied in Transcaucasus Communist University, Azerbaijan Scientific Research Institute and Soviet Cinematography Institute. Rasul Rza was Chairman of Writers' Union of Azerbaijan in 1939, minister of Azerbaijani Cinematography, chief editor of the Azerbaijani Soviet Encyclopedia, member of board of directors of USSR Union of Writers. With start of his career he adopted a shortened name Rasul Rza, his first poem was called Bu gün, published in Tbilisi. His serious multidimensional writings began in the 1930s. During the Great Patriotic War, he published many novels calling for patriotic spirit, he wrote a poem about Lenin. In the 60s, he began writing in more philosophical tone relating his novels to intellectual source, analytical thinking, philosophical approach to daily life and so forth.
The lyrical poems, proses he wrote hinted to sustained and subtle criticism of the Soviet regime, for, banned to write for a period of time. Additionally, he began composing songs to his poems, he was buried in Fakhri Khiyaban. A commemoration ceremony was held in his honor in in 2010; the writers of Azerbaijan started present awards to successful writers. It is chaired by Fikrat Goja. Mark with depiction of Rasul Rza's portrait in honor of 90th anniversary
Hemingford Abbots is a village and civil parish in Cambridgeshire, England. Hemingford Abbots lies 3 miles east of Huntingdon, is continuous with neighbouring Hemingford Grey. Hemingford Abbots is situated within Huntingdonshire, a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire as well as being a historic county of England. There has been a settlement on the present site since at least Roman times with both flints and a Roman sarcophagus found in the area. In Anglo-Saxon times the neighbouring villages of Hemingford Grey and Hemingford Abbots were a single estate. In the 9th century they split, in 974 the manor fell under the ownership of Ramsey Abbey, where it remained until the dissolution in 1539. Hemingford Abbots was listed in the Domesday Book in the Hundred of Toseland in Huntingdonshire. In 1086 there were three manors at Hemingford Abbots; the Domesday Book does not explicitly detail the population of a place but it records that there were 32 households at Hemingford Abbots. There is no consensus about the average size of a household at that time.
Using these figures an estimate of the population of Hemingford Abbots in 1086 is that it was within the range of 112 and 160 people. The Domesday Book uses a number of units of measure for areas of land that are now unfamiliar terms, such as hides and ploughlands. In different parts of the country, these were terms for the area of land that a team of eight oxen could plough in a single season and are equivalent to 120 acres. By 1086, the hide had become a unit of tax assessment rather than an actual land area; the survey records that there were ten ploughlands at Hemingford Abbots in 1086 and that there was the capacity for a further eight ploughlands. In addition to the arable land, there was a water mill at Hemingford Abbots; the tax assessment in the Domesday Book was known as geld or danegeld and was a type of land-tax based on the hide or ploughland. It was a way of collecting a tribute to pay off the Danes when they attacked England, was only levied when necessary. Following the Norman Conquest, the geld was used to raise money for the King and to pay for continental wars.
Having determined the value of a manor's land and other assets, a tax of so many shillings and pence per pound of value would be levied on the land holder. While this was two shillings in the pound the amount did vary. For the manors at Hemingford Abbots the total tax assessed was 20 geld. By 1086 there was a church and a priest at Hemingford Abbots. In 1250 the village was listed as having 96 holdings; the population dropped as many moved to towns and cities. It grew after the Second World War, reaching a peak of 628 in 1961, its 2001 population was 584. The name Hemingford means "the ford of the people of Hemma", where Hemma is believed to be the name of a Saxon chief; the name "Abbots" was added in reference to its ownership by Ramsey Abbey. The village was known as Hemmingeford Magna, Emmingeforde Abbatis in the 13th century; the village is home to a number of medieval buildings. As a civil parish, Hemingford Abbots has a parish council; the parish council is elected by the residents of the parish who have registered on the electoral roll.
A parish council is responsible for providing and maintaining a variety of local services including allotments and a cemetery. The parish council reviews all planning applications that might affect the parish and makes recommendations to Huntingdonshire District Council, the local planning authority for the parish; the parish council represents the views of the parish on issues such as local transport and the environment. The parish council raises its own tax to pay for these services, known as the parish precept, collected as part of the Council Tax; the parish council consists of seven councillors and meets on the last Wednesday of the month. Hemingford Abbots was in the historic and administrative county of Huntingdonshire until 1965. From 1965, the village was part of the new administrative county of Peterborough. In 1974, following the Local Government Act 1972, Hemingford Abbots became a part of the county of Cambridgeshire; the second tier of local government is Huntingdonshire District Council, a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire and has its headquarters in Huntingdon.
Huntingdonshire District Council has 52 councillors representing 29 district wards. Huntingdonshire District Council collects the council tax, provides services such as building regulations, local planning, environmental health and tourism. Hemingford Abbots is a part of the district ward of The Hemingfords and is represented on the district council by two councillors. District councillors serve for four-year terms following elections to Huntingdonshire District Council. For Hemingford Abbots the hig