The Screamers were an American electropunk group founded in 1975. They were among the first wave of the L. A. punk rock scene. The Los Angeles Times applied the label "techno-punk" to the band in 1978. In the documentary Punk: Attitude, the Dead Kennedys cite the Screamers as a key influence on their group and as one of the great unrecorded groups in rock history; the Screamers were noted for featuring synthesizer and electric piano. Additional musicians, including violinists and a female vocalist, were incorporated into their performances; the group featured a theatrical presentation that centered on Tomata du Plenty. DuPlenty and Tommy Gear, a keyboard player and vocalist, were the band's principal songwriters; the Screamers' founders Tomata du Plenty and Tommy Gear first collaborated in Seattle in 1975, where they formed The Tupperwares. The original lineup of the Tupperwares included Tommy Gear, Tomata du Plenty, Rio de Janeiro on vocals, backed by Pam Lillig and Ben witz, as well as Bill Rieflin and a teenage Eldon Hoke.
In late 1976, after legal threats from Tupperware trademark owners, the band's name was changed to the Screamers. The trio Tomata, Rio migrated to Los Angeles, leaving the other band members behind. Shortly after arriving in Los Angeles, Rio de Janeiro left the band due to creative differences and they added David Brown and drummer K. K. Barrett. Brown soon left to found the seminal punk label Dangerhouse Records; the Screamers created a visual presence in the press before they played live. Studio photos of the band began to appear in magazines before a full band had been assembled. Artist Gary Panter's logo for the band, a stylized cartoon of a screaming head with spiked hair, became one of the most recognizable images to emerge from punk rock. From 1977 through 1979, the Screamers became a sensation in Los Angeles rock clubs, selling out multiple-night engagements at the Whisky a Go Go, they were the first band without a recording contract to headline the prestigious Roxy on Sunset Boulevard.
They did several short tours during this period, playing in New York, at CBGB and Hurrah, in'78 and'79. Describing a July 1979 performance, music critic Robert Hilburn of the Los Angeles Times focused on "Tomata's extraordinary power on stage." According to Hilburn, "Tomata's hair was greased to stand straight up, giving him the look of a man who had just stuck his finger into an electric socket. His performance reflected the nervous, relentless anxiety of someone whose troubles are deeper... by the end of the 40-minute set, du Plenty has gone through the same disintegration of the human will that we associate with such books as "1984." The tuxedo jacket and tie are ripped off, leaving him symbolically naked in his attempt to maintain some dignity and individuality. As if put in another man's body, he asks in horror: "Who am I?" The Screamers never released a single official recording of any kind, although several bootleg recordings have since appeared, composed of rehearsals or live tapes. At one point, the group determined they would release their debut album only in video form, they devoted time and resources to constructing a small movie studio.
Despite some fitful efforts in the early 1980s, the band had dissolved before their video plans were realized. Roessler joined L. A.'s other "synthpunk" band, Nervous Gender. The other band members pursued non-musical careers, though K. K. Barrett reunited with Roessler to perform several Screamers songs live in late 2000, in tribute to Tomata du Plenty, who had died in San Francisco in August 2000, their most well known song, "122 Hours of Fear" was inspired by the hijacking of Lufthansa Flight 181. Their other notable song is "Vertigo", a song about insanity. In 2004, Target Video released a DVD of a Screamers concert from 1978, filmed at the Mabuhay Gardens in San Francisco and appended several early Screamers music videos shot at the Target studio around the same time. Unauthorized live recordings and demo tapes of the Screamers circulate as bootlegs, their song "Peer Pressure" is featured on the 2010 compilation Black Hole: Jon Savage Presents/California Punk 1977–1980. Tomata du Plenty starred in the 1986 punk rock musical Population: 1.
The October 2008 release of Population: 1 on DVD features a bonus disc of rare Screamers concert footage. A poster advertising a Screamers show is featured in the hallway of the house in the film Laurel Canyon; the Screamers were a large influence on hardcore bands like Dead Kennedys and the Germs, along with other synthpunk groups like The Units and Mindless Self Indulgence. The Screamers at AllMusic 122 hours of fear 1978 recording and video. Population: 1 Official Website "The Screamers", the Screamers page on PunkRockers.com Tomata du Plenty 1948-2000: some remembrances, theoretical.com, March 13, 2002. "Tomata du Plenty, R. I. P. 1948-2000" by V. Vale, ReSearchPubs.com, 2005. "Somewhere Between Rammstein and Twiggy", from: We Got the Neutron Bomb: The Untold Story of L. A. Punk by Brendan Mullen & Marc Spitz, 2001. ISBN 0-609-80774-9 "Two Ears and a Tale: The Screamers: by Kurt B. Reighley, Seattle Weekly, May 8, 2002. "A Tribute to Synth Punk 101: The Screamers Come Full Circle in Seattle" by Jennifer Maerz, The Stranger, August 8, 2002
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Martin Clive Atkins is an English drummer and session musician, best known for his work in post-punk and industrial groups including Public Image Ltd, Nine Inch Nails and Killing Joke. He works as a consultant, has written books, is the music business program coordinator at Millikin University in Decatur, IL. Atkins is an honorary board member of the Chicago-based nonprofit organisation Rock For Kids. Atkins was born in England. Atkins' first major exposure as a drummer was with John Lydon's post-Sex Pistols band, Public Image Ltd, he joined in 1979, just in time to contribute to the song "Bad Baby" on the album Metal Box. Atkins' first live show with PiL was recorded and released as a live album Paris au Printemps and his first year with the band included appearances on The John Peel Sessions for the BBC, American Bandstand and the BBC's live Old Grey Whistle Test. In 1980, Atkins left Public Image Ltd to concentrate on his band Brian Brain with Pete Jones on bass and Bobby Surgeoner on guitar.
Brian Brain released six singles and one LP on Secret Records, continued to release singles and LPs on Atkins' own Plaid Records throughout the 1980s. The band had a minor indie chart hit in 1980 with "They've Got Me in the Bottle", club hits with the singles "Jive Jive" and "Funky Zoo". Atkins rejoined Public Image Ltd in 1981 to contribute to The Flowers of Romance and produced and co-wrote the album This Is What You Want... This Is. Atkins left PiL for the last time in 1985. After leaving Public Image Ltd, Atkins revived his Brian Brain project and recorded an EP at Planet Sound Studios in New York for his own, short-lived label Plaid Records, released in July 1985. Throughout the late 1980s, the 1990s and early 2000s, Atkins performed with many bands, including Nine Inch Nails, as well as Ministry; the dual-drumming of Atkins and Bill Rieflin appears on the live Ministry album/video In Case You Didn't Feel Like Showing Up. Atkins joined Killing Joke, performing on 1990's Extremities and Other Repressed Emotions.
He managed the band for that time, designed their live show scenery and some merchandise. Atkins formed his industrial supergroup, during a Ministry tour in 1989–1990. After joining Killing Joke for their 1990 recording, Extremities and Various Repressed Emotions, he went on to form Murder, Inc. a new band featuring Geordie Walker and Paul Raven from Killing Joke, Chris Connelly, in 1992. During this time, he played with the Revolting Cocks and is credited alongside Chris Vrenna in Nine Inch Nails for performing extra drums on "Wish" and "Gave Up," tracks two and six of the Broken EP. In between creating albums and touring with Pigface he formed The Damage Manual with Jah Wobble and Connelly. Atkins produced and released a collaborative album with Skinny Puppy's Nivek Ogre, the latter's first project outside of Skinny Puppy, under the moniker Rx; the resulting album was entitled Bedside Toxicology. Between 2000 and 2002 he released four albums as Opium Jukebox featuring instrumental cover tunes done in a Bhangra style.
In October 2006, Atkins visited Beijing to discover the emerging Chinese music scene. During his stay, Atkins recorded and signed a handful of Chinese bands to Invisible Records and recorded material for a new Pigface album. Atkins has taught at Columbia College in Chicago where he instructed the course "The Business of Touring", he is an active guest lecturer, speaking at such institutions as the University of Southern California, the Midi School in Beijing and Lebanon Valley College in Annville, Pennsylvania. Atkins has since become an instructor at the Madison Media Institute in Wisconsin. Atkins has announced plans to take his lecturing further by opening a school of his own, he is a former department chairman for a music business program he designed at SAE Chicago. He now is the acting Music Business program coordinator at Millikin University in Decatur, IL. Atkins has held a number of seminars at Tech Music Schools in London, with more planned for the future. Atkins has written what he calls, "the first real book on touring".
The book Tour:Smart, featured contributions from Henry Rollins, Cynthia Plastercaster, The Enigma, the Suicide Girls, Zim Zum, Kevin Lyman, Curse Mackey, CPA Lisa Malina and various other managers, venues, agents and radio personalities. Atkins was on the tenth annual Independent Music Awards judging panel, was a judge for the seventh annual season of Independent Music Awards to support independent artists. Starting in 2015, Atkins has written and performed several podcast stories for The Martin Atkins Minute, included with the NPR All Songs Considered podcast. In 2018 Martin released; this book covers record labels, book agents, crafting a stage show, band names, social media and lots more. Martin Atkins on Bigcartel Store Martin Atkins on Myspace Official Tour:Smart page Official Gallery Page Martin Atkins Blog
Ministry is an American rock band founded in 1981 by Al Jourgensen in Chicago, Illinois. A synth-pop outfit, Ministry's sound changed as they became one of the pioneers of industrial metal in the late 1980s; the band's lineup has changed throughout its history, with the exception of Jourgensen, the band's main producer, singer and instrumentalist. Notable musicians who have contributed to the band's studio or live activities include Paul Barker, Martin Atkins, Bill Rieflin, Chris Connelly, Nivek Ogre, Mike Scaccia, Rey Washam, Paul Raven, Tommy Victor, Roy Mayorga, John Bechdel, Jason Christopher, Tony Campos, Burton C. Bell and DJ Swamp. Ministry attained commercial success in the late 1980s and early 1990s with three of their studio albums: The Land of Rape and Honey, The Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Taste and Psalm 69, with the former of the two certified gold and the latter certified platinum by the RIAA; the 1996 follow-up album, Filth Pig, was critically acclaimed but did not repeat the success of its predecessors.
The band has been nominated for six Grammy Awards and has performed at several notable music festivals, including participating in the second annual Lollapalooza tour in 1992, co-headlining Big Day Out in 1995 and performing at Wacken Open Air thrice. Jourgensen dissolved Ministry in 2008 after 27 years of recording and performing, stating that they would never reunite. However, the band announced a reunion in August 2011, has released three more studio albums since then: Relapse, From Beer to Eternity and AmeriKKKant. Ministry's origins date to 1978, when Jourgensen moved from Denver to Chicago to attend the University of Illinois at Chicago, he was introduced to the local underground scene by his then-girlfriend Shannon Rose Riley, in 1979 he joined post-punk/new wave band Special Affect, replacing Tom Hoffman on guitar, accompanying vocalist Frank Nardiello, drummer Harry Rushakoff and bassist Marty Sorenson. Following Special Affect's split in 1980, Jourgensen formed a short-lived band called The Silly Carmichaels, which featured members of The Imports and played two shows.
In 1981, Jourgensen met Jim Nash and Danny Flesher, co-founders and co-owners of the indie record label and shop Wax Trax! Records who recommended him as a touring guitarist for Divine. After playing a few concerts with the latter, Jourgensen began to write and record songs in his apartment, using a newly-bought ARP Omni synthesizer, a drum machine, a reel-to-reel tape recorder, he presented a demo to Jim Nash, who suggested Jourgensen record a single and form a touring band, which Jourgensen decided to call Ministry. The first line-up of Ministry consisted of keyboardists Robert Roberts and John Davis, bassist Sorenson, drummer Stephen George. Nash purchased recording sessions at Hedden West studios which resulted in a twelve-inch single featuring "I'm Falling" and instrumental track "Primental" on the A-side, with the song "Cold Life" on the B-side; the record was co-produced by Jay O'Roarke and Iain Burgess and released in late 1981 on Wax Trax! in the US. In March 1982, the single was licensed by British label Situation Two, with "Cold Life" as the A-side.
Ministry performed their debut concert on New Year's Eve 1982 in Chicago club Misfits, the Spring, commenced a tour of the Northeast and the Midwest, supporting Medium Medium, A Flock of Seagulls, Culture Club, Depeche Mode. Meanwhile, the "I'm Falling / Cold Life" single reached No. 45 in the Billboard Hot Dance/Disco chart with 10,000 copies as of September 1982, thus scoring Wax Trax!' First hit. The band's initial success drew the attention of Arista Records founder and head Clive Davis, who offered them a deal, promising to make them "the next Joy Division"—a claim that Jourgensen considered to be misleading. Signing a six-figure, two-album deal, the band—with Jourgensen and George comprising the official line-up—moved to record at the Synchro Sound studios in Boston, with producers Vince Ely and Ian Taylor, as well as keyboardists Roberts and Davis as session musicians. A 12-inch single containing the song "Same Old Madness" was recorded and planned for release, along with its accompanying music video.
However, "Same Old Madness"—both the song and video—did not surface until 2014. Ministry's debut album, entitled With Sympathy, was finished around this time and issued in May, reaching No. 94 in the Billboard 200. On release, the album was supported by two more singles—"Revenge" and "I Wanted to Tell Her", a supporting concert tour with The Police during the North American leg of their Synchronicity tour. During this time, Jourgensen met the members of Seattle-based band The Blackouts—namely bassist Paul Barker and drummer Bill Rieflin, as well their then-manager Patty Marsh, who became Jourgensen's wife from 1984 to 1995. In spite of With Sympathy's success, Jourgensen's relations with Arista were acrimonious. Jourgensen sent a demo tape featuring a cover version of Roxy Music's song "Same Old Scene" before parting ways with Arista, suing the latter for violating contractual obligations. Since Jourgensen has expressed dislike for the
Swans are an American experimental rock band formed in 1982 by singer and multi-instrumentalist Michael Gira. One of few acts to emerge from the New York City-based no wave scene and stay intact into the next decade, Swans have become recognized for an ever-changing sound, exploring genres such as noise rock, post-punk and post-rock, their music was known for its sonic brutality and misanthropic lyrics. Following the addition of singer and keyboardist Jarboe, who first appeared on the 1986 single "Time Is Money" and debuted as a songwriter on the 1987 album Children of God, Swans began to incorporate more melody and intricacy into their music. Jarboe remained the band's only constant member except Gira and semi-constant guitarist Norman Westberg until their dissolution in 1997. Since 1990, all Swans records have been released through Young God Records. In 2010, Gira re-formed the band without Jarboe, establishing a stable lineup of musicians which has toured worldwide and released several albums to critical acclaim.
This iteration of the group performed its last shows in November 2017, ending the tour in support of its final album The Glowing Man. Gira plans to reinvent Swans "with a revolving cast of contributors". Michael Gira has stated he took the moniker Swans as it described the sound he wanted best. Gira's summation of the name follows along the lines of: "Swans are majestic, beautiful looking creatures. With ugly temperaments."The earliest known lineup of Swans comprised Gira on bass guitar and vocals, Jonathan Kane on drums, Sue Hanel on guitar, Mojo on percussion and tape loops and either Thurston Moore, Dan Braun or Jon Tessler on the second bass guitar. Jon Tessler played percussion and tape loops. Hanel's only recordings with the group are on the compilation Body to Body, Job to Job, but the ambiguous personnel credits do not make it clear on which songs she performed. Kane stated that "Sue was the most fearsome guitarist we'd heard in New York, she was unbelievable."Hanel did not stay long in the group, by the time of their recording debut she had been replaced by Bob Pezzola.
This lineup of the group featured saxophonist Daniel Galli-Duani, who had played with Kane as the avant-garde duo Transmission. The debut EP, released on Labor, is markedly different from anything they would do later; the plodding tempos and distorted, detuned guitar work is reminiscent of such post-punk outfits as Joy Division. However, the minimal chord structures owe more to blues, while the jazz instrumentation and awkward time signatures are evidence of Swans' roots in the no wave scene of the late 1970s, which had more or less collapsed by the release of 1984's Cop. Kane compares Swans to blues icon Chester Burnett, a.k.a. Howlin' Wolf; some similarities worth noting—the music of early Swans was based on a single riff, played to hypnotic effect. Some of Burnett's songs—especially the songs penned by Burnett himself—have a similar structure and quality, their early music was typified by slow and grinding guitar noise, pounding drums, punctuated by Gira's morbid and violent lyrics barked or shouted.
Critics have described Swans' early recordings as "aggressive beyond words". Their first full-length release, featured driving, choppy rhythms and abrasive drums; the whole is reminiscent of earlier no wave bands, such as Mars, the work of Swans' contemporaries, like Sonic Youth's Confusion Is Sex and Kill Yr Idols. Filth was the first album to feature guitarist Norman Westberg, who would play a vital role in much of Swans' music and would feature on every subsequent studio album apart from Love of Life. Cop and the untitled Young God EP were both released in 1984 and re-released together on CD in 1992. Young God has been known by several names by one of its two A-sides, such as "I Crawled" or, notoriously, as "Raping a Slave"; this release is confused with their self-titled debut. The music continues in the same vein as Filth, is again vaguely reminiscent of heavy metal music played in extreme slow motion. Swans were, in this era, Gira on vocals, Westberg on guitar, Harry Crosby on bass guitar and Roli Mosimann on drums.
Gira's vocals had changed becoming more melodic, although the snarl still remained. Some of the songs on the EP "Young God" and "I Crawled", have an actual vocal melody, if rudimentary, hinting at the sounds of future releases. Young God is considered by many to be the best of their early releases for this reason. Godflesh frontman Justin Broadrick shared this impression of the group: One of the trademarks of Swans' early period was playing at painfully loud volumes during concerts leading to police stopping shows. Gira was notably confrontational with the audience, such as stepping on people's fingers resting on the stage, pulling people's hair and, physically assaulting anyone caught in the crowd headbanging; this lent a reputation to the name Swans, one of the contributing factors in Gira's retirement of the band in 1997. Since Swans' re-formation, Gira has made a point of maintaining the intensity of their live show, stating that it is at once "soul-uplifting and body-destroying", he has sometimes turned off the air conditioning before Swans performed and compared the experience to a Native American sweat lodge.
1986's Greed saw a new addition to the group with vocalist/keyboardist Jarboe joining the band. Her presence began a slow thawing in the overt energy of Swans' early work. Greed marked the i
Katrina Jane "KatieJane" Garside is an English singer, visual artist, poet. She rose to prominence as the lead vocalist of the indie noise rock band Daisy Chainsaw, which she formed in 1989 in London with guitarist Crispin Gray. After quitting Daisy Chainsaw in 1993, Garside went into seclusion for several years before reuniting with Gray in 1999 to form Queenadreena, with whom she released four studio albums between 2000 and 2008. In both Daisy Chainsaw and Queenadreena, Garside received critical attention for her alternately harsh and childlike vocals, manic onstage behaviour, raucous live concerts. Beginning in 2007, she began writing and releasing material with her project Ruby Throat, an acoustic collaboration with guitarist Chris Whittingham. In 2007, Ruby Throat released their debut album, The Ventriloquist, followed by the self-released albums Out of a Black Cloud Came a Bird and O' Doubt O' Stars, released in 2009 and 2012, respectively. Ruby Throat released their fourth album, Baby Darling Taporo, in 2017.
Garside self-released a solo album, Lullabies in a Glass Wilderness, in 2007, has worked in performance art and photography. In late 2007, her exhibition Darling, they've found the body was shown at Woom gallery in Birmingham, United Kingdom, she has exhibited, in 2005, at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London. Garside was born on 8 July 1968 in East Riding of Yorkshire, England, she has Melanie. Garside spent her early years in Wiltshire, her father was in the British Army and had a musical background, having played in local bands in London. When Katrina was age twelve, her father took the family to live aboard a yacht, they sailed the world for four years. Garside has said that spending her formative years living on the sea gave her a "different perspective on things." "You have no reference points, so everything you know ceases, including time on the long passages. It’s the same thing every day, relentlessly. There’s nothing to see, there’s no one to talk to. Which is... terrifying. You’ve got nowhere to hide, you’re so exposed.
But it’s very beautiful because all distraction falls away." At age seventeen, she returned to England. Garside formed Daisy Chainsaw in 1989 after responding to an advert in a newspaper by guitarist Crispin Gray. Bassist Richard Adams joined the band, along with Canadian drummer Vince Johnson; the group became well known for their wild live performances, featuring Garside drilling doll heads onstage and drinking juice out of baby bottles. The band's raucous concerts would sometimes result in Garside performing self-mutilation onstage. Russell Senior, guitarist of Pulp, recalled that at one 1989 concert in London, Garside wrapped the microphone cord so around her neck onstage that she lost consciousness, the show had to be ended early. Garside's look was described as a "Gothic street urchin image, complete with dead flowers meshed into her dreadlocked hair". In a review of one of the band's concert's in 1991, an unnamed journalist for Bust magazine wrote: "KatieJane Garside is either in drastic need of psychiatric help or she deserves an Oscar for best actress."The band toured the United Kingdom with Hole and Mudhoney to promote the album prior to its release, Garside drew comparisons from British press to Hole's frontwoman Courtney Love.
Love cited Garside as one of the "first true riot grrls" in 1991 and admitted to borrowing from Garside's aesthetic. Garside never associated herself with the movement, based in the Pacific Northwest of the United States; the band released Eleventeen in 1992, which would be their only full-length album before Garside left the band in 1993. The album spawned "Love Your Money", the band's most popular single. "Love Your Money" reached number 26 in the UK Singles Chart in February 1992. After Garside left Daisy Chainsaw, she disappeared from the public eye and music scene, going into seclusion, residing in the Lake District. A self-described recluse, Garside commented that "I could be anywhere and it wouldn't make a lot of difference, so I don't know that much about the country that I was born in and that I've lived in." Due to her manic onstage histrionics and bizarre behaviour in interviews, rumours circulated that Garside had succumbed to mental illness. In years, she admitted that she had been suffering a nervous breakdown at the time.
In spite of the rumours of purported seclusion, Garside was given a credit in the liner notes of the 1993 Frostbite album, Second Coming. She collaborated with the industrial band Test Department in 1995 on their album Totality. Garside moved to the Lake District in 1996 after having a nervous breakdown, lived in the historical Rigg Beck, a notorious retreat for artists and bohemians, she had no intentions of returning to music until the late 1990s when former guitarist Crisipin Gray contacted her. Some time between 1999 and 2002, during the early stages of Queenadreena, Garside resided in Wales for a brief period. After recording Live at the ICA, which featured a live 2005 performance at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, the band released two more albums, Ride a Cockhorse, which featured unreleased 4-track demos, Djin, their final studio release before disbanding around 2009. In 2007, Garside exhibited a collection of photographs and artwork at the Woom Gallery in Birmingham, titled Darling, they've found the body.
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt