For Your Eyes Only (film)
For Your Eyes Only is a 1981 British spy film, the twelfth in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, the fifth to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. It marked the directorial debut of John Glen, who had worked as editor and second unit director on three other Bond films; the screenplay by Richard Maibaum and Michael G. Wilson takes its characters and combines elements from the plots from two short stories from Ian Fleming's For Your Eyes Only collection: the title story and "Risico". In the plot, Bond attempts to locate a missile command system while becoming tangled in a web of deception spun by rival Greek businessmen along with Melina Havelock, a woman seeking to avenge the murder of her parents; some writing elements were inspired by the novels Live and Let Die, Goldfinger and On Her Majesty's Secret Service. After the science fiction-focused Moonraker, the producers wanted a return to the style of the early Bond films and the works of 007 creator Fleming.
For Your Eyes Only followed a grittier, more realistic approach and a narrative theme of revenge and its consequences. Filming locations included Greece and England, while underwater footage was shot in The Bahamas. For Your Eyes Only was released on 24 June 1981 to a mixed critical reception; this was the final Bond film to be distributed by United Artists. Roger Moore reprised the James Bond role in the 1983 sequel Octopussy. In the prologue, Bond is seen visiting the grave of his late wife Tracy Bond. Bond manages to take control of the helicopter. In the main story, the British information gathering vessel St Georges, which holds the Automatic Targeting Attack Communicator, the system used by the Ministry of Defence to communicate with and coordinate the Royal Navy's fleet of Polaris submarines, is sunk after accidentally trawling an old naval mine in the Ionian Sea. MI6 agent James Bond is assigned by the Minister of Defence, Sir Frederick Gray and MI6 Chief of Staff, Bill Tanner, to retrieve the ATAC before the Soviets, as the transmitter could order attacks by the submarines' Polaris ballistic missiles.
The head of the KGB, General Gogol, has learned of the fate of the St Georges and notified his contact in Greece. A marine archaeologist, Sir Timothy Havelock, asked by the British to secretly locate the St Georges, prepares to send his report in, but before the task is completed, Havelock is killed with his wife Iona by a Cuban hitman, Hector Gonzales. Bond goes to Spain to find out. While spying on Gonzales at his villa, Bond is captured, but manages to escape as Gonzales is killed by a crossbow bolt while diving into his swimming pool. Within the grounds, he finds the assassin was Melina Havelock, the daughter of Sir Timothy, the pair escape. With the help of Bond, Q uses computerized technology to identify the man Bond saw paying off Gonzales as Emile Leopold Locque, a former enforcer in the Brussels underworld. Bond thus goes to Locque's possible base in Italy. There, Bond meets his contact, Luigi Ferrara, Aris Kristatos, a well-connected Greek businessman, shipping tycoon, intelligence informant.
Kristatos informs Bond that Locque is employed by Milos Columbo, known as "the Dove" in the Greek underworld and Kristatos' former resistance partner during the Second World War. After Bond goes with Kristatos' protégée, figure skater Bibi Dahl, to a biathlon course, a group of men, which includes East German biathlete Eric Kriegler, chases Bond, trying to kill him. Bond escapes and goes with Ferrara to bid Bibi farewell at an ice rink, where he fends off another attempt on his life by hoods in ice hockey gear. During the fight, Ferrara is killed with a dove pin in his hand. Bond thus travels to Corfu in pursuit of Columbo. At a casino, Bond meets Kristatos and asks how to meet Columbo, not knowing that Columbo's men are secretly recording their conversation. After Columbo and his mistress, Countess Lisl von Schlaf, Bond offers to escort her home with Kristatos' car and driver; the two spend the night together. In the morning Lisl and Bond are ambushed by Locque and Lisl is killed. Bond is captured by Columbo's men.
Bond accompanies Columbo and his crew on a raid on one of Kristatos' opium-processing warehouse in Albania, where Bond uncovers naval mines similar to the one that sank the St Georges, suggesting that it was not an accident. When the base is destroyed, Bond chases Locque and pushes his car off a cliff, killing Locque in the process. Afterwards, Bond meets Melina again, they recover the ATAC from the wreckage of the St Georges, but Kristatos is waiting for them when they surface and he takes the ATAC. After getting dragged over a coral reef in shark-infested waters and surviving the ordeal, they discover Kristatos' rendezvous point when Melina's parrot repeats the phrase "ATAC to St Cyril's". With the help of Columbo and his men and Melina rock climb in order to break into St Cyril's, an abandoned mountaintop monastery; as Columbo is confronting Kristatos, Bond fights Kriegler and uses a spiked candelabra to force Kriegler headlong through a window, resulting in a deadly plummet off the mountain.
Bond prevents Melina from killing Kristatos after he surrenders. Kristatos is killed by a knife thrown by Columbo. Gogol arrives by helico
Q (James Bond)
Q is a fictional character in the James Bond films and film novelisations. Q, like M, is a job title rather than a name, he is the head of Q Branch, the fictional research and development division of the British Secret Service. Q has appeared in 21 of the 24 Eon Productions's James Bond films, the exceptions being Live and Let Die, the 2006 Casino Royale and Quantum of Solace; the character was featured in both non-Eon Bond films, Casino Royale and Never Say Never Again. The character Q never appears in the novels by the author Ian Fleming, where only the Q Branch is mentioned. In John Gardner's novels, the post of Q is taken over by Ann Reilly, she forms a relationship with Bond. It is supposed that she held the post for a short while only, because Raymond Benson's novels return Boothroyd to the post without explanation. Charles Fraser-Smith is credited as the inspiration for Q due to the spy gadgets he built for the Special Operations Executive; these were called Q-devices, after the Royal Navy's World War I Q-ships.
In the Fleming novels there are frequent references to Q and Q Branch with phrases like "see Q for any equipment you need" and "Q Branch would handle all of that", with a reference to "Q's craftsmen" in From Russia, with Love. In the sixth novel, Dr. No, the service armourer. Fleming named the character after Geoffrey Boothroyd, a firearms expert who lived in Glasgow, who had written to the novelist suggesting that Bond was not using the best firearms available. Boothroyd is referenced in the Bond novels of John Gardner, but the author preferred instead to focus on a new character, Ann Reilly, introduced in the first Gardner novel, Licence Renewed and promptly dubbed "Q'ute" by Bond. Major Boothroyd appears in Dr. No and in the script of From Russia with Love. Desmond Llewelyn stated that, although he was credited as playing "Major Boothroyd" in the latter film, his name as said by M was replaced with "the equipment officer", as director Terence Young stated that Boothroyd was a different character.
Beginning in Guy Hamilton's Goldfinger and in each film thereafter Major Boothroyd is most referred to as Q. In most films in which Q appears, he is restricted to a "behind the scenes" involvement, either based in London or in secret bases out in the field. Two notable exceptions in which Q becomes directly involved in Bond's missions occur in Octopussy—in which Q participates in field work—including the final battle against the villain's henchmen, Licence to Kill in which he joins Bond in the field after 007 goes rogue. In the first film, Dr. No, Boothroyd is played by Peter Burton in only one scene in which he replaces Bond's.25 ACP Beretta 418 pistol with the signature.32 Walther PPK handgun. He is referred to by M as "the armourer," and as Major Boothroyd. Scheduling conflicts prevented Burton from reprising the role in From Russia with Love, although he made two uncredited reappearances in Bond films, first as an RAF officer in Thunderball and as a secret agent in the satirical Casino Royale.
Beginning with From Russia with Love, Desmond Llewelyn portrayed the character in every official film except Live and Let Die until his death in 1999. In the 1977 film The Spy Who Loved Me, as Q delivered the underwater Lotus, Major Anya Amasova/Agent XXX greets Q as "Major Boothroyd". While briefing Bond on the gadgets that he is going to use on his mission, Q expresses irritation and impatience at Bond's short attention span telling him to "pay attention, 007", Bond's playful lack of respect for his equipment, telling the agent, "I never joke about my work, 007". In Thunderball, Bond can be heard muttering "Oh no". However, on occasion, Q has shown a warm and fatherly concern for 007's welfare, such as at Bond's wedding in On Her Majesty's Secret Service, when he assures Bond that he is available if Bond requires his help. Q has assisted Bond in a more active role in his missions in Octopussy, remaining to aid Bond in person after another ally is killed, Licence to Kill saw him travel to assist Bond while he is on leave from MI6 after Bond has resigned from MI6 to pursue his own vendetta.
He refers to Bond as "007", rather than by his name. In GoldenEye, Q shares a joke with Bond for the first time, in The World Is Not Enough when he reveals his plan to retire, Bond is saddened at the prospect. Q signs off with "Now pay attention, 007," and offers some words of advice: Q: "I've always tried to teach you two things: First, never let them see you bleed." Bond: "And the second?"Q: "Always have an escape plan." – before he is lowered out of view. This was the final film appearance of Desmond Llewelyn as Q in the James Bond series, although he would revive the role once again as Q in a Heineken commercial, a TV cross-promotion for The World Is Not Enough. Llewelyn died in a car crash just weeks after the film's release. Between films he starred as Q in various commercials for a diversity of products and companies; these included Bond collectable merchandise, TV3, Hyundai motorcars, LG video recorders, Highland Superstores, Visa credit cards, Reach electric toothbrushes, the latter of which featured Q briefing himself in the mirror.
Featured in Films: From Russia with Love Goldfinger Thunderball You Only Live Twice On Her Majesty's Secret Service (1
Lawrence Michael Andrew Goodliffe was an English actor known for playing suave roles such as doctors and army officers. He was sometimes cast in working class parts. Goodliffe was born in Bebington, the son of a vicar, educated at St Edmund's School and Keble College, Oxford, he started his career in repertory theatre in Liverpool before moving on to the Royal Shakespeare Company in Stratford upon Avon. He joined the British Army at the beginning of the Second World War, received a commission as a Second Lieutenant in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment in February 1940, he was captured at the Battle of Dunkirk. Goodliffe was incorrectly listed as killed in action, had his obituary published in a newspaper, he was to spend the rest of the war a prisoner in Germany. Whilst in captivity he acted in many plays and sketches to entertain fellow prisoners; these included two productions of William Shakespeare's Hamlet, one in Tittmoning and the other in Eichstätt, in which he played the title role. He produced the first staging of Noël Coward's Post Mortem at Eichstätt.
A full photographic record of these productions exists. After the war he resumed his professional acting career; as well as appearing in the theatre, he worked in television. He appeared in The Wooden Horse in other POW films, his best-known film was A Night to Remember, in which he played Thomas Andrews, designer of the RMS Titanic. His best-known television series was Sam, he appeared with John Thaw and James Bolam in the 1967 television series Inheritance. Suffering from depression, Goodliffe had a breakdown in 1976 during the period that he was rehearsing for a revival of Equus, he committed suicide a few days by leaping from a hospital fire escape while a patient at the Atkinson Morley Hospital in Wimbledon. Michael Goodliffe on IMDb Michael Goodliffe at the British Film Institute Comprehensive site on Goodliffe's life and career including full photographic record of wartime productions
John Gardner (British writer)
Not to be confused with John Gardner John Edmund Gardner was an English spy and thriller novelist, best known for his James Bond continuation novels, but for his series of Boysie Oakes books and three continuation novels containing Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's fictional villain, Professor Moriarty. Gardner, an ex-Royal Marine commando, was for a period an Anglican priest, but he lost his faith and left the church after a short time. After a battle with alcohol addiction he wrote his first book, the autobiographical Spin the Bottle, published in 1964. Gardner went on to write over fifty works of fiction, including fourteen original James Bond novels, the novel versions of two Bond films, he died from suspected heart failure on 3 August 2007. John Edmund Gardner was born on 20 November 1926 in Seaton Delaval, a small village in Northumberland, his parents were Cyril Gardner, a London-born Anglican priest, ordained in Wallsend in 1921, Lena Henderson, a local girl. In 1933 the family moved to the market town of Wantage in what was Berkshire, where Cyril took up the position of Chaplain at St Mary's, Wantage and Gardner was educated at the local King Alfred's School.
During the Second World War he joined the Home Guard, despite being only 13 at the time. Gardner subsequently served in the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm, before transferring to the Royal Marines 42 Commando for service in the Middle and Far East. Gardner considered himself "the worst commando in the world" and, despite being "a small-arms expert... knew a lot about explosives", he admitted that he "bent an aeroplane I was learning to fly". After the war he went up to St John's College, Cambridge, to study theology and was subsequently ordained as an Anglican priest in 1953, he made an error in his career. He was released from the church in 1958 and took up a position as a drama critic with the Stratford-upon-Avon Herald, it was whilst at the Herald at age 33 that Gardner realised he was an alcoholic, drinking two bottles of gin a day. He overcame his addiction and produced his first book as part of his therapy: the autobiographical Spin the Bottle, published in 1964. Critic and scholar John Sutherland says that of all the books Gardner published, it was "the one that most deserves to survive."
In 1964, Gardner began his novelist career with The Liquidator, in which he created the character Boysie Oakes who inadvertently is mistaken to be a tough, pitiless man of action and is thereupon recruited into a British spy agency. In fact, Oakes was a devout coward, terrified of violence, suffered from airsickness and was afraid of heights and Gardner admitted of him that, "though I have denied it many times—he was of course a complete piss-take of J. Bond"; the book appeared at the height of the fictional spy mania and, as a send-up of the whole business, was an immediate success. Upon reviewing the novel in The New York Times, Anthony Boucher wrote, "Mr. Gardner succeeds in having it both ways: He has written a clever parody, a genuinely satisfactory thriller." The book was made into a film of the same name by MGM and another seven light-hearted novels and two short stories about the cowardly Oakes appeared over the next eleven years. Following the success of his Oakes books, Gardner created new characters: Derek Torry—a Scotland Yard inspector of Italian descent—and Herbie Kruger, the latter of which appeared in a series of novels published with his Bond works.
In the mid-1970s Gardner wrote the first of three novels using the character of Professor Moriarty from the Sherlock Holmes series, the last of, published posthumously. The third of this series, titled Moriarty, was delayed due to a dispute with the publisher, but was released shortly after his death. Erik Lee Preminger bought the film rights to the first of the trilogy - The Return of Moriarty - and wrote a script. Edgar Bronfman Jr. for Sagittarius Entertainment and Nat Cohen, for EMI Productions were to produce. Donald Sutherland was to portray Moriarty. Funding however fell through shortly. In 1979 Glidrose Publications approached Gardner and asked him to revive Ian Fleming's James Bond series of novels. Between 1981 and 1996, Gardner wrote fourteen James Bond novels, the novelizations of two Bond films. Gardner stated that he wanted "to bring Mr Bond into the 1980s", although he retained the ages of the characters as they were when Fleming had left them. Though Gardner kept the ages the same, he made Bond grey at the temples as a nod to the passing of the years.
With the influence of the American publishers, Putnam's, the Gardner novels showed an increase in the number of Americanisms used in the book, such as a waiter wearing "pants", rather than trousers, in The Man from Barbarossa. James Harker, writing in The Guardian, considered that the Gardner books were "dogged by silliness", giving examples of Scorpius, where much of the action is set in Chippenham, Win, Lose or Die, where "Bond gets chummy with an unconvincing Maggie Thatcher". Whilst Gardner's Bond novels received a mixed reaction from the critics, they were popular and a number appeared in The New York Times Best Seller list, bringing the author commercial success. Gardner had an ambivalent view on being the Bond author, once saying that "I'm grateful to have been selected to keep Bond alive, but I'd much rather be remembered for my own work than I would for Bond", while saying on another occasion that "I remain proud that my contribution to the Bond saga played a great part in its development".
In the mid-1990s, after discovering he had e
Octopussy is a 1983 British spy film, the thirteenth in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, the sixth to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film's title is taken from a short story in Ian Fleming's 1966 short story collection Octopussy and The Living Daylights, although the film's plot is original, it does, include a scene inspired by the Fleming short story "The Property of a Lady", while the events of the short story "Octopussy" form a part of the title character's background and are recounted by her. Bond is assigned the task of following a general, stealing jewels and relics from the Soviet government; this leads him to a wealthy Afghan prince, Kamal Khan, his associate and the discovery of a plot to force disarmament in Western Europe with the use of a nuclear weapon. Octopussy was produced by Albert R. Broccoli and Michael G. Wilson, was released in the same year as the non-Eon Bond film Never Say Never Again; the film was written by George MacDonald Fraser, Richard Maibaum, Michael G. Wilson, was directed by John Glen.
The film earned $187.5 million against its $27.5 million budget and received mixed reviews, with praise being directed towards the action sequences and locations, the plot and humour being targeted for criticism. While trying to escape from East to West Berlin, British agent 009 is fatally wounded and dies after reaching the residence of the British Ambassador, dressed as a circus clown and carrying a fake Fabergé egg. MI6 suspects Soviet involvement and, after seeing the real egg appear at an auction in London, sends James Bond to investigate and find out the identity of the seller. At the auction, Bond is able to swap the real egg with the fake and engages in a bidding war with exiled Afghan prince Kamal Khan, forcing Khan to pay £500,000 for the fake egg. Bond follows Khan back to his palace in Rajasthan, where Bond defeats Khan in a game of backgammon. Bond escapes with his contact Vijay, foiling the attempts of Khan's bodyguard Gobinda to kill the pair. Bond is seduced by one of Khan's associates and notices that she has a blue-ringed octopus tattoo.
Bond permits Magda to steal the real Fabergé egg fitted with listening and tracking devices by Q, while Gobinda captures and takes Bond to Khan's palace. After Bond escapes from his room, he listens in on the bug in the Fabergé egg and discovers that Khan is working with Orlov, a Soviet general, seeking to expand Soviet control into West-Central Europe. After escaping from Khan's palace, Bond infiltrates a floating palace in Udaipur and there finds its owner, Octopussy, a wealthy business woman and associate of Khan, she leads the Octopus cult, of which Magda is a member. Octopussy has a personal connection with Bond: she is the daughter of the late Major Dexter-Smythe, whom Bond was assigned to arrest for treason. Bond allowed the Major to commit suicide rather than face trial, is thanked by Octopussy for offering her father an honorable alternative, inviting Bond to stay on as her guest. Earlier in Khan's palace and in Octopussy's palace, Bond finds out that Orlov has been supplying Khan with priceless Soviet treasures, replacing them with replicas while Khan has been smuggling the real versions into the West via Octopussy's circus troupe.
Orlov is planning to meet Khan at Karl-Marx-Stadt in East Germany, where the circus is scheduled to perform. Gobinda sends hoodlums to kill Bond, but he and Octopussy gain the upper hand when the assassins break into the palace. Bond learns from Q. Travelling to East Germany, Bond infiltrates the circus and finds out that Orlov replaced the Soviet treasures with a nuclear warhead, primed to explode during the circus show at a US Air Force base in West Germany; the explosion would trigger Europe into seeking disarmament in the belief that the bomb was a US one that detonated by accident, leaving its borders open to a Soviet invasion. Bond takes Orlov's car, drives it along the train tracks and boards the moving circus train. Orlov gives chase, but is killed at the border by East German guards after they mistake Orlov for a defector. Bond kills the twin knife-throwing assassins Mischka and Grischka to avenge the murder of 009 and, after falling from the train, commandeers a car to get to the airbase.
Bond disguises himself as a clown to evade the West German police. He attempts to convince Octopussy that Khan has betrayed her by showing her one of the treasures found in Orlov's car, which she was to smuggle for him. Octopussy realises that she has been tricked, assists Bond in deactivating the warhead. Bond and Octopussy return separately to India. Bond arrives at Khan's palace just as Octopussy and her troops have launched an assault on the grounds. Octopussy is captured by Gobinda. While Octopussy's team, led by Magda, overpower Khan's guards and Gobinda abandon the palace, taking Octopussy as a hostage. Bond pursues them as they attempt to escape in their plane, clinging to the fuselage and disabling one of the engines. In the subsequent struggle with Bond, Gobinda takes a deadly plummet off the roof of the plane and Bond rescues Octopussy from Khan, the pair jumping onto a nearby cliff only seconds before the plane crashes into a mountain, killing Khan. While M and General Gogol discuss the transport of the jewellery, Bond recuperates with Octopussy aboard her private boat in India.
Roger Moore as James Bond, MI6 agent 007. Maud Adams as Octopussy: A jewel smuggler and wealthy businesswoman. Louis Jourdan as Kamal Khan: An exiled Afghan prince. Kristina Wayborn
Rory Michael Kinnear is an English actor and playwright who has worked with the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal National Theatre. In 2014, he won the Olivier Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of Shakespeare's villain Iago in the National Theatre production of Othello, he is known for playing Bill Tanner in the James Bond films Quantum of Solace and Spectre, in various video games of the franchise. He is the youngest actor, he won a Laurence Olivier Award for portraying Sir Fopling Flutter in a 2008 version of The Man of Mode by George Etherege, a British Independent Film Award for his performance in the 2012 film Broken. On TV, he is known for playing Michael on the BBC comedy Count Arthur Strong, Lord Lucan in the two-part ITV series Lucan, Frankenstein's monster in Penny Dreadful and the lead role of Prime Minister Michael Callow in "The National Anthem", the first episode of the anthology series Black Mirror. Kinnear was born in Hammersmith, England, the son of the actor Roy Kinnear and actress Carmel Cryan.
He has two sisters and Karina. He is the grandson of the international rugby union and rugby league player Roy Kinnear and the godson of actor Michael Williams, the husband of Judi Dench. Educated at Tower House School and St Paul's School, London, he read English at Balliol College and studied acting at London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art. Kinnear's performances in Phyllida Lloyd's production of Mary Stuart and Trevor Nunn's Hamlet, in which he played Laertes, met with acclaim, he achieved recognition as the outrageous Sir Fopling Flutter in The Man of Mode at the National Theatre, winning a Laurence Olivier Award and Ian Charleson Award. Other notable theatre work includes the lead in Thomas Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy, the role of Pyotr in Gorky's Philistines and the role of Mitia in a stage adaptation of the Nikita Mikhalkov film Burnt by the Sun, all for the National Theatre. In 2010, he played Angelo in Measure for Measure at the Almeida Theatre. In 2010 he played the title role in Hamlet at the National Theatre.
The two portrayals won him the best actor award in the Evening Standard drama awards for 2010. Kinnear appeared in The Last of the Haussmans by Stephen Beresford at the Royal National Theatre during the summer of 2012; the production was broadcast to cinemas around the world on 11 October 2012 through the National Theatre Live programme. He starred as Iago opposite Adrian Lester in the title role of Othello in 2013 at the National Theatre throughout the summer of 2013. Both actors won the Best Actor award in the Evening Standard Theatre Awards for their roles. From September 2013 the Bush Theatre in London staged Kinnear's debut play The Herd, directed by Howard Davies; the play ran at the Steppenwolf Theatre in Chicago beginning 2 April 2015. In October 2017 he appeared in the title role of Young Marx, the premiere production at the Bridge Theatre, he returned to the Olivier Theatre at the National Theatre to star as the title role in Macbeth opposite Anne-Marie Duff from February 2018. For The Threepenny Opera at the Olivier Theatre from May to October 2016, Kinnear found his "dormant" singing voice for the role of Macheath.
In February 2017 he made his directing debut with The Winter's Tale, a new opera written by Ryan Wigglesworth and based on Shakespeare's play, for English National Opera. He portrays Bill Tanner in the Daniel Craig era James Bond film series after taking over from Michael Kitchen, he is the fourth person to play the character. He has appeared in Quantum of Solace and Spectre; as well as the films, Kinnear lends his voice and likeness to the Bond video games. In 2014, he played the fictional character, Detective Nock, in The Imitation Game based loosely on the biography Alan Turing:The Enigma by Andrew Hodges. In January 2017 he portrayed Ellmann in the Netflix film iBoy. Further to his theatre work he received positive reviews for his sympathetic portrayal of Denis Thatcher in The Long Walk to Finchley, a BBC dramatisation of the early years of Margaret Thatcher's political career, which starred Andrea Riseborough and Samuel West, he starred alongside Lucy Punch and Toby Stephens in the BBC Two series Vexed.
Broadcast on 19 October 2010, he was the co-lead in the BBC4 TV drama, The First Men in the Moon written by and co-starring Mark Gatiss. In 2011, he provided narration during the BBC Proms production of'Henry V – suite' arranged by Muir Mathieson during their Film Music Prom, he appeared in the lead role of Prime Minister Michael Callow in "The National Anthem", the first episode of the anthology series Black Mirror. In July 2012, Kinnear appeared as Bolingbroke in Richard II, a BBC Two adaptation of the play of the same name, with Ben Whishaw as King Richard and Patrick Stewart as John of Gaunt. From 2013 onwards, he has starred in the BBC series Count Arthur Strong as Michael, he has appeared in the Channel 4 drama Southcliffe. In December 2013 he appeared as British peer and suspected murderer Lord Lucan in the two-part ITV series Lucan, he appeared as Frankenstein's monster in the Showtime television series Penny Dreadful, which premiered 11 May 2014. In 2017 he appeared in the British miniseries Guerrilla as a Chief Inspector in the Special Branches.
In 2017 he starred as Robert Lessing in the BBC Two comedy series Quacks, which ridicules the early days of medicine in England. In 2018 he appeared in the first episode of the fourth series of the BBC One comedy series Inside No. 9, Zanzibar, w
Secret Intelligence Service
The Secret Intelligence Service known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence in support of the UK's national security. SIS is a member of the country's intelligence community and its Chief is accountable to the country's Foreign Secretary. Formed in 1909 as a section of the Secret Service Bureau specialising in foreign intelligence, the section experienced dramatic growth during World War I and adopted its current name around 1920; the name MI6 originated as a flag of convenience during World War II, when SIS was known by many names. It is still used today; the existence of SIS was not acknowledged until 1994. That year the Intelligence Services Act 1994 was introduced to Parliament, to place the organisation on a statutory footing for the first time, it provides the legal basis for its operations. Today, SIS is subject to public oversight by the Investigatory Powers Tribunal and the Parliamentary Intelligence and Security Committee.
The stated priority roles of SIS are counter-terrorism, counter-proliferation, providing intelligence in support of cyber security, supporting stability overseas to disrupt terrorism and other criminal activities. Unlike its main sister agencies, the Security Service and Government Communications Headquarters, SIS works in foreign intelligence gathering; some of SIS's actions since the 2000s have attracted significant controversy, such as its alleged acts of torture and extraordinary rendition. Since 1995, SIS has been headquartered in the SIS Building in London, on the South Bank of the River Thames; the service derived from the Secret Service Bureau, founded on 1 October 1909. The Bureau was a joint initiative of the Admiralty and the War Office to control secret intelligence operations in the UK and overseas concentrating on the activities of the Imperial German government; the bureau was split into naval and army sections which, over time, specialised in foreign espionage and internal counter-espionage activities, respectively.
This specialisation was because the Admiralty wanted to know the maritime strength of the Imperial German Navy. This specialisation was formalised before 1914. During the First World War in 1916, the two sections underwent administrative changes so that the foreign section became the section MI1 of the Directorate of Military Intelligence, its first director was Captain Sir Mansfield George Smith-Cumming, who dropped the Smith in routine communication. He signed correspondence with his initial C in green ink; this usage evolved as a code name, has been adhered to by all subsequent directors of SIS when signing documents to retain anonymity. The service's performance during the First World War was mixed, because it was unable to establish a network in Germany itself. Most of its results came from military and commercial intelligence collected through networks in neutral countries, occupied territories, Russia. After the war, resources were reduced but during the 1920s, SIS established a close operational relationship with the diplomatic service.
In August 1919, Cumming created the new passport control department, providing diplomatic cover for agents abroad. The post of Passport Control Officer provided operatives with diplomatic immunity. Circulating Sections established intelligence requirements and passed the intelligence back to its consumer departments the War Office and Admiralty; the debate over the future structure of British Intelligence continued at length after the end of hostilities but Cumming managed to engineer the return of the Service to Foreign Office control. At this time, the organisation was known in Whitehall by a variety of titles including the Foreign Intelligence Service, the Secret Service, MI1, the Special Intelligence Service and C's organisation. Around 1920, it began to be referred to as the Secret Intelligence Service, a title that it has continued to use to the present day and, enshrined in statute in the Intelligence Services Act 1994. During the Second World War, the name MI6 was used as a flag of convenience, the name by which it is known in popular culture since.
In the immediate post-war years under Sir Mansfield George Smith-Cumming and throughout most of the 1920s, SIS was focused on Communism, in particular, Russian Bolshevism. Examples include a thwarted operation to overthrow the Bolshevik government in 1918 by SIS agents Sidney George Reilly and Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart, as well as more orthodox espionage efforts within early Soviet Russia headed by Captain George Hill. Smith-Cumming died at his home on 14 June 1923, shortly before he was due to retire, was replaced as C by Admiral Sir Hugh "Quex" Sinclair. Sinclair created the following sections: A central foreign counter-espionage Circulating Section, Section V, to liaise with the Security Service to collate counter-espionage reports from overseas stations. An economic intelligence section, Section VII, to deal with trade and contraband. A clandestine radio communications organisation, Section VIII, to communicate with operatives and agents overseas. Section N to exploit the contents of foreign diplomatic bags Section D to conduct political covert actions and paramilitary operations in time of war.
Section D would organise the Home Defence Scheme resistance organisation in the UK and come to be the foundation of the Special Operations Executive during the Second World War. With the emergence of Germany as a threat following the ascendence of the N