Iron Man is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was co-created by writer and editor Stan Lee, developed by scripter Larry Lieber, designed by artists Don Heck and Jack Kirby; the character made his first appearance in Tales of Suspense #39, received his own title in Iron Man #1. A wealthy American business magnate and ingenious scientist, Anthony Edward "Tony" Stark suffers a severe chest injury during a kidnapping; when his captors attempt to force him to build a weapon of mass destruction, he instead creates a powered suit of armor to save his life and escape captivity. Stark develops his suit, adding weapons and other technological devices he designed through his company, Stark Industries, he uses successive versions to protect the world as Iron Man. Although at first concealing his true identity, Stark declared that he was, in fact, Iron Man in a public announcement. Iron Man was a vehicle for Stan Lee to explore Cold War themes the role of American technology and industry in the fight against communism.
Subsequent re-imaginings of Iron Man have transitioned from Cold War motifs to contemporary matters of the time. Throughout most of the character's publication history, Iron Man has been a founding member of the superhero team the Avengers and has been featured in several incarnations of his own various comic book series. Iron Man has been adapted for several animated TV films; the Marvel Cinematic Universe character is portrayed by Robert Downey Jr. in the live action film Iron Man, a critical and box office success. Downey, who received much acclaim for his performance, reprised the role in a cameo in The Incredible Hulk, two Iron Man sequels Iron Man 2 and Iron Man 3, The Avengers, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War and will do so again in Avengers: Endgame in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Iron Man was ranked 12th on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes" in 2011, third in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012. Iron Man's Marvel Comics premiere in Tales of Suspense #39 was a collaboration among editor and story-plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber, story-artist Don Heck, cover-artist and character-designer Jack Kirby.
In 1963, Lee had been toying with the idea of a businessman superhero. He wanted to create the "quintessential capitalist", a character that would go against the spirit of the times and Marvel's readership. Lee said, I think, it was the height of the Cold War. The readers, the young readers, if there was one thing they hated, it was war, it was the military... So I got a hero, he was a weapons manufacturer, he was providing weapons for the Army, he was rich, he was an industrialist... I thought it would be fun to take the kind of character that nobody would like, none of our readers would like, shove him down their throats and make them like him... And he became popular, he set out to make the new character a wealthy, glamorous ladies' man, but one with a secret that would plague and torment him as well. Writer Gerry Conway said, "Here you have this character, who on the outside is invulnerable, I mean, just can't be touched, but inside is a wounded figure. Stan made it much an in-your-face wound, you know, his heart was broken, you know broken.
But there's a metaphor going on there. And that's, I think, what made that character interesting." Lee based this playboy's looks and personality on Howard Hughes, explaining, "Howard Hughes was one of the most colorful men of our time. He was an inventor, an adventurer, a multi-billionaire, a ladies' man and a nutcase." "Without being crazy, he was Howard Hughes," Lee said. While Lee intended to write the story himself, a minor deadline emergency forced him to hand over the premiere issue to Lieber, who fleshed out the story; the art was split between Heck. "He designed the costume," Heck said of Kirby, ``. The covers were always done first, but I created the look of the characters, like Tony Stark and his secretary Pepper Potts." In a 1990 interview, when asked if he had "a specific model for Tony Stark and the other characters?", Heck replied "No, I would be thinking more along the lines of some characters I like, which would be the same kind of characters that Alex Toth liked, an Errol Flynn type."
Iron Man first appeared in 13- to 18-page stories in Tales of Suspense, which featured anthology science fiction and supernatural stories. The character's original costume was a bulky gray armored suit, replaced by a golden version in the second story, it was redesigned as sleeker, red-and-golden armor in issue #48 by that issue's interior artist, Steve Ditko, although Kirby drew it on the cover. As Heck recalled in 1985, "he second costume, the red and yellow one, was designed by Steve Ditko. I found it easier than drawing that bulky old thing; the earlier design, the robot-looking one, was more Kirbyish."In his premiere, Iron Man was an anti-communist hero, defeating various Vietnamese agents. Lee regretted this early focus. Throughout the character's comic book series, technological advancement and national defense were constant themes for Iron Man, but issues developed Stark into a more complex and vulnerable character as they depicted his battle with alcoholism and other personal difficulties.
From issue #59 to its final issue #99, the anthological science-fictio
Monsters Unleashed (comics)
Monsters Unleashed is the title of an American black-and-white comics magazine published by Magazine Management and two color comic-book miniseries from Marvel Comics. The first ran from 1973 to 1975; the two miniseries ran consecutively in 2017. The first publication titled Monsters Unleashed was an American black-and-white horror comics magazine published by Magazine Management, a corporate sibling of Marvel Comics; the series ran 11 issues cover-dated 1973 to April 1975), plus one annual publication. With sister titles including Dracula Lives!, Tales of the Zombie and Vampire Tales, it was published by Marvel Comics' parent company, Magazine Management, related corporations, under the brand emblem Marvel Monster Group. The first issue was dated 1973, but the second issue of the magazine, published quarterly, was cover-dated September 1973. A magazine rather than a comic book, it did not fall under the purview of the comics industry's self-censorship Comics Code Authority, allowing the title to feature stronger content — such as moderate profanity, partial nudity, more graphic violence — than color comics of the time.
Monsters Unleashed featured standalone horror stories, both original and reprinted, including from pre-Comics Code comics from Marvel Comics' 1950s iteration, Atlas Comics. It featured stories starring the Marvel Comics swamp monster Man-Thing, the Marvel version of the Frankenstein monster, the bestial Wendigo, the science-fiction adventurer Gullivar Jones, and the superheroine Tigra. It included text features on monster movies. Monsters Unleashed was edited by Roy Thomas for the first six issues, succeeded by Tony Isabella, Don McGregor for the last two issues; the painted covers were illustrated by the likes of Gray Morrow, Boris Vallejo, Neal Adams, Frank Brunner, Bob Larkin, Richard Hescox, Earl Norem, Jose Antonio Domingo. In addition to the 11 issues there was one annual publication in 1975 consisting of stories reprinted from the magazine; the second volume of Monsters Unleashed is a Marvel Comics series published in 2017. It is the flagship title of the "Monster Unleashed" company-wide crossover story arc.
Additionally, a tie-in trade paperback book, Monsters Unleashed Prelude, reprinted late 1950s and early 1960s "pre-superhero Marvel" stories starring several of the giant monsters seen in the new series. Monsters Unleashed volume two began publication in January 2017; the five-issue miniseries was cover-date March–May 2017. Monsters have been appearing on Earth upon falling from the sky; the Avengers fight a reptilian monster in Boston, the X-Men fight a spider monster in London, the Black Panther and Shuri defend Wakanda from a thick-skinned monster, the Guardians of the Galaxy defend Groot from a snake-like monster in Seattle, the Inhumans fight a multi-headed monster in Venice, the Champions fight a tentacled eye monster in Los Angeles. In Peru, Elsa Bloodstone finds a prophecy; the Winter Guard fights monsters in Moscow while Valkyrie and Warrior Woman fight them in Edinburgh while Atlas fights them in Washington, D. C. Medusa and Karnak discover that Kei Kawade is an Inhuman who can summon monsters called Goliathons to help fight the Leviathon invasion.
Kei learns how to use his powers and manages to defeat the Leviathon Queen with a team of new monsters. Monsters Unleashed vol. 2, #1–5 All-New X-Men vol. 2 #1. MU Avengers vol. 7 #1. MU Champions vol. 2 #1. MU Doctor Strange vol. 4 #1. MU Guardians of the Galaxy vol. 4 #1. MU Spider-Man/Deadpool #1. MU Totally Awesome Hulk #1. MU Uncanny Inhumans #1. MU Marvel Free Previews: Monsters Unleashed! #1 The third volume of Monsters Unleashed is a five-issue Marvel Comics miniseries cover-dated June-Oct. 2017. It follows the adventures of Kei Kawade, vampire-hunter Elsa Bloodstone, Kei Kawade's creations Aegish, Scragg, Hi Vo and Mekara; the series unfolds as the team takes on gargantuan creatures and protects the planet while having to deal with the latest incarnation of Intelligencia. Monsters Unleashed at the Comic Book DB
Power Man and Iron Fist
Power Man and Iron Fist was an American comic book series published by Marvel Comics, featuring the superheroes Power Man and Iron Fist. The series debuted as Hero For Hire #1, became Power Man from #17 onwards; the cover logo included Luke Cage's name, so from #1–16 the cover logo read Luke Cage, Hero For Hire and from #17 onwards Luke Cage, Power Man. The series was written by Luke Cage's co-creator Archie Goodwin, pencilled by George Tuska, inked by Billy Graham. Power Man's sales became unsustainable. Marvel decided to combine his series with Iron Fist, another once popular superhero who could no longer support his own series, in order to save both characters from full cancellation. Iron Fist joined the cast of Power Man in a three part story arc in #48–50; the series title changed to Power Man and Iron Fist with #50, though the indicia did not reflect this change until #67. Iron Fist writer Chris Claremont penned the initial stories pairing the characters, but was soon forced to turn the series over to Jo Duffy due to his unmanageable workload.
Duffy's run was noted for its lighthearted, character-driven tone, had few fight scenes. A young Kurt Busiek had his first regular assignment with the title, writing it from issue #90 to #100, he emulated the lighthearted humor of Duffy's run, not knowing that Duffy had been taken off Power Man and Iron Fist because the editorial staff disapproved of her lighthearted tongue-in-cheek approach to the series. Goodwin returned to the series, but had difficulty keeping up with the work, his brief second run was littered with issues by fill-in writers, including two by Busiek. Jim Owsley, another Marvel staffer, took over as regular writer; the series concluded with the death of Iron Fist in a controversial story. Owsley commented, "Fist’s death was senseless and shocking and unforeseen, it took the readers’ heads clean off. And, to this day, people are mad about it. Forgetting, it seems, that you were supposed to be mad, that death is senseless and Fist’s death was supposed to be senseless, or that this is a comic book."
In 1996, Marvel launched a new Heroes For Hire, written by John Ostrander and illustrated by Pasqual Ferry, featuring Luke Cage and Iron Fist along with many other characters. It lasted for 19 issues. A new Heroes for Hire series was developed in 2006 as a spin-off of the Daughters of the Dragon limited series; the team line-up did not include Danny Rand. Power Man and Iron Fist returned as a five-issue limited series in 2011, spinning-off from the "Shadowland" storyline, which introduced a new Power Man, Victor Alvarez, it was written by one with art by Wellinton Alves. Four Marvel Essential trade paperbacks were published reprinting issues of the first Power Man and Iron Fist series. Essential Luke Cage, Power Man Volume 2, features Power Man #48-49, Essential Iron Fist Volume 1 features Power Man #48-49 and Power Man and Iron Fist #50. Essential Power Man and Iron Fist Volume 1 reprints Power Man and Iron Fist #50-72 & 74-75. Essential Power Man and Iron Fist Volume 2 reprints Power Man and Iron Fist #76-100 and Daredevil #178.
Roy Thomas - Hero for Hire #1 Archie Goodwin - Hero for Hire #1–4 Steve Englehart - Hero for Hire #5–15 Gerry Conway - Hero for Hire #6 Billy Graham - Hero for Hire #14–15 Tony Isabella - Hero for Hire #15–16, 20–25 John Romita - Hero for Hire #1 George Tuska - Hero for Hire #1–3, 5, 7–12.
Donald Francis McGregor is an American comic book writer best known for his work for Marvel Comics, the author of one of the first graphic novels. Don McGregor was born in Providence, Rhode Island where he worked myriad jobs as a young adult, including as a security guard, at a bank, at a movie theater, "for my grandfather's company, among other things, the patches the astronauts wore on their flights to the moon." He additionally served as a supply sergeant in a military police unit of the Rhode Island Army National Guard. His first work in print was in the letters-to-the-editor columns of various Marvel Comics titles and for The Providence Journal, where his work included reviews of books by authors including Evan Hunter, "who influenced me as a writer." McGregor entered the comics industry with stories in Warren Publishing's black-and-white horror-comics anthology magazines. His first purchased script "When Wakes The Dreamer" did not see print until Eerie #45, long after his first published script, the 12-page cover story "The Fade-Away Walk" in Creepy #40, credited as Donald F. McGregor, with art by Tom Sutton.
Through 1975, he wrote more than a dozen stories for those magazines and its sister title Vampirella, drawn by artists including Richard Corben and Reed Crandall. Of "When Wakes the Dreamer", he explained decades "hat held it up was that Billy Graham was going to draw it and he'd done a spectacular opening page for it, but for one reason or another, it just didn't happen.... I don't think we found the finished art for Billy's version of another early story of mine,'The Vampiress Stalks the Castle This Night.'" That story appeared in Vampirella #21, with art by Felix Mas. After a stint with Marvel, McGregor returned to write another 18 stories for those Warren titles as well as The Rook between 1979 and 1983, with artists including Paul Gulacy, Alfredo Alcala, Val Mayerik. McGregor became a proofreader for Marvel Comics in late 1972, earning $125 a week, before establishing himself as a Marvel editor and writer, his first stories for the company were co-writing, with Gardner Fox, the six-page supernatural story "The Man with Two Faces" in Journey into Mystery vol.
2, #4. He recalled in 2010, I came to Marvel Comics; as the line burgeoned, one of my jobs was to read all the reprint titles. One of the titles was Jungle Action, a collection of jungle genre comics from the 1950s detailing white men and women saving Africans or being threatened by them. I voiced a lament that I thought it was a shame that in 1973 Marvel was printing these stories, couldn't we have a black African hero.... Now, it was one of those unwritten rules that if you worked in editorial you would be given things to write, to supplement that $125 a week, it was at such a meeting that I learned I would be given'Killraven' and Jungle Action, with the Black Panther... to write. With those two features, which became among comics' most acclaimed, McGregor soon established himself as one of a 1970s wave of Marvel writers, including Steve Englehart, Steve Gerber and Doug Moench, who took minor characters and helped create a writerly Renaissance. Former Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas said in 2007, here was a lot of invention and experimentation going on during that period...
Steve and Don turned out be who advanced the field.... I don't think Don's work sold well, but I always thought he was doing some interesting things, I thought,'Well, the kind of stuff we put him on was the kind of stuff that we didn't expect to become great sellers anyway... So let him experiment with it and see what happens', and he did a lot of interesting things with it. McGregor wrote "Warrior of the Worlds" in Amazing Adventures vol. 2, #21-39. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that, "The scripts by Don McGregor emphasized the character's innate dignity." Unusually for mainstream comics, the Panther stories were set in Africa, in the Panther's fictional homeland Wakanda rather than in Marvel's usual American settings. As with the futuristic stories of “Killraven”, McGregor's settings were enough outside the Marvel mainstream that he was able to explore mature themes and adult relationships in a way rare for comics at the time. In 2010, Comics Bulletin ranked McGregor's run on Jungle Action third on its list of the "Top 10 1970s Marvels".
Artist Rich Buckler, his first "Black Panther" collaborator, called McGregor and fellow Marvel writer Doug Moench "two of my favorite writers. They had the same drive and enthusiasm, just huge amounts of talent and energy." African-American writer-editor Dwayne McDuffie said of the 1970s "Black Panther" series: This overlooked and underrated classic is arguably the most written multi-part superhero epic ever.... It's every issue, every scene, a functional, necessary part of the whole. Okay, now go back and read any individual issue. You'll find seamlessly integrated pictures.
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California in 1967 by Jann Wenner, still the magazine's publisher, the music critic Ralph J. Gleason, it was first known for political reporting by Hunter S. Thompson. In the 1990s, the magazine shifted focus to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors, popular music. In recent years, it has resumed its traditional mix of content. Rolling Stone Press is the magazine's associated book publishing imprint. Straight Arrow Press was the magazine's associated book publishing imprint, Straight Arrow Publishing Co. Inc. was the publishing company that published Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone magazine was founded in San Francisco in 1967 by Ralph Gleason. To get it off the ground, Wenner borrowed $7,500 from his own family and from the parents of his soon-to-be wife, Jane Schindelheim; the first issue carried a cover date of November 9, 1967, was in newspaper format with a lead article on the Monterey Pop Festival.
The cover price was 25¢. In the first issue, Wenner explained that the title of the magazine referred to the 1950 blues song "Rollin' Stone", recorded by Muddy Waters, Bob Dylan's hit single "Like a Rolling Stone": You're wondering what we're trying to do. It's hard to say: sort of a sort of a newspaper; the name of it is Rolling Stone which comes from an old saying, "A rolling stone gathers no moss." Muddy Waters used the name for a song. The Rolling Stones took their name from Muddy's song. "Like a Rolling Stone" was the title of Bob Dylan's first rock and roll record. We have begun a new publication reflecting what we see are the changes in rock and roll and the changes related to rock and roll."—Jann Wenner, Rolling Stone, November 9, 1967, p. 2 Some authors have attributed the name to Dylan's hit single: "At Gleason's suggestion, Wenner named his magazine after a Bob Dylan song." Rolling Stone identified with and reported the hippie counterculture of the era. However, it distanced itself from the underground newspapers of the time, such as Berkeley Barb, embracing more traditional journalistic standards and avoiding the radical politics of the underground press.
In the first edition, Wenner wrote that Rolling Stone "is not just about the music, but about the things and attitudes that music embraces". In the 1970s, Rolling Stone began to make a mark with its political coverage, with the likes of gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson writing for the magazine's political section. Thompson first published his most famous work Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas within the pages of Rolling Stone, where he remained a contributing editor until his death in 2005. In the 1970s, the magazine helped launch the careers of many prominent authors, including Cameron Crowe, Lester Bangs, Joe Klein, Joe Eszterhas, Ben Fong-Torres, Patti Smith and P. J. O'Rourke, it was at this point that the magazine ran some of its most famous stories, including that of the Patty Hearst abduction odyssey. One interviewer, speaking for a large number of his peers, said that he bought his first copy of the magazine upon initial arrival on his college campus, describing it as a "rite of passage".
In 1977, the magazine moved its headquarters from San Francisco to New York City. Editor Jann Wenner said San Francisco had become "a cultural backwater". During the 1980s, the magazine began to shift towards being a general "entertainment" magazine. Music was still a dominant topic, but there was increasing coverage of celebrities in television and the pop culture of the day; the magazine initiated its annual "Hot Issue" during this time. Rolling Stone was known for its musical coverage and for Thompson's political reporting. In the 1990s, the magazine changed its format to appeal to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors and popular music; this led to criticism. In recent years, the magazine has resumed its traditional mix of content, including in-depth political stories, it has expanded content to include coverage of financial and banking issues. As a result, the magazine has seen its circulation increase and its reporters invited as experts to network television programs of note.
The printed format has gone through several changes. The first publications, in 1967–72, were in folded tabloid newspaper format, with no staples, black ink text, a single color highlight that changed each edition. From 1973 onwards, editions were produced on a four-color press with a different newsprint paper size. In 1979, the bar code appeared. In 1980, it became a large format magazine; as of edition of October 30, 2008, Rolling Stone has had a smaller, standard-format magazine size. After years of declining readership, the magazine experienced a major resurgence of interest and relevance with the work of two young journalists in the late 2000s, Michael Hastings and Matt Taibbi. In 2005, Dana Leslie Fields, former publisher of Rolling Stone, who had worked at the magazine for 17 years, was an inaugural inductee into the Magazine Hall of Fame. In 2009, Taibbi unleashed an acclaimed series of scathing reports on the financial meltdown of the time, he famously described Goldman Sachs as "a great vampire squid".
Bigger headlines came at the end of June 2010. Rolling Stone caused a controversy in the White House by publishing in the July issue an article by journalist Michael Hastings entitled, "The Runaway General", quoting criticism by General Stanley A. McChrystal, commander of the International Security Assistance Force and U. S. Forces-Afghanistan commander, about Vice President Joe Biden and oth
Alfonso Williamson was an American cartoonist, comic book artist and illustrator specializing in adventure and science-fiction/fantasy. Born in New York City, he spent much of his early childhood in Bogotá, Colombia before moving back to the United States at the age of 12. In his youth, Williamson developed an interest in comic strips Alex Raymond's Flash Gordon, he took art classes at Burne Hogarth's Cartoonists and Illustrators School, there befriending future cartoonists Wally Wood and Roy Krenkel, who introduced him to the work of illustrators who had influenced adventure strips. Before long, he was working professionally in the comics industry, his most notable works include his science-fiction/heroic fantasy art for EC Comics in the 1950s, on titles including Weird Science and Weird Fantasy. In the 1960s, he gained recognition for continuing Raymond's illustrative tradition with his work on the Flash Gordon comic-book series, was a seminal contributor to the Warren Publishing's black-and-white horror comics magazines Creepy and Eerie.
Williamson spent most of the 1970s working on his own credited strip, another Raymond creation, Secret Agent X-9. The following decade, he became known for his work adapting Star Wars films to comic books and newspaper strips. From the mid-1980s to 2003, he was active as an inker on Marvel Comics superhero titles starring such characters as Daredevil, Spider-Man, Spider-Girl. Williamson is known for his collaborations with a group of artists including Frank Frazetta, Roy Krenkel, Angelo Torres, George Woodbridge, affectionately known as the "Fleagle Gang". Williamson has been cited as a stylistic influence on a number of younger artists, encouraged many, helping such newcomers as Bernie Wrightson and Michael Kaluta enter the profession, he has won several industry awards, six career-retrospective books about him have been published since 1998. Living in Pennsylvania with his wife Corina, Williamson retired in his seventies. Williamson was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2000.
Al Williamson was born in Manhattan, New York City, New York, one of two children of Sally and Alfonso Williamson, of Scottish descent and a Colombian citizen. The family relocated to Bogotá, when Al was two years old. "My father was Colombian and my mother was American," Williamson said in 1997. "They got married and went down there. I grew up down there so I learned both Spanish at the same time, it was comic books that taught me to read both languages." At age nine, Williamson took an interest in comic strips via the Mexican magazine Paquin, which featured American strips as well as Underwater Empire by Argentine cartoonist Carlos Clemen. Williamson was attracted to Alex Raymond's Flash Gordon strip after his mother took him to see the Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe movie serial. While living in Bogotá he met future cartoonist Adolfo Buylla, who befriended him and gave him artistic advice. At age 12, in 1943, Williamson moved with his mother to California. In the mid-1940s Williamson continued to pursue his interest in cartooning and began to take art classes with Tarzan cartoonist Burne Hogarth, at Hogarth's Cartoonists and Illustrators School.
There he met future cartoonists Roy Krenkel. According to Williamson, "Roy broadened my collecting horizons, he became my guide to all the great illustrators — the artists who directly influenced adventure cartoonists like Raymond and Foster, he showed me J. C. Coll, Franklin Booth, Joseph Franke, Dan Smith, Norman Lindsay, Fortunino Matania, the great Blue Book illustrators like Herbert Morton Stoops and Frank Hoban." As he continued to learn about the cartooning field, he would visit the comic-book publisher Fiction House, meeting such artists as George Evans, Bob Lubbers, John Celardo, Mort Meskin. Williamson's first professional work may have been helping Hogarth pencil some Tarzan Sunday pages in 1948, although Williamson, who had believed so, reconsidered in a 1983 interview and recalled that his Tarzan work had come after his first two pieces of comic-book art: providing spot illustrations for the story "The World's Ugliest Horse" in Eastern Color's seminal series Famous Funnies #166, a two-page Boy Scouts story, his first comics narrative, in New Heroic Comics #51.
Williamson explained that while Hogarth had offered him Tarzan work, Williamson "just couldn't do it.... I couldn't get it into my little brain that he wanted me to do it the way that he did it," and instead recommended Celardo, artist of the Tarzan-like feature "Ka'a'nga" in Fiction House's Jungle Comics; as Williamson recalled:... Hogarth got in touch with, the next thing you knew, he was penciling the Sunday page for him, he did it for quite some time and something must have happened... but at that point I was going to the Hogarth school again in the evenings... and he asked me again if I would like to give it a try, so I said OK. He gave me a page and he had laid it out, so I just tightened it up, he gave me another page that I tightened up and he inked it. I said I'd like to try laying it out myself and asked if I could do that, he said,'Go ahead, Al,' and handed me the script. So I laid that page out on a sketchpad, he said fine and just made a couple of suggestions as to.
A graphic novel is a book made up of comics content. Although the word "novel" refers to long fictional works, the term "graphic novel" is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, anthologized work, it is distinguished from the term "comic book", used for comics periodicals. Fan historian Richard Kyle coined the term "graphic novel" in an essay in the November 1964 issue of the comics fanzine Capa-Alpha; the term gained popularity in the comics community after the publication of Will Eisner's A Contract with God and the start of Marvel's Graphic Novel line and became familiar to the public in the late 1980s after the commercial successes of the first volume of Art Spiegelman's Maus in 1986 and the collected editions of Frank Miller's The Dark Knight Returns in 1986 and Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' Watchmen in 1987. The Book Industry Study Group began using "graphic novel" as a category in book stores in 2001; the term is not defined, though Merriam-Webster's full dictionary definition is "a fictional story, presented in comic-strip format and published as a book", while its simplest definition is given as "cartoon drawings that tell a story and are published as a book".
In the publishing trade, the term extends to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Collections of comic books that do not form a continuous story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces, non-fiction are stocked by libraries and bookstores as "graphic novels"; the term is sometimes used to distinguish between works created as standalone stories, in contrast to collections or compilations of a story arc from a comic book series published in book form. In continental Europe, both original book-length stories such as La rivolta dei racchi by Guido Buzzelli, collections of comics have been published in hardcover volumes called "albums", since the end of the 19th century; as the exact definition of the graphic novel is debated, the origins of the form are open to interpretation. The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck is the oldest recognized American example of comics used to this end, it originated as the 1828 publication Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Swiss caricaturist Rodolphe Töpffer, was first published in English translation in 1841 by London's Tilt & Bogue, which used an 1833 Paris pirate edition.
The first American edition was published in 1842 by Wilson & Company in New York City using the original printing plates from the 1841 edition. Another early predecessor is Journey to the Gold Diggins by Jeremiah Saddlebags by brothers J. A. D. and D. F. Read, inspired by The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck. In 1894 Caran d'Ache broached the idea of a "drawn novel" in a letter to the newspaper Le Figaro and started work on a 360-page wordless book. In the United States there is a long tradition of reissuing published comic strips in book form. In 1897 the Hearst Syndicate published such a collection of The Yellow Kid by Richard Outcault and it became a best seller; the 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel cited as "the undisputed king" of this revival. His works include Passionate Journey. American Lynd Ward worked in this tradition, publishing Gods' Man, in 1929 and going on to publish more during the 1930s. Other prototypical examples from this period include American Milt Gross's He Done Her Wrong, a wordless comic published as a hardcover book, Une semaine de bonté, a novel in sequential images composed of collage by the surrealist painter Max Ernst.
Charlotte Salomon's Life? or Theater? Combines images and captions; the 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers. In 1947 Fawcett Comics published Comics Novel #1: "Anarcho, Dictator of Death", a 52-page comic dedicated to one story. In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a film noir-influenced slice of steeltown life starring a scheming, manipulative redhead named Rust. Touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, the 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller", penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin proved successful enough to lead to an unrelated second picture novel, The Case of the Winking Buddha by pulp novelist Manning Lee Stokes and illustrator Charles Raab. Presaging Will Eisner's multiple-story graphic novel A Contract with God, cartoonist Harvey Kurtzman wrote and drew the four-story mass-market paperback Harvey Kurtzman's Jungle Book, published in 1959.
By the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, His Name Is... Savage in 1968—the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Columnist and comic-book writer Steven Grant argues that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #130–146, although published serially from 1965–1966, is "the first American graphic novel". Critic Jason Sacks referred to the 13-issue "Panther's Rage"—comics' first-known titled, self-contained, multi-issue story arc—that ran from 1973 to 1975 in the Black Panther series in Marvel's Jungle Action as "Marvel's first graphic novel". Meanwhile, in continental Europe, the tradition of collecting ser