Charles William Mumy Jr. is an American actor and musician and a figure in the science-fiction community/comic book fandom. He came to prominence in the 1960s as a child actor, when he was credited as Billy Mumy—an era which included his appearing on television in The Twilight Zone and Alfred Hitchcock Presents, on film in Dear Brigitte, followed by an iconic three-season role as Will Robinson in the 1960s CBS sci-fi series Lost in Space, he appeared as lonely teenager Sterling North in the Disney film Rascal and Teft in the film Bless the Beasts and Children. In the 1990s, he performed the role of Lennier in all five seasons of the syndicated sci-fi TV series Babylon 5 and narrated A&E Network's Emmy Award-winning series Biography. Mumy is known for his musical career as a guitarist, singer and composer: he is an Emmy nominee for original music in Adventures in Wonderland; as a musician Mumy performs as a solo artist, an occasional guest performer, as half of the duo Barnes & Barnes. From 1988 through the 90s he performed at the San Diego Comic-Con and other comics related events as part of the band Seduction of the Innocent along with Miguel Ferrer, Steve Leialoha, Max Allan Collins and John "Chris" Christensen.
The band released The Golden Age. Mumy was born in San Gabriel, California to Charles William Mumy, a cattle rancher, Muriel Gertrude Mumy, he began his professional career at age six, has worked on more than four hundred television episodes, eighteen films, various commercials, scores of voice-over projects. He has worked as a musician, recording artist, writer. Among Mumy's earliest television roles was six-year-old Willy in the "Donald's Friend" episode of the NBC-TV family drama series National Velvet, starring Lori Martin, he starred in three episodes of CBS-TV's original Twilight Zone: "It's a Good Life", as a child who terrorizes his town with psychic powers. In 1961, Billy was cast on CBS-TV's Alfred Hitchcock Presents series in "The Door Without a Key", featuring John Larch, who played his father in "It's a Good Life"; the same year, Mumy starred as little Jackie in the episode "Bang! You're Dead", featuring Marta Kristen, who played his sister Judy on Lost in Space. Mumy was cast as Mark Murdock in the "Keep an Eye on Santa Claus" episode of the ABC-TV drama series Going My Way, starring Gene Kelly.
His fellow guest stars were Cloris Leachman, Steve Brodie, Frank McHugh. At age eight, Mumy appeared in Jack Palance's ABC-TV circus drama The Greatest Show on Earth. In 1964, he was cast as Richard Kimble's nephew in ABC-TV's The Fugitive episode, "Home Is the Hunted". Mumy was the first choice to portray Eddie Munster in the 1964 CBS situation comedy The Munsters, but his parents objected to the extensive makeup requirements; the role instead went to Butch Patrick. Mumy appeared in one episode as a friend of Eddie's. Mumy guest starred in an episode of NBC-TV's I Dream of Jeannie, "Whatever Became of Baby Custer?". That same year, he appeared in an episode of Bewitched entitled "Junior Executive", in which he played a young Darrin Stevens. Mumy starred in Dear Brigitte, a film adaptation of the novel Erasmus with Freckles, as Erasmus Leaf, a child mathematical genius who develops a crush on Brigitte Bardot, his parents, played by James Stewart and Glynis Johns, attempt to manage his obsession.
While noted for several roles as both a child and adult actor, Mumy is best known for his iconic television role the 60s science fiction series. From 1965 to 1968, Mumy portrayed Will Robinson in Lost in Space, the recipient of numerous warnings, from the show's robot character, voiced by Dick Tufeld. Mumy was cast in Bless the Beasts and Children as Teft, a leader in a group of misfit teenage boys resolved to save a herd of bison from hunters, he played a musician friend of Cliff DeYoung's character in the TV movie Sunshine, reprised the role in Sunshine Christmas and in the TV series Sunshine. In 1974, he played Nick Butler in the pilot episode of NBC's The Rockford Files and made an appearance in a episode in season 1, as a sidewalk artist. In 1988, he played Dr. Irwin Bruckner, on Matlock. In 1996, Mumy was a writer and co-creator of Space Cases, a Nickelodeon television show with themes similar to those of Lost in Space. Between 1994–1998 he played the ambassadorial aide Lennier in the syndicated science fiction series Babylon 5.
Medicare Advantage is a type of health insurance plan in the United States that provides Medicare benefits through a private-sector health insurer. In a Medicare Advantage plan, a Medicare beneficiary pays a monthly premium to a private insurance company and receives coverage for inpatient hospital and outpatient services; the plan includes prescription drug coverage. Many plans offer additional benefits, such as dental coverage or gym memberships. By contrast, under so-called "Original Medicare", a Medicare beneficiary pays a monthly premium to the federal government and receives coverage for Part A and Part B services, but must purchase other coverage separately. Most such plans are preferred provider organizations. Public Medicare Part C plans, including Medicare Advantage plans, finance at a minimum the same medical services as "Original" Parts A and B Medicare finance via FFS. Public Part C plans, including Medicare Advantage plans typically finance additional services, including additional health services.
A public Part C Medicare Advantage beneficiary must first sign up for both Part A and Part B of Medicare in order to choose Part C. From a beneficiary's point of view, there are several key differences between Original Medicare and Part C. For example, Medicare Advantage plans include an annual out of pocket spend limit, critical financial protection against the costs of catastrophic illness or accident; that is, under Part C plans, there is a limit on how much a beneficiary will have to spend annually OOP. That amount is unlimited in Medicare Parts A and B, which can cause financial ruin and incents everyone on just Parts A and B to make other financial protection arrangements by adding some kind of private supplemental indemnity insurance. Original Medicare and Medicare Advantage handle payments to healthcare providers differently. Under Original Medicare, the Medicare program reimburses healthcare providers with a fee for each service provided to a beneficiary; this fee is calculated with a formula, while providers can reject Medicare's reimbursement rates, they cannot bargain over the reimbursement rates.
By contrast, most Medicare Advantage plans negotiate payment rates and form networks with healthcare providers, similar to how purely private health insurance plans operate. In turn, the Medicare program pays Medicare Advantage insurers a monthly fee per enrollee to cover the cost of carrying their beneficiaries. Nearly all Medicare beneficiaries will have access to at least one public Part C health plan in 2020; this number varies yearly. In the 1970s, less than a decade after the beginning of fee for service "Original Medicare," Medicare beneficiaries gained the option to receive their Medicare benefits through managed, capitated health plans HMOs, as an alternative, but this choice was only available under temporary Medicare demonstration programs. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 formalized the demonstration programs into Medicare Part C, introduced the term Medicare+Choice as a pseudo-brand for this option. Fewer sponsors participated than expected, leading to less competition than expected by the Democrats who in 1995 conceived what became Part C in 1997.
In a 2003 law, the Part C capitated-fee benchmark/framework/competitive-bidding process was created effective in 2005 to increase sponsor participation. However those changes made the costs per person of the Part C program variable; this new benchmark/framework/competitive-bidding process lead to the costs per person of a beneficiary on Part C being higher than the costs per person of a person on just A and/or B each year from 2006 to 2011. In addition it turned out through deeper investigation by MedPAC, the arm of Congress that researches Medicare and CMS that the disconnect with the original goal of Part C was caused by so-called Private Fee for Service plans introduced in 2003, special needs plans, Multiple Employer Group plans. A special situation relative to Puerto Rico contributed to the imbalance also, and the lack of parity applied to vanilla HMO and PPO plans nationwide for one year. The actual comparative absolute numbers can be found in Table II. B.1 of any Annual Medicare Trustees report.
Therefore benchmark/framework/competitive-bidding process changes were made in 2010 to better align the variable per person costs of Part C and the per person costs of people just on Parts A and/or B. As a result, on average counting all the various types of Part C health plans, as reported annually by the Me
This is a list of legislatures by country. A "legislature" is the generic name for the national parliaments and congresses that act as a plenary general assembly of representatives and that have the power to legislate. All entities included in the list of sovereign states are included in this list; the legislatures are listed with their names in English and the name in the native language of the country Elections by country List of national governments List of current heads of state and government List of supreme courts by country List of United States state legislatures Legislative assemblies of Canadian provinces and territories Parliaments of the Australian states and territories National parliaments of the European Union List of legislatures by number of members List of legislative buildings