Billy Bitzer

Gottfried Wilhelm "Billy" Bitzer was a pioneering American cinematographer notable for his close association with D. W. Griffith. Prior to his career as a cameraman, working as a motion picture projectionist, Bitzer developed early cinematic technologies for the American Mutoscope Company to become the Biograph Company, he admired and learned the art of motion picture photography from Kinetoscope inventor W. K. L. Dickson, who directed the early Biograph shorts on which Bitzer cut his teeth; until 1903, Bitzer was employed by Biograph as a documentary photographer, from 1903 onward as the photographer of narrative films, as these gained popularity. In 1908 Bitzer entered into his first collaboration with Griffith; the two would work together for the rest of Bitzer's career, leaving Biograph in 1913 for the Mutual Film Corporation where Bitzer continued to innovate, perfecting existing technologies and inventing new ones. During this time he pioneered the field of matte photography and made use of innovative lighting techniques and iris shots.

Bitzer provided assistance during Griffith's directorial debut, 1908's The Adventures of Dollie, shot by Arthur Marvin. He succeeded Marvin as Griffith's regular cinematographer, working with him on some of his most important films and contributing to cinematic innovations attributed to Griffith. In 1910, he photographed Griffith's silent short, In Old California, in the Los Angeles village of "Hollywoodland", qualifying Bitzer as, Hollywood's first Director of Photography; the apex of Bitzer and Griffith's collaboration came with The Birth of a Nation, a film funded in part by Bitzer's life savings, the epic Intolerance. His film The Jeffries-Sharkey Fight of 1899 is the first known use of artificial light. Rip Van Winkle features the first known close-up. Advances in lenses and filters developed by Bitzer made soft focus possible, he was the first to use split-screen photography and backlight, contributing to the development of three-point lighting. He invented what came to known as transition tools.

After the Bell & Howell Model 2709 production camera became the industry standard he continued to use a Pathe. For all his innovation, Bitzer did not survive the industry's transition to sound, in 1944 he suffered a heart attack and died in Hollywood, his autobiography, Billy Bitzer: His Story, was published posthumously in 1973. In 2003, a survey conducted by the International Cinematographers Guild named him one of the ten most influential cinematographers in history. Bitzer, it is said, "developed camera techniques that set the standard for all future motion pictures." Among Bitzer's innovations were the fade out to close a movie scene. 2 A. M. in the Subway The Kentuckian The Lonely Villa The Sealed Room Edgar Allan Poe A Corner in Wheat In the Border States The Modern Prodigal A Mohawk's Way The Lonedale Operator Enoch Arden The Girl and Her Trust The Female of the Species A Beast at Bay The Root of Evil An Unseen Enemy The Painted Lady The Musketeers of Pig Alley The House of Darkness Death's Marathon The Mothering Heart The Yaqui Cur The Battle at Elderbush Gulch Judith of Bethulia The Avenging Conscience The Birth of a Nation Intolerance Hearts of the World The Great Love The Greatest Thing in Life A Romance of Happy Valley The Girl Who Stayed at Home True Heart Susie Scarlet Days Broken Blossoms The Greatest Question The Idol Dancer The Love Flower Way Down East The White Rose America Drums of Love The Battle of the Sexes Lady of the Pavements Hendricks, Beginnings of the Biograph, New York, New York: Theodore Gaus' sons.

G. W. Bitzer, Billy Bitzer: His Story, ISBN 978-0-374-11294-3 G. W. Bitzer on IMDb

Regiment Piet Retief

Regiment Piet Retief is an infantry regiment of the South African Army. As a Reserve Force Unit, it has a status equivalent to that of a British Army Reserve or United States Army National Guard unit; this regiment was founded on 1 February 1940 as a citizen force infantry unit and named the Piet Retief Regiment, with the main purpose to supply troops for the Second World War. On 16 March 1940, the regiment was reorganized as an artillery unit renamed the 5th Field Regiment taking part in the Second World War as such. After the Second World War, the 5th Field became non existent, however some years the remnants of the regiment was renamed to Regiment Algoa Bay, of which its Uitenhage company became known as Regiment Uitenhage at a stage. On 1 January 1954, Regiment Piet Retief was re-established as a predominantly Afrikaans speaking motorized infantry citizen force regiment with its headquarters in Graaff-Reinet. In 1956 the HQ moved to Cradock and in 1962 it moved to the Drill Hall in Queenstown.

During 1987 the HQ moved to Port Elizabeth. In 1960 the regiment's name was changed to Regiment Transkei, but by 1966, this was changed to Regiment Noordoos-Kaap and by 1 April 1967 the name was again changed back to Regiment Piet Retief. On 22 November 1969, the regiment received its Regimental Colours and changed its role to that of an infantry CO. IN unit. On 19 May 1990 the unit received its National Colour, laid up at the Group 39 chapel in Queenstown in 1995. On 11 November 1994, the regiment was placed under command of Group 39 in Queenstown, after being under command of Group 6 in Port Elizabeth for a number of years. On 1 April 1997 the regiment was again placed under command of Group 6, after the closure of Group 39. During the latter part of 2000, Regiment Algoa Bay, Regiment Uitenhage and Donkin Regiment were amalgamated with Regiment Piet Retief. A new command team was appointed by the Infantry Formation. Regiment Piet Retief was placed directly under command of the Infantry Formation.

In 2009, the regiment appointed its first black unit second in command, Lt V. P Mbali who acted in the post until 2011 when he was promoted to the substantive rank of Maj; the same year WO1 A. M. Xokolo became the first black Regimental Sergeant Major. In 2012, the regiment through succession planning appointment Lt Col V. P. Mbali as its Officer Commanding with effect from 1 June 2012 and an official ceremonial handing and taking over parade occurred on 5 November 2012. In 2013 during the ICCC, the regiment received several accolades for outstanding service and compliance from the General Officer Commanding SA Army infantry Formation, Maj General Lindile Yam. In 2014 the regiment submitted a name change request and a Freedom of the City was planned for 2015, proposing the name of the Nelson Mandela Regiment to the Director Army Reserves; this was approved in August 2019. The regiment changed the use of the Aloe badge on the beret and now uses the generic SA Army Infantry Formation badge in line with the one force concept, keeping all other regimental regalia as standard.

Honorary Colonel: Col Mzwandile B. Vena Officer Commanding: Lt Col Vusumzi Mbali Second in Command: Maj Sizwe Morgan Singunza RSM: MWO Alfred Melubakho Xokolo The regiments emblem depicts an Aloe in bloom with the motto "AD MORTEM" on the scroll beneath it. Ferox is a Latin adjective meaning brave and combative, a fitting to an aloe, due to the difficult circumstances under which it has to grow and fitting to true infantrymen, due to the difficult circumstances under which they sometimes have to operate; the regiment's leader group used to wear their infantry lanyards around the right shoulder with dress number 1 and 4, because of the regiments historical connection with the artillery, namely the 5th Field Regiment. The current leadership felt its necessary to align itself with the current dress code and regulations and changed the lanyard to the left as the rest of the Infantry Formation; the regiment has its own unique mess dress with an orange jacket, depicting the colour of the flowers of its emblem, as well as the regiment's strong roots in the Eastern Cape, where orange is a traditional colour used by many of the Xhosa tribes.

The regiment has its own blue blazer with an aloe in full colour on the pocket badge for all unit members. A silver aloe is used on the pocket badge for those regiment members with John Chard Medals, loyal service medals and Gold for members with JCD and 20 years in service; the regiment has an informal attire consisting of a golf shirt, padded jacket, shorts and track suit all with the regiment's emblem on it. The regiment toasts with aloe juice; when members are promoted, they are congratulated to their new rank or appointment by being expected to have a drink of aloe juice, after which they say the unit motto "AD MORTEM" aloud. In order to motivate the regiments soldiers as Infanteers, the regiment has its own unique "Battle Cry" that promotes the regiments and Infantry ethos; the regiment encouraged members to compose a song that would identify them and their uniqueness from the Eastern Cape, including the long road the regiment has travelled in protecting the countries citizens as a force multiplier to the Regular Force.

The units emblem is the tough Aloe plant. None known


Loughshinny is a small village in North County Dublin, Ireland. The seaside village is between Rush. Loughshinny's more famous landmarks are the Martello Tower on the nearby headland of Drumanagh and some unusual rock formations visible on some of the many coastal walks in the area; the village is located in the townland of the same name, part of the civil parish of Lusk. The headland of Drumanagh contains a major Iron Age fort, where important Roman artifacts have been found; some archaeologists have suggested the fort was a bridgehead for Roman military campaigns, while others suggest it was a Roman trading colony or a native Irish settlement that traded with Roman Britain. Famous people associated with Loughshinny include Senator Richard A. Butler, a member of the first Seanad and chair of the Irish Farmers' Union. Loughshinny Beach is a picnic area used by others, its facilities include public toilets, a lifeguard house, a public carpark. In April 2016, Loughshinny Beach was classified as having a "poor status" of water quality, along with Rush South Beach, by Fingal County Council.

This statement was issued during one of Fingal County Council's largest pushes for tourism throughout the Fingal region and in Loughshinny. In 2016, Loughshinny Beach was one of six Irish beaches that failed to meet minimum EU standards for clean water. Rush South Beach failed to meet these EU regulations. Tourism has suffered in these regions as a result, but the so-called "Folding Cliffs of Loughshinny" and the Smugglers' Cave along the beach nearby Loughshinny still provide an attraction for tourists. List of towns and villages in Ireland Loughshinny Village Online – Official website