Howard University is a private, federally chartered black university in Washington, D. C, it is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with higher research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. From its outset Howard has been open to people of all sexes and races. Howard offers more than 120 areas leading to undergraduate and professional degrees. Howard is classified as a Tier 1 national university and ranks second among HBCUs by U. S. News & World Report. Howard is the only HBCU ranked in the top 40 on the Bloomberg Businessweek college rankings; the Princeton Review ranked the school of business first in opportunities for minority students and in the top five for most competitive students. The National Law Journal ranked the law school among the top 25 in the nation for placing graduates at the most successful law firms. Howard has produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017. Between 1998 and 2018, Howard University produced two Marshall Scholars, eleven Truman Scholars, seventy Fulbright Scholars, a Schwarzman Scholar and twenty-two Pickering Fellows.
Howard produces the most black doctorate recipients of any university. Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of African-American clergymen. Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Medicine; the new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard served as President of the University from 1869–74. U. S. Congress chartered Howard on March 2, 1867, much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, tuition. (In the 20th and 21st centuries an annual congressional appropriation, administered by the U. S. Department of Education, funds Howard University and Howard University Hospital After five years of being an institution, Howard University became the place of education for over 150,000 freed slaves.
Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was made a dormitory for women. From 1926-1960, Howard University's first African-American presideant, Dr. Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, Sr. reigned. The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Howard University has played an important role in American history and the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance. Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science. Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique of occupying stools at a local cafeteria which denied service to African Americans blocking other customers waiting for service.
This tactic was to play a prominent role in the Civil Rights Movement. By January 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D. C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the fall of 1944. Stokely Carmichael known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity, coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist. Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History. E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology. Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English; the first sitting president to speak at Howard was Calvin Coolidge in 1924. His graduation speech was entitled, "The Progress of a People," and highlighted the accomplishments to date of the blacks in America since the Civil War, his concluding thought was, "We can not go out from this place and occasion without refreshment of faith and renewal of confidence that in every exigency our Negro fellow citizens will render the best and fullest measure of service whereof they are capable."
In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities. At the time, the Voting Rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives. In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital with service to the surrounding community. In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's board of trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, occupied the university's Administration building.
Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned. In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying the school was in a state of crisis and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence
Lionel Leo Hampton was an American jazz vibraphonist, pianist and bandleader. Hampton worked with jazz musicians from Teddy Wilson, Benny Goodman, Buddy Rich to Charlie Parker, Charles Mingus, Quincy Jones. In 1992, he was inducted into the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame, was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1996. Lionel Hampton was born in 1908 in Louisville and was raised by his mother. Shortly after he was born, he and his mother moved to her hometown of Alabama, he spent his early childhood in Kenosha, before he and his family moved to Chicago, Illinois, in 1916. As a youth, Hampton was a member of the Bud Billiken Club, an alternative to the Boy Scouts of America, off-limits because of racial segregation. During the 1920s, while still a teenager, Hampton took xylophone lessons from Jimmy Bertrand and began to play drums. Hampton was raised Roman Catholic, started out playing fife and drum at the Holy Rosary Academy near Chicago. Lionel Hampton began his career playing drums for the Chicago Defender Newsboys' Band while still a teenager in Chicago.
He moved to California in 1928, playing drums for the Dixieland Blues-Blowers. He made his recording debut with The Quality Serenaders led by Paul Howard left for Culver City and drummed for the Les Hite band at Sebastian's Cotton Club. One of his trademarks as a drummer was his ability to do stunts with multiple pairs of sticks such as twirling and juggling without missing a beat. During this period he began practicing on the vibraphone. In 1930 Louis Armstrong came to California and hired the Les Hite band, asking Hampton if he would play vibes on two songs. So began his career as a vibraphonist, popularizing the use of the instrument in the process. Invented ten years earlier, the vibraphone is a xylophone with metal bars, a sustain pedal, resonators equipped with electric-powered fans that add tremolo. While working with the Les Hite band, Hampton occasionally did some performing with Nat Shilkret and his orchestra. During the early 1930s, he studied music at the University of Southern California.
In 1934 he led his own orchestra, appeared in the Bing Crosby film Pennies From Heaven alongside Louis Armstrong. In November 1936, the Benny Goodman Orchestra came to Los Angeles to play the Palomar Ballroom; when John Hammond brought Goodman to see Hampton perform, Goodman invited him to join his trio, which soon became the Benny Goodman Quartet with Teddy Wilson and Gene Krupa completing the lineup. The Trio and Quartet were among the first racially integrated jazz groups to perform before audiences, were a leading small-group of the day. While Hampton worked for Goodman in New York, he recorded with several different small groups known as the Lionel Hampton Orchestra, as well as assorted small groups within the Goodman band. In 1940 Hampton left the Goodman organization under amicable circumstances to form his own big band. Hampton's orchestra developed a high-profile during early 1950s, his third recording with them in 1942 produced the version of "Flying Home", featuring a solo by Illinois Jacquet that anticipated rhythm & blues.
Although Hampton first recorded "Flying Home" under his own name with a small group in 1940 for Victor, the best known version is the big band version recorded for Decca on May 26, 1942, in a new arrangement by Hampton's pianist Milt Buckner. The 78pm disc became successful enough for Hampton to record "Flyin' Home #2" in 1944, this time a feature for Arnett Cobb; the song went on to become the theme song for all three men. Guitarist Billy Mackel first joined Hampton in 1944, would perform and record with him continuously through to the late 1970s. In 1947, Hamp performed "Stardust" at a "Just Jazz" concert for producer Gene Norman featuring Charlie Shavers and Slam Stewart. Norman's GNP Crescendo label issued the remaining tracks from the concert. From the mid-1940s until the early 1950s, Hampton led a lively rhythm & blues band whose Decca Records recordings included numerous young performers who had significant careers, they included bassist Charles Mingus, saxophonist Johnny Griffin, guitarist Wes Montgomery, vocalist Dinah Washington.
Other noteworthy band members were trumpeters Dizzy Gillespie, Cat Anderson, Kenny Dorham, Snooky Young. The Hampton orchestra that toured Europe in 1953 included Clifford Brown, Gigi Gryce, Anthony Ortega, Monk Montgomery, George Wallington, Art Farmer, Quincy Jones, singer Annie Ross. Hampton continued to record with small groups and jam sessions during the 1940s and 1950s, with Oscar Peterson, Buddy DeFranco, others. In 1955, while in California working on The Benny Goodman Story he recorded with Stan Getz and made two albums with Art Tatum for Norman Granz as well as with his own big band. Hampton performed with Louis Armstrong and Italian singer Lara Saint Paul at the 1968 Sanremo Music Festival in Italy; the performance created a sensation with Italian audiences. That same year, Hampton received a Papal Medal from Pope Paul VI. During the 1960s, Hampton's groups were in decline, he did not fare much better in the 1970s, though he recorded for his Who's Who in Jazz record label, which he founded in 1977/1978.
Beginning in February 1984, Hampton and his band played at the University of Idaho's annual jazz festival, renamed the Lionel Hampton Jazz Festival the following year. In 1987 the UI's school of music was renamed for Hampto
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Saint Paul's College (Virginia)
Saint Paul's College was a private black college located in Lawrenceville, Virginia. Saint Paul's College opened its doors on September 24, 1888 training students as teachers and for agricultural and industrial jobs. By the late 20th century, Saint Paul's College offered undergraduate degrees for traditional college students and distant learning students in the Continuing Studies Program; the school offered adult education to help assist working adults to gain undergraduate degrees. Saint Paul's College had a Single Parent Support System Program that assisted single teen parents pursuing a college education; the college had long struggled with significant financial difficulties, culminating in a court conflict in 2012 with its regional accreditor, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Throughout the 2012–2013 school year, the college sought to merge with another institution, but on June 3, 2013, the board announced the college would close on June 30, 2013. Saint Paul's eleven-building campus was situated on 185 acres of green hills.
Older buildings were donated by friends of the College. The college has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On September 24, 1888, James Solomon Russell of the Protestant Episcopal Church founded the Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School, with fewer than a dozen students; the school was intended chiefly to develop African-American teachers, a critical and prestigious job in the late 19th and early 20th-century South. In 1941 the name of the institution was changed to Saint Paul's Polytechnic Institute when the state granted the school authority to offer a four-year program; the first bachelor's degree was awarded in 1944. In 1957 the college adopted its present name to reflect its liberal arts and teacher education curricula. In June 2012, the college's regional accreditor, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges, stripped the college of its accreditation. Although the college had been on probation, it lost its accreditation for "violations concerning financial resources, institutional effectiveness in support services, institutional effectiveness in academics and student services, lack of terminal degrees for too many faculty members, a lack of financial stability."
The college sued the accreditor, two months a court issued a preliminary injunction reinstating the college's probationary accreditation to protect it during further legal proceedings. Although supporters worked on plans to have St. Augustine's University in Raleigh, North Carolina, another black university of Episcopal heritage, acquire St Paul's, the deal was abandoned in May 2013. Shortly thereafter, St. Paul's College reported to SACS that it would close on June 30, 2013. In 2017 the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, which had assumed ownership of most of the former campus, sold the property to a Chinese-related firm that has not announced its plans; the college focused on liberal arts, social sciences, business and natural sciences. It was committed to the development of "students who will be equipped to live in a global society." Saint Paul's College developed the Single Parent Support System, the only program of its kind in the United States. Initiated in 1987, the Single Parent Support System was an on-campus residential educational program designed for single parents with two or fewer children between the ages of two months to nine years old.
The program required students to attend the college year round on a full-time basis and maintain a projected graduation progression of three to four years, with a 2.5 G. P. A. each year. A significant aspect of the SPSS was a faculty mentoring system that assisted participants with choosing a major. Tutorial assistance and counseling services were available, the college provided seminars that focused on academic success, transition to college, career planning, parenting; the college provided child care assistance. The college discontinued its athletic programs in July 2011 in an effort to alleviate financial difficulties; the football team had costs of $300,000 to $400,000 annually. The men's sports teams were known as the Tigers and the women's sports teams were known as the Lady Tigers; the college competed in the NCAA Division II in the Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Barbara Boyd – Democratic member of Ohio House of Representatives Billy Eckstine – jazz and pop singer, bandleader Greg Jackson – current head men's basketball coach at Delaware State University Sidney Lowe – former head coach for Vancouver Grizzlies and Minnesota Timberwolves.
Martha Namundjebo-Tilahun, former president of the Namibia Chamber for Commerce and Industry Stella Oduah – politician, former Minister of Aviation, Nigeria. Antwain Smith – former American professional basketball player. Greg Toler – NFL cornerback Saint Paul's College at the Wayback Machine Saint Paul's College at the Wayback Machine
Theodore "Fats" Navarro (September 24, 1923 – July 6, 1950 was an American jazz trumpet player. He was a pioneer of the bebop style of jazz improvisation in the 1940s, he had a strong stylistic influence including Clifford Brown. Navarro was born in Key West, Florida, of Cuban and Chinese descent, he began playing piano at age six, but did not become serious about music until he began playing trumpet at the age of thirteen. He was a childhood friend of drummer Al Dreares. By the time he graduated from Douglass High School, he wanted to be away from Key West and joined a dance band headed for the Midwest. Tiring of the road life after touring with many bands and gaining valuable experience, including influencing a young J. J. Johnson when they were together in Snookum Russell's territory band, Navarro settled in New York City in 1946, where his career took off, he met and played with, among others, Charlie Parker, one of the greatest musical innovators of modern jazz improvisation. But Navarro was in a position to demand a high salary and did not join one of Parker's regular groups.
He developed a heroin addiction, a weight problem (he was nicknamed "Fat". These afflictions led to a slow decline in his death at the age of twenty-six. Navarro was hospitalized on July 1 and died in the evening of July 6, 1950, his last performance was with Charlie Parker on July 1 at Birdland. Navarro played in the Andy Kirk, Billy Eckstine, Benny Goodman, Lionel Hampton big bands, participated in small group recording sessions with Kenny Clarke, Tadd Dameron, Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis, Coleman Hawkins, Illinois Jacquet, Howard McGhee, Bud Powell. Navarro died in New York City on July 6, 1950, was survived by wife Rena, his daughter Linda, Amilcar Navarro, a filmmaker and his sister Delores. 1943 Andy Kirk - "Fare Thee Well Honey" c/w "Baby, Don't You Tell Me No Lie" 1944 Andy Kirk and his Orchestra Live at the Apollo 1944-1947 Andy Kirk - Andy's Jive The Uncollected Andy Kirk - Andy Kirk and his Twelve Clouds of Joy Andy Kirk and his Orchestra 1945 Andy Kirk and his Orchestra Billy Eckstine - Together Billy Eckstine - Blues for Sale Billy Eckstine - The Love Songs of Mr. "B" V.
A. - The Advance Guard of the'40s Billy Eckstine - You Call It Madness Billy Eckstine - Prisoner of Love 1946 Andy Kirk - "He's My Baby" c/w "Soothe Me" Andy Kirk - "Alabama Bound" c/w "Doggin' Man Blues" Billy Eckstine - My Deep Blue Dream Billy Eckstine - I Surrender, Dear V. A. - Boning Up the'Bones Billy Eckstine - Mr. B and the Band V. A. - The Bebop Era Fats Navarro Memorial - Fats - Bud - Klook - Sonny - Kinney Earl Bud Powell, Vol. 2 - Burning in U. S. A. 53-55 Fats Navarro Memorial, Vol. 2 - Nostalgia V. A. - In the Beginning Bebop! Coleman Hawkins - Bean and the Boys 1947 Illinois Jacquet and his Tenor Sax V. A. - Opus de Bop Billy Stewart/Ray Abrams - Gloomy Sunday c/w In My Solitude Milton Buggs/Ray Abrams - I Live True to You c/w Fine Brown Frame V. A. - Jazz Off the Air, Vol. 2 The Fabulous Fats Navarro, Vol. 1 Fats Navarro - Fat Girl Charlie Parker - "Anthropology" Coleman Hawkins - His Greatest Hits 1939-47, Vol. 17 Coleman Hawkins - Body and Soul: A Jazz Autobiography V. A. - All American Hot Jazz 1948 Lionel Hampton and his Orchestra 1948 Lionel Hampton in Concert Fats Navarro Featured with the Tadd Dameron Quintet The Tadd Dameron Band 1948 Benny Goodman/Charlie Barnet - Capitol Jazz Classics, Vol. 15: Bebop Spoken Here The Fabulous Fats Navarro, Vol. 2 V.
A. - The Other Side Blue Note 1500 Series The Complete Blue Note and Capitol Recordings of Fats Navarro and Tadd Dameron Earl Coleman - I Wished on the Moon c/w Guilty Dexter Gordon on Dial - Move! 1949 The Metronome All Stars - From Swing to Be-Bop - released on Dizzy Gillespie's The Complete RCA Victor Recordings Dizzy Gillespie - Strictly Be Bop Jazz at the Philharmonic - J. A. T. P. at Carnegie Hall 1949 The Amazing Bud Powell, Vol. 1 V. A. - 25 Years of Prestige Miles Davis/Dizzy Gillespie/Fats Navarro - Trumpet Giants Don Lanphere/Fats Navarro/Leo Parker/Al Haig - Prestige First Sessions, Vol. 1 1950 Charlie Parker - Fats Navarro - Bud Powell Charlie Parker - One Night in Birdland Charlie Parker - Bud Powell - Fats Navarro Hooray for Miles Davis, Vol. 1 Miles Davis All Stars and Gil Evans The Persuasively Coherent Miles Davis Hooray for Miles Davis, Vol. 2 Compilations 1995: The Complete Blue Note and Capitol Recordings of Fats Navarro and Tadd Dameron Fats Navarro at Encyclopædia Britannica Biography of Fats Navarro The Music and Life of Theodore "Fats" Navarro by Leif Bo Petersen & Theo Rehak
MGM Records was a record label started by the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio in 1946 for the purpose of releasing soundtrack albums of their musical films. It soon transitioned to a pop music label; the company released soundtrack albums of the music for some of their non-musical films as well, on rare occasions, cast albums of off-Broadway musicals such as The Fantasticks and the 1954 revival of The Threepenny Opera. In one instance, it released the successful soundtrack album of a film made by a rival studio, Columbia Pictures's Born Free, their first soundtrack was of Till the Clouds Roll By, a 1946 film based on the life of composer Jerome Kern. It was the first soundtrack album of a live-action film; the album was issued as a set of four 10-inch 78-rpm records. As in many early MGM soundtrack albums, only eight selections from the film were included on the original version of the album. In order to fit the songs onto the record sides the musical material needed editing and manipulation; this was before tape existed, so the record producer needed to copy segments from the playback discs used on set copy and re-copy them from one disc to another, adding transitions and cross-fades until the final master was created.
Needless to say, it was several generations removed from the original and the sound quality suffered for it. The playback recordings were purposely recorded "dry" otherwise it would come across as too hollow sounding in large movie theatres; this made these albums boxy. MGM Records called these "original cast albums" in the style of Decca's Broadway show cast albums, they coined the phrase "recorded directly from the soundtrack". Over the years the term "soundtrack" began to be applied to any recording from a film, whether taken from the actual film soundtrack or re-recorded in studio; the phrase is sometimes incorrectly used for Broadway cast recordings. While it is correct to call a "soundtrack" a "cast recording" it is never correct to call a "cast recording" a "soundtrack". Among MGM's most successful soundtrack albums were those of the films Good News, Easter Parade, Annie Get Your Gun, Singin' in the Rain, Show Boat, The Band Wagon, Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, Gigi; when the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz was first shown on television in 1956, the label issued a soundtrack album of songs and dialog excerpts recorded directly from the film, as they had done with their LP of music and dialog from Quo Vadis in 1951.
By 1950, magnetic tape had been perfected for recording use. This markedly improved the sound quality on long play albums from 1951 forward. MGM Records issued albums of film scores, including Ben-Hur, King of Kings, Doctor Zhivago, How the West Was Won, the 1967 fake-stereo 70mm re-release of Gone With the Wind, 2001: A Space Odyssey; the Ben-Hur and King of Kings albums were studio recreations of the scores, but done with the original orchestrations. MGM Records released a second soundtrack album of Quo Vadis, this one containing only music from the film. Beginning in the 1990s, authentic soundtrack albums of the musical scores to Ben-Hur and King of Kings became available; the Rhino Records editions of these albums featured the entire scores, including outtakes. Rhino released a full-length two-disc album of the score of Gone With the Wind, recorded from the soundtrack in the original mono; as in the case of the non-musical films, Rhino Records, which obtained the rights to the MGM soundtracks in the 1990s, issued longer versions of their movie musical albums, containing all of the songs and music.
Rhino's license expired at the end of 2011 and the albums Rhino issued are now out of print. Warner Bros. now owns the MGM soundtracks first issued by MGM Records and Warner Bros' WaterTower Music unit now has the rights to release the MGM soundtracks. MGM operated their own record manufacturing plant at Bloomfield, New Jersey, from 1947 until 1972. For several years in the late 1940s-early 1950s, MGM operated a radio syndication business, producing The MGM Theater of the Air and a variety of other series based on inactive movie properties such as Dr. Kildare, Andy Hardy and Crime Does Not Pay; the MGM record pressing plant manufactured the electrical transcriptions used to distribute the shows to local stations. The record manufacturing division was closed. There was a short-lived Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Records of 1928, which produced recordings of music featured in MGM movies, not sold to the general public but made to be played in movie theater lobbies; these Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer records were manufactured under contract with the studio by Columbia Records.
In the early 1950s, MGM Records was considered one of the "major" record companies due to owning its own manufacturing facilities. Subsidiary Cub Records was launched in the late 1950s and Verve Records was acquired from Norman Granz in December 1960. Other MGM subsidiaries and distributed labels included: Kama Sutra, Heritage and Metro, Leo Hickory, MGM South, Pride, CoBurt, L&R, Lionel. MGM moved into the rock a