Agreement Concerning the Shipwrecked Vessel RMS Titanic

The Agreement Concerning the Shipwrecked Vessel RMS Titanic is a treaty open to all states regarding the protection of the shipwreck of the RMS Titanic. Following the passage of the 1986 RMS Titanic Maritime Memorial Act in the United States, the US began negotiations in 2000 with the UK, Canada toward an agreement to protect the wreck; the UK signed the agreement in 2003. The US signed the agreement in 2004, it was not until 2019 that the US ratified the agreement, bringing it into effect on the day of deposit of the instrument of ratification. The RMS Titanic, a British ocean liner, sank in 1912 in the North Atlantic Ocean while en route from Southampton, England to New York City; the location of its shipwreck was unknown until its discovery in 1985 by Robert Ballard, 350 nautical miles off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Ballard neglected to make a claim of salvage, which allowed the wreck to become subject to looting and unregulated salvage operations. In response, the United States passed the RMS Titanic Maritime Memorial Act in 1986, which recognized the shipwreck as an international maritime memorial, authorized the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Department of State to negotiate an international agreement to protect the wreck.

Negotiations between the United Kingdom, United States and Canada began in 2000, producing a draft agreement on 5 January 2000. The UK signed the resulting agreement on 6 November 2003, using a "definitive signature signature without reservation as to ratification", passed legislation to implement it; the United States signed the agreement on 18 June 2004. On 15 April 2012, the Titanic wreck, which lies in international waters, automatically became protected by UNESCO, under the 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, which protects cultural, historical, or archaeological objects that have been underwater for 100 years, it was not until 18 November 2019 that the treaty was ratified by US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, on behalf of the United States. On that date, the instrument of ratification was deposited with the United Kingdom and the agreement went into effect; the treaty required ratification by only two of the four negotiating parties for it to become effective.

The treaty requires both the United Kingdom and the United States to regulate persons and vessels under their respective jurisdictions in their interactions with the wreck. Both countries can grant or deny licenses to permit entry into the shipwreck or remove items from it; the UK has expressed its intention to urge other North Atlantic countries to join the agreement Canada and France. Guerin, Ulrike. "The Protection accorded to the Titanic by the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2020. Mariano, Aznar J.. "The Titanic as Underwater Cultural Heritage: Challenges to its Legal International Protection". Ocean Development & International Law. 44: 96–112. Doi:10.1080/00908320.2013.750978. Text of the treaty R. M. S. Titanic Maritime Memorial Act of 1986, 100 Stat. 2082, 16 U. S. C. §§ 450rr–450rr-6

Menduh Tha├ži

Menduh Thaçi is the leader of the Macedonian political party Democratic Party of Albanians. Thaçi was born in Tetovo, his parents were both from Kosovo, he is the fifth of six children, he graduated from the University of Pristina. He has been an active politician for 20 years, he started as vice-president of the Party for Democratic Prosperity of Albanians. In 1997 a merger was formed between the Party for Democratic Prosperity of Albanians and the People's Democratic Party, he was vice-president until the year 2006, at that time he was chosen President of the Party, after Arbën Xhaferi resigned. As of July 2012, along with DUI vice-president Xhevat Ademi, president of New Democracy Kastriot Haxhirexha, seven other Macedonian Albanian political figures for involvement in the 2001 ethnic Albanian insurgency