Golden Valley County, North Dakota
Golden Valley County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 1,680, making it the fourth-least populous county in North Dakota; the county seat is Beach. The county should not be confused with the city of Golden Valley, located in Mercer County. In the general election held November 8, 1910, the voters of Billings County chose to separate the western portion of Billings and form a new county; this result was challenged in court. Golden Valley was called'Rattlesnake Flats' by early settlers, due to the large number of the snakes found in the area; the region was dubbed Golden Valley in 1902 after a group of land surveyors noticed that the sunlight gave the surrounding grasses a distinct golden color. The vote in 1910 to create Golden Valley County was 837 for and 756 against. Shortly after the vote was certified, suit was filed against the Billings County Commission to overturn the result; the plaintiffs alleged that the certification of election was improper, that certain pre-marked "unofficial" ballots printed by supporters of the new county were cast in place of official ballots, should be voided.
The trial court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs. The county appealed to the North Dakota Supreme Court, which upheld the county's certification of the election; the court ruled the pre-marked ballots were invalid, but that the number of invalid votes was not sufficient to overturn the election results. The court's decision upholding the new county was made on September 19, 1912, Golden Valley was formally organized on November 13, 1912. Golden Valley County lies on the west line of North Dakota, its west boundary line abuts the east boundary line of the state of Montana. Beaver Creek flows east-northeastward through the upper portion of the county, Little Missouri River flows northeastward through the SE corner of the county, with gullies flowing southeastward draining the lower county into the Little Mo River; the county terrain consists of semi-arid hills, dedicated to agriculture in the level areas. The terrain slopes to the east and north, with its highest point on hills at the SW corner at 3,251' ASL.
The county has a total area of 1,002 square miles, of which 1,001 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. Interstate 94 North Dakota Highway 16 Little Missouri National Grassland Bosserman Lake Camels Hump Lake Odland Dam As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 1,924 people, 761 households, 506 families in the county; the population density was 1.92 people per square mile. There were 973 housing units at an average density of 0.97 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.77% White, 0.73% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.31% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. 1.04 % of the population is Latino of any race. 49.4 % were of 13.7 % Norwegian and 5.6 % Polish ancestry. There were 761 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 4.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 31.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.01. The county population contained 28.30% under the age of 18, 5.10% from 18 to 24, 22.20% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 21.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 92.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,967, the median income for a family was $37,105. Males had a median income of $25,478 versus $18,000 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,173. About 10.80% of families and 15.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.40% of those under age 18 and 7.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 1,680 people, 774 households, 429 families in the county; the population density was 1.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 967 housing units at an average density of 1.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.4% white, 0.6% American Indian, 0.6% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.1% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 69.0% were German, 14.7% were Norwegian, 10.7% were Polish, 7.9% were Irish, 7.5% were English, 2.5% were American. Of the 774 households, 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.6% were non-families, 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age was 45.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,333 and the median income for a family was $47,500. Males had a median income of $32,875 versus $26,750 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,899. About 8.9% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.7% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. Beach Golva Sentinel Butte Elmwood Golden Valley County voters have been reliably Republican for decades.
In no national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. Ernest Viggo Almquist, commerci
Slope County, North Dakota
Slope County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 727, making it the least populous county in North Dakota and the 20th-least populous county in the United States; the county seat is Amidon. The vote to create Slope County, by partitioning the lower portion of Billings, was held on November 3, 1914; this was the final alteration to that once-large Dakota county, as Bowman had been partitioned off in 1883, Golden Valley was split off in 1910. The unorganized Slope County was not attached to another county for administrative or judicial purposes during the interregnum; the name refers to the Missouri Slope, a geographical feature, a popular designation for western North Dakota the area west of the Missouri River. Slope County lies on the lower west side of North Dakota, its west boundary line abuts the east boundary line of the state of Montana. The Little Missouri River enters the county's north boundary line at its midpoint, flows southwestward southward through the county's western portion.
Cedar Creek drains the SE portion of the county. Slope County terrain consists of semi-arid rough hills and gullies interspersed with lower hills, part of, dedicated to agriculture; the terrain slopes to the south. The county has a total area of 1,219 square miles, of which 1,215 square miles is land and 4.2 square miles is water. White Butte, the highest natural point in North Dakota at an elevation of 3506 ft, is in southeast Slope County. U. S. Highway 12 U. S. Highway 85 Little Missouri National Grassland Stewart Lake National Wildlife Refuge White Lake National Wildlife Refuge Billings County - north Stark County - northeast Hettinger County - east Adams County - southeast Bowman County - south Fallon County, Montana - west Golden Valley County - northwest Cedar Lake White Lake As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 767 people, 313 households, 222 families in the county; the population density was 0.63 people per square mile. There were 451 housing units at an average density of 0.37 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 99.84% White, 0.08% Native American, 0.13% from two or more races. 0.08% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Slope County has the highest percentage white population of any U. S. county. 46.9 % were of 15.2 % Norwegian, 8.1 % American, 7.4 % English and 7.2 % Swedish ancestry. There were 313 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.5% were married couples living together, 3.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.8% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.96. The county population contained 25.3% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 116.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.0 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $24,667, the median income for a family was $26,058. Males had a median income of $20,000 versus $12,115 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,513. About 15.40% of families and 16.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.30% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 727 people, 326 households, 224 families in the county; the population density was 0.60/sqmi. There were 436 housing units at an average density of 0.36/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.5% white, 2.2% American Indian, 0.0% from other races, 0.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 53.9% were of German, 30.7% Norwegian, 9.9% English, 7.4% Swedish, 5.5% Polish and 2.8% American ancestry.<ref">"Selected Social Characteristics in the US – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Retrieved April 3, 2016.</ref>
Of the 326 households, 22.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.3% were non-families, 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.74. The median age was 49.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,625 and the median income for a family was $55,833. Males had a median income of $36,458 versus $31,172 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,824. About 6.8% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.3% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. Amidon Marmarth De Sart Mound Pierce Three V Crossing Slope County voters have traditionally voted Republican. In no national election since 1964 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Slope County, North Dakota Specific General"Slope Saga", Slope Saga Committee, 1976, Pioneer Print, Bowman County Pioneer
The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been a Gaelic people. Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centuries established the cities of Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of the smaller Northern Ireland; the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports and mythology. Although Irish was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language.
The Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, the Irish had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars"; the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C. S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.
The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found in English-speaking countries Great Britain, the United States and Australia. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand; the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Scottish Gaelic forebears. During the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores; the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe; as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.
Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, Hibernia to the Romans. Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael; this last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations; the terms Irish and Ireland are derived from the goddess Ériu. A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Conmaicne and Ulaid.
In the cases of the Conmaicne, Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg and Wihtlaeg; the Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were historical war leaders and kings, who became cult figures set into society as gods; this view is in agreement with Irish historians such as Francis John Byrne. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or
Dunn County, North Dakota
Dunn County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 3,536, its county seat is Manning. On March 9, 1883 the Dakota Territory legislature authorized the creation of a new county, using territory partitioned from Howard County; the county organization was not effected at that time, but the county was not attached to another county for judicial purposes. The county boundaries were altered in 1883, on November 3, 1896 the legislature ordered Dunn dissolved, with its territory assigned to Stark County. However, the state supreme court overturned the legislature's act on May 24, 1901; the county was still not assigned to another county. This was resolved on March 10, 1903, when the county was assigned to Stark County for judicial purposes. On March 13, 1903 the legislature again voted to dissolve Dunn County, but again the state supreme court voided the act. Dunn County continued to be attached to Stark County. However, on January 18, 1908, the county organization was effected, Dunn became a standalone county.
In the process, Dunn gained a tract of previously-unattached land from Stark County, enlarging its boundary. The configuration thus created has remained to the present; the county was named for John Piatt Dunn, who opened the first drugstore in North Dakota, and, a civic and commercial leader during the early history of Bismarck. The Missouri River flows southeasterly along the northeastern boundary of Dunn County, the Little Missouri River flows eastward across the center part of the county, to its confluence with the Missouri in the NE part of the county; the county terrain consists of semi-arid rolling hills, which are etched in the north and east by gullies and drainages to the river valleys. The terrain slopes to the north; the county has a total area of 2,082 square miles, of which 2,008 square miles is land and 74 square miles is water. It is the fifth-largest county in North Dakota by total area. Dunn County is somewhat unusual among western North Dakota counties. Like other counties in the region, it has both badlands areas.
Located in the northwest part of the county are the Killdeer Mountains, which are more described as hills. These hills help create a mini-ecosystem on the southern edge of the Little Missouri badlands, which has a greater abundance of aspen forests and wildlife than is found in southwestern North Dakota; the northwest corner of the county, northwest of the Killdeer Mountains, features many square miles of bur oak forest on the north-facing slopes of the hills. Bur oak and quaking aspen, though native to North Dakota, are sparse in western North Dakota, with Dunn County being a notable exception. North Dakota Highway 8 North Dakota Highway 22 North Dakota Highway 200 Moffet Slough As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 3,600 people, 1,378 households, 986 families in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 1,965 housing units at an average density of 0.98 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.58% White, 0.03% Black or African American, 12.44% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.86% from two or more races.
0.75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.2% were of German and 16.6% Norwegian ancestry. There were 1,378 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 7.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.40% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.11. The county population contained 27.40% under the age of 18, 5.80% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 25.90% from 45 to 64, 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 104.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,015, the median income for a family was $34,405. Males had a median income of $26,226 versus $17,143 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,624.
About 13.80% of families and 17.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.70% of those under age 18 and 14.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,536 people, 1,401 households, 977 families in the county; the population density was 1.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,132 housing units at an average density of 1.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 84.9% white, 12.7% American Indian, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.2% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 57.6% were German, 20.3% were Norwegian, 8.5% were Czech, 6.0% were Russian, 5.7% were Irish, 5.3% were English, 1.8% were American. Of the 1,401 households, 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families, 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 44.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,707 and the median income for a family was $65,122. Males had a median income of $37,270 versus $23,599 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,832. About 6.2% of
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
North Dakota is a U. S. state in northern regions of the United States. It is the nineteenth largest in area, the fourth smallest by population, the fourth most sparsely populated of the 50 states. North Dakota was admitted to the Union on November 3, 1889, along with its neighboring state, South Dakota, its capital is Bismarck, its largest city is Fargo. In the 21st century, North Dakota's natural resources have played a major role in its economic performance with the oil extraction from the Bakken formation, which lies beneath the northwestern part of the state; such development has led to reduced unemployment. North Dakota contains the tallest human-made structure in the KVLY-TV mast. North Dakota is a Midwestern state of the United States, it lies at the center of the North American continent. The geographic center of North America is near the town of Rugby. Bismarck is the capital of North Dakota, Fargo is the largest city. Soil is North Dakota's most precious resource, it is the base of the state's great agricultural wealth.
But North Dakota has enormous mineral resources. These mineral resources include billions of tons of lignite coal. In addition, North Dakota has large oil reserves. Petroleum was discovered in the state in 1951 and became one of North Dakota's most valuable mineral resources. In the early 2000's, the emergence of hydraulic fracturing technologies enabled mining companies to extract huge amounts of oil from the Bakken shale rock formation in the western part of the state. North Dakota's economy is based more on farming than are the economies of most other states. Many North Dakota factories manufacture farm equipment. Many of the state’s merchants rely on agriculture. Farms and ranches cover nearly all of North Dakota, they stretch from the flat Red River Valley in the east, across rolling plains, to the rugged Badlands in the west. The chief crop, wheat, is grown in nearly every county. North Dakota flaxseed, it is the country’s top producer of barley and sunflower seeds and a leader in the production of beans, lentils, oats and sugar beets.
Few white settlers came to the North Dakota region before the 1870's because railroads had not yet entered the area. During the early 1870's, the Northern Pacific Railroad began to push across the Dakota Territory. Large-scale farming began during the 1870's. Eastern corporations and some families established huge wheat farms covering large areas of land in the Red River Valley; the farms made such enormous profits. White settlers, attracted by the success of the bonanza farms, flocked to North Dakota increasing the territory's population. In 1870, North Dakota had 2,405 people. By 1890, the population had grown to 190,983. North Dakota was named for the Sioux people; the Sioux called meaning allies or friends. One of North Dakota's nicknames is the Peace Garden State; this nickname honors the International Peace Garden, which lies on the state's border with Manitoba, Canada. North Dakota is called the Flickertail State because of the many flickertail ground squirrels that live in the central part of the state.
North Dakota is in the U. S. region known as the Great Plains. The state shares the Red River of the North with Minnesota to the east. South Dakota is to the south, Montana is to the west, the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba are to the north. North Dakota is near the middle of North America with a stone marker in Rugby, North Dakota marking the "Geographic Center of the North American Continent". With an area of 70,762 square miles, North Dakota is the 19th largest state; the western half of the state consists of the hilly Great Plains as well as the northern part of the Badlands, which are to the west of the Missouri River. The state's high point, White Butte at 3,506 feet, Theodore Roosevelt National Park are in the Badlands; the region is abundant in fossil fuels including crude oil and lignite coal. The Missouri River forms Lake Sakakawea, the third largest artificial lake in the United States, behind the Garrison Dam; the central region of the state is divided into the Missouri Plateau.
The eastern part of the state consists of the flat Red River Valley, the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz. Its fertile soil, drained by the meandering Red River flowing northward into Lake Winnipeg, supports a large agriculture industry. Devils Lake, the largest natural lake in the state, is found in the east. Eastern North Dakota is overall flat. Most of the state is covered in grassland. Natural trees in North Dakota are found where there is good drainage, such as the ravines and valley near the Pembina Gorge and Killdeer Mountains, the Turtle Mountains, the hills around Devil's Lake, in the dunes area of McHenry County in central North Dakota, along the Sheyenne Valley slopes and the Sheyenne delta; this diverse terrain supports nearly 2,000 species of plants. North Dakota has a continental climate with cold winters; the temperature differences are significant because of its far inland position and being in the center of the Northern Hemisphere, with equal distances to the North Pole and the Equator.
As such, summers are subtropical, but winters are cold enough to ensure plant hardiness is low. Native American peoples lived in what is now North Dakota for thousands of year
Northern Pacific Railway
The Northern Pacific Railway was a transcontinental railroad that operated across the northern tier of the western United States, from Minnesota to the Pacific Northwest. It was approved by Congress in 1864 and given nearly forty million acres of land grants, which it used to raise money in Europe for construction. Construction began in 1870 and the main line opened all the way from the Great Lakes to the Pacific when former President Ulysses S. Grant drove in the final "golden spike" in western Montana on September 8, 1883; the railroad had about 6,800 miles of track and served a large area, including extensive trackage in the states of Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon and Wisconsin. In addition, the NP had an international branch to Winnipeg, Canada; the main activities were shipping wheat and other farm products, cattle and minerals. The Northern Pacific was headquartered in Minnesota, first in Brainerd in Saint Paul, it had a tumultuous financial history. Congress chartered the Northern Pacific Railway Company on July 2, 1864 with the goals of connecting the Great Lakes with Puget Sound on the Pacific, opening vast new lands for farming, ranching and mining, linking Washington and Oregon to the rest of the country.
Congress granted the railroad a potential 60 million acres of land in exchange for building rail transportation to an undeveloped territory. Josiah Perham was elected its first president on December 7, 1864, it could not use all the land and in the end took just under 40 million acres. For the next six years, backers of the road struggled to find financing. Though John Gregory Smith succeeded Perham as president on January 5, 1865, groundbreaking did not take place until February 15, 1870, at Carlton, Minnesota, 25 miles west of Duluth, Minnesota; the backing and promotions of famed financier Jay Cooke in the summer of 1870 brought the first real momentum to the company. Over the course of 1871, the Northern Pacific pushed westward from Minnesota into present-day North Dakota. Surveyors and construction crews had to maneuver through swamps and tamarack forests; the difficult terrain and insufficient funding delayed by six months the construction phase in Minnesota. The NP began building its line north from Kalama, Washington Territory, on the Columbia River outside of Portland, towards Puget Sound.
Four small construction engines were purchased, the Minnetonka, Ottertail and St. Cloud, the first of, shipped to Kalama by ship around Cape Horn. In Minnesota, the Lake Superior and Mississippi Railroad completed construction of its 155-mile line stretching from Saint Paul to Lake Superior at Duluth in 1870, it was leased to the Northern Pacific in 1876, was absorbed by the Northern Pacific. The Northern Pacific Railroad reached Fargo, Dakota Territory, early in June 1872; the following year, in June 1873, the N. P. reached the shores of the Missouri River, at Edwinton D. T. In the west, the track extended 25 miles north from Kalama. Surveys were carried out in North Dakota protected by 600 troops under General Winfield Scott Hancock. Headquarters and shops were established in Brainerd, Minnesota, a town named for the President John Gregory Smith's wife Anna Elizabeth Brainerd. A severe stock market crash and financial collapse after 1873, led by the Credit Mobilier Scandal and the Union Pacific Railroad fraud, stopped further railroad building for twelve years.
In 1886, the company put down 164 miles of main line across North Dakota, with an additional 45 miles in Washington. On November 1, General George Washington Cass became the third president of the company. Cass had been a vice-president and director of the Pennsylvania Railroad, would lead the Northern Pacific through some of its most difficult times. Attacks on survey parties and construction crews by Sioux, Cheyenne and Kiowa warriors in North Dakota and Minnesota became so prevalent that the company received protection from units of the U. S. Army. In 1886 the Northern Pacific opened colonization offices in Germany and Scandinavia, attracting farmers with cheap package transportation and purchase deals; the success of the NP was based on the abundant crops of wheat and other grains and the attraction to settlers of the Red River Valley along the Minnesota-North Dakota border between 1881 and 1890. The Northern Pacific reached Dakota Territory at Fargo in 1872, began its career as one of the central factors in the economic growth of North Dakota.
The climate, although cold, was suitable for wheat, in high demand in the cities of the United States and Europe. Most of the settlers were German and Scandinavian immigrants who bought the land cheaply, raised large families, they shipped huge quantities of wheat to Minneapolis, while buying all sorts of equipment and home supplies to be shipped in by rail. The NP used its federal land grants as security to borrow money to build its system; the federal government kept every other section of land, gave it away free to homesteaders. At first the railroad sold much of its holdings at low prices to land speculators in order to realize quick cash profits, to eliminate sizable annual tax bills. By 1905 the railroad company's land policies changed, after it was judged a costly mistake to have sold much of the land at wholesale prices. With better railroad service and improved methods of farming the Northern Pacific sold what had been heretofore "worthless" land directly to farmers at good