Walter Theodore Sonny Rollins is an American jazz tenor saxophonist, widely recognized as one of the most important and influential jazz musicians. In a seven-decade career, he has recorded at least sixty albums as leader and a number of his compositions, including St. Thomas, Doxy, Pent-Up House, Rollins was born in New York City to parents from the United States Virgin Islands. The youngest of three siblings, he grew up in central Harlem and on Sugar Hill, receiving his first alto saxophone at the age of seven or eight and he attended Edward W. Stitt Junior High School and graduated from Benjamin Franklin High School in East Harlem. Rollins started as a pianist, changed to alto saxophone, during his high school years, he played in a band with other future jazz legends Jackie McLean, Kenny Drew, and Art Taylor. After graduating from school in 1947, Rollins began performing professionally. Between 1951 and 1953, he recorded with Miles Davis, the Modern Jazz Quartet, Charlie Parker, a breakthrough arrived in 1954 when he recorded his famous compositions Oleo and Doxy with a quintet led by Davis that featured pianist Horace Silver.
In 1955, Rollins entered the Federal Medical Center, Rollins initially feared sobriety would impair his musicianship, but went on to greater success. Rollins briefly joined the Miles Davis Quintet in the summer of 1955, that year, he joined the Clifford Brown–Max Roach quintet, studio albums documenting his time in the band are Clifford Brown and Max Roach at Basin Street and Sonny Rollins Plus 4. A long blues solo on Saxophone Colossus, Blue 7, was analyzed in depth by the composer and critic Gunther Schuller in a 1958 article. In the solo for St. Thomas, Rollins uses repetition of a pattern, and variations of that pattern, covering only a few tones in a tight range. This is interrupted by a sudden flourish, utilizing a much wider range before returning to the former pattern, in his book The Jazz Style of Sonny Rollins, David N. Baker explains that Rollins very often uses rhythm for its own sake. He will sometimes improvise on a pattern instead of on the melody or changes. In 1956 he married the actress and model Dawn Finney, in 1956 he recorded Tenor Madness, using Daviss group – pianist Red Garland, bassist Paul Chambers, and drummer Philly Joe Jones.
The title track is the recording of Rollins with John Coltrane. In 1957, Rollins pioneered the use of bass and drums, without piano, as accompaniment for his saxophone solos, two early tenor/bass/drums trio recordings are Way Out West and A Night at the Village Vanguard. Way Out West was so named because it was recorded for California-based Contemporary Records, the Village Vanguard album consists of two sets, a matinee with bassist Donald Bailey and drummer Pete LaRoca and an evening set with bassist Wilbur Ware and drummer Elvin Jones. Rollins used the trio format intermittently throughout his career, sometimes taking the step of using his sax as a rhythm section instrument during bass. Lew Tabackin cited Rollinss pianoless trio as an inspiration to lead his own, Joe Henderson, David S. Ware, Joe Lovano, Branford Marsalis, and Joshua Redman have led pianoless sax trios
Edward Lee Morgan was an American jazz trumpeter. Morgan stayed with Blakey until 1961 and started to record as soon after. Soon after The Sidewinder was released, Morgan rejoined Blakey for a period of time. Morgans career was cut short at the age of 33, when his longtime girlfriend shot him at Slugs Saloon where he died of his injuries. Edward Lee Morgan was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on July 10,1938, a leading trumpeter and composer, he recorded prolifically from 1956 until a day before his death in February 1972. Originally interested in the vibraphone, he showed a growing enthusiasm for the trumpet. Morgan knew how to play the alto saxophone, on his thirteenth birthday, his sister Ernestine gave him his first trumpet. His primary stylistic influence was Clifford Brown, with whom he took a few lessons as a teenager. He joined the Dizzy Gillespie Big Band at 18, and remained as a member for a year and he began recording for Blue Note Records in 1956, eventually recording 25 albums as a leader for the company, with more than 250 musicians.
He recorded on the Vee-Jay label and one album for Riverside Records on its short-lived Jazzland subsidiary, joining Art Blakeys Jazz Messengers in 1958 further developed his talent as a soloist and composer. He toured with Blakey for a few years, and was featured on albums by the Messengers, including Moanin. When Benny Golson left the Jazz Messengers, Morgan persuaded Blakey to hire Wayne Shorter and this version of the Jazz Messengers, including pianist Bobby Timmons and bassist Jymie Merritt, recorded several albums including Africaine, The Big Beat, A Night in Tunisia and The Freedom Rider. During his time with The Jazz Messengers, Morgan wrote several tunes including The Midget, Celine, Kozos Waltz and Blue Lace. The drug problems of Morgan and Timmons forced them to leave the band in 1961, according to Tom Perchard, a Morgan biographer, it was Blakey who introduced the trumpeter to heroin, which impeded his progression in his career. On returning to New York in 1963, he recorded The Sidewinder, the title track cracked the pop charts in 1964, and served as the background theme for Chrysler television commercials during the World Series.
The tune was used without Morgans or Blue Notes consent, due to the crossover success of The Sidewinder in a rapidly changing pop music market, Blue Note encouraged its other artists to emulate the tunes boogaloo beat. Morgan himself repeated the formula several times with such as Cornbread and Yes I Can. According to drummer Billy Hart, Morgan said he had recorded The Sidewinder as filler for the album and he felt that his playing was much more advanced on Grachan Moncur IIIs essentially avant-garde Evolution album, recorded a month earlier, on November 21,1963
Randolph Denard Ornette Coleman was an American jazz saxophonist, violinist and composer. He was one of the innovators of the free jazz movement of the 1960s. His Broadway Blues has become a standard and has cited as a key work in the free jazz movement. He was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 1994 and his album Sound Grammar received the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for music. Coleman was born in 1930 in Fort Worth, where he was raised and he attended I. M. Terrell High School, where he participated in band until he was dismissed for improvising during The Washington Post. He began performing R&B and bebop initially on tenor saxophone, and started a band, the Jam Jivers, with some fellow students including Prince Lasha and Charles Moffett. Seeking a way to work his way out of his town, he took a job in 1949 with a Silas Green from New Orleans traveling show and with touring rhythm. After a show in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, he was assaulted and he switched to alto saxophone, which remained his primary instrument, first playing it in New Orleans after the Baton Rouge incident.
He joined the band of Pee Wee Crayton and travelled with them to Los Angeles and he worked at various jobs, including as an elevator operator, while continuing to pursue his musical career. From the beginning of his career, Colemans music and playing were in many ways unorthodox and his raw, highly vocalized sound and penchant for playing in the cracks of the scale led many Los Angeles jazz musicians to regard Colemans playing as out-of-tune. He sometimes had difficulty finding like-minded musicians with whom to perform, pianist Paul Bley was an early supporter and musical collaborator. In 1958, Coleman led his first recording session for Contemporary, the session featured trumpeter Don Cherry, drummer Billy Higgins, bassist Don Payne and Walter Norris on piano. 1959 was a productive year for Coleman. His last release on Contemporary was Tomorrow Is the Question, a quartet album, with Shelly Manne on drums, and excluding the piano, which he would not use again until the 1990s. Next Coleman brought double bassist Charlie Haden – one of a handful of his most important collaborators – into a group with Cherry.
He signed a contract with Atlantic Records, who released The Shape of Jazz to Come in 1959. While definitely – if somewhat loosely – blues-based and often quite melodic, some musicians and critics saw Coleman as an iconoclast, including conductor Leonard Bernstein and composer Virgil Thomson regarded him as a genius and an innovator. Jazzwise listed it #3 on their list of the 100 best jazz albums of all time, Colemans quartet received a lengthy – and sometimes controversial – engagement at New York Citys famed Five Spot jazz club
For the Ornette Coleman album see Free Jazz, A Collective Improvisation. Though the music of jazz composers varied widely, a common feature was dissatisfaction with the limitations of bebop, hard bop. Often described as avant-garde, free jazz has described as an attempt to return jazz to its primitive, often religious, roots. As its name implies, free jazz cannot be defined more than loosely, as many musicians draw on free jazz concepts and idioms, and it was never completely distinct as a genre. Many free jazz musicians, notably Pharoah Sanders and John Coltrane, used harsh overblowing or other techniques to elicit unconventional sounds from their instruments, Free jazz musicians created a progressive musical language which drew on earlier styles of jazz such as Dixieland jazz and African music. Typically this kind of music is played by groups of musicians. The music often swings but without regular meter, and there are frequent accelerandi and ritardandi, Free jazz is strongly associated with the 1950s innovations of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor and the works of saxophonist John Coltrane.
Other important pioneers include Charles Mingus, Eric Dolphy, Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp, Joe Maneri, some of bassist Charles Minguss work was important in establishing free jazz. Although today free jazz is the generally used term, many terms were used to describe the loosely defined movement, including avant-garde, energy music. During its early and mid-1960s heyday, much free jazz was released by established labels such as Prestige, Blue Note, keith Johnson of AllMusic describes a Modern Creative genre, in which musicians may incorporate free playing into structured modes -- or play just about anything. Defining the essence of jazz is complicated, many musicians draw on free jazz concepts and idioms. Many individual musicians reject efforts at classification, regarding them as useless or unduly limiting, earlier jazz styles typically were built on a framework of song forms with a set framework of chord changes. In free jazz, the dependence on a fixed and pre-established form is eliminated, Free jazz, especially during its inception, contains theme of both progressive musical language and gathering inspiration from the past.
The rejection of the bop aesthetic was combined with a fascination with earlier styles of jazz such as Dixieland jazz with its collective improvisation. This includes Ed Blackwells use of the West African talking drum, typically this kind of music is played by small groups of musicians, although some examples use larger numbers. For example, John Coltranes 1965 album Ascension, uses eleven musicians, other forms of jazz use clear regular meters and strongly pulsed rhythms, usually in 4/4 or 3/4. Free jazz normally retains a general pulsation and often swings but without regular meter, despite all of this, it is still very often possible to tap ones foot to a free jazz performance, meter is more freely variable but has not disappeared entirely. Previous jazz forms used harmonic structures, and even when improvisation occurred it was founded on the notes in the chords, Free jazz almost by definition is free of such structures, but by definition it retains much of the language of earlier jazz playing
As bebop was not intended for dancing, it enabled the musicians to play at faster tempos. Bebop musicians explored advanced harmonies, complex syncopation, altered chords, extended chords, chord substitutions, asymmetrical phrasing, Bebop groups used rhythm sections in a way that expanded their role. The term bebop is derived from nonsense syllables used in scat singing and it appears again in a 1936 recording of Ise a Muggin by Jack Teagarden. A variation, appears in several 1939 recordings, the first, known print appearance occurred in 1939, but the term was little-used subsequently until applied to the music now associated with it in the mid-1940s. Some researchers speculate that it was a used by Charlie Christian because it sounded like something he hummed along with his playing. Another theory is that it derives from the cry of Arriba, used by Latin American bandleaders of the period to encourage their bands. At times, the bebop and rebop were used interchangeably. By 1945, the use of bebop/rebop as nonsense syllables was widespread in R&B music, ability to play sustained, high energy, and creative solos was highly valued for this newer style and the basis of intense competition.
Swing-era jam sessions and cutting contests in Kansas City became legendary, the Kansas City approach to swing was epitomized by the Count Basie Orchestra, which came to national prominence in 1937. One young admirer of the Basie orchestra in Kansas City was an alto saxophone player named Charlie Parker. Young was equally daring with his rhythm and phrasing as with his approach to harmonic structures in his solos and he would frequently repeat simple two or three note figures, with shifting rhythmic accents expressed by volume, articulation, or tone. His phrasing was far removed from the two or four bar phrases that players had used until then. They would often be extended to an odd number of measures and he would take a breath in the middle of a phrase, using the pause, or free space, as a creative device. The overall effect was that his solos were something floating above the rest of the music, Parker played along with the new Basie recordings on a Victrola until he could play Youngs solos note for note.
That understatement of harmonically sophisticated chords would soon be used by young musicians exploring the new language of bebop. That solo showed a sophisticated harmonic exploration of the tune, with implied passing chords, Hawkins would eventually go on to lead the first formal recording of the bebop style in early 1944. As the 1930s turned to the 1940s, Parker went to New York as a player in the Jay McShann Orchestra. Guitarist Charlie Christian, who had arrived in New York with the Benny Goodman Orchestra in 1939 was, like Parker, christians major influence was in the realm of rhythmic phrasing
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919 and it offers 337 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students, and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, and four professional health science schools. Fourteen Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force and three Turing Award winners have been faculty, researchers, or alumni, the university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2015–2016 ranked UCLA 16th in the world for academics, in 2015-2016, UCLA ranked 12th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities and 31st in the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings.
UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference, the Bruins won 126 national championships, including 113 NCAA team championships, more than any other university. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals,126 gold,65 silver and 60 bronze, UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception, and won a gold medal in every Olympics that the United States participated in since 1932. The State Normal School at Los Angeles opened on August 29,1882, the facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children. That elementary school is related to the present day version, UCLA Lab School, in 1887, the school became known as the Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, the same legislation added its general undergraduate program, the College of Letters and Science.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname Bruins, in 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, during its first 32 years, UCLA was treated as an off-site department of UC. As such, its presiding officer was called a provost, in 1951, UCLA was formally elevated to co-equal status with UC Berkeley, and its presiding officer Raymond B. Allen was the first chief executive to be granted the title of chancellor. The appointment of Franklin David Murphy to the position of Chancellor in 1960 helped spark an era of growth of facilities.
By the end of the decade, UCLA had achieved distinction in a range of subjects
Arthur Edward Pepper, Jr. was an American alto saxophonist and clarinetist. A longtime figure in West coast jazz, Pepper came to prominence in Stan Kentons big band. He was known for his emotionally charged performances and several stylistic shifts throughout his career, Art Pepper was born in Gardena, California, on September 1,1925. His mother was a 14-year-old runaway, his father, a merchant seaman, both were violent alcoholics, and when Art was still quite young he was sent to live with his paternal grandmother. He expressed early musical interest and talent, and he was given lessons and he began playing clarinet at nine, switched to alto saxophone at 13 and immediately began jamming on Central Avenue, the black nightclub district of Los Angeles. At the age of 17 he began playing professionally with Benny Carter and part of the Stan Kenton orchestra. After the war he returned to Los Angeles and joined the Kenton Innovations Orchestra, by the 1950s Pepper was recognized as one of the leading alto saxophonists in jazz, finishing second only to Charlie Parker as Best Alto Saxophonist in the Down Beat magazine Readers Poll of 1952.
Some of Peppers most famous albums from the 1950s are Art Pepper Meets the Rhythm Section, Art Pepper + Eleven - Modern Jazz Classics, Gettin Together, and Smack Up. Representative music from this time appears on The Aladdin Recordings, The Early Show, The Late Show, The Complete Surf Ride and his career was repeatedly interrupted by several prison stints stemming from his addiction to heroin, but Pepper managed to have several memorable and productive comebacks. His last comeback saw Pepper, who had started his career in Stan Kentons big band, during the mid-1970s and early 1980s he toured Europe and Japan with his own groups and recorded dozens of albums, mostly for Fantasy Records. Pepper lived for years in the hills of Echo Park. While in San Quentin he played in an ensemble with saxophonist Frank Morgan, in the late 1960s Pepper spent time in Synanon, a drug rehabilitation group. After beginning methadone therapy in the mid-1970s, Art had a comeback and recorded a series of albums including Living Legend, Art Pepper Today, Among Friends.
His autobiography, Straight Life, discusses the music world, as well as drug. Laurie Pepper released an interview to NPR, Pepper died of a stroke in Los Angeles on June 15,1982, aged 56. He is interred in the Abbey of the Psalms Mausoleum in the Hollywood Forever Cemetery,1, Ophelia 1978 Live in Japan, Vol. A. - 2-CD set of two different sessions in 1957 and 1960,2006 Summer Knows - Japanese release from earlier sessions 2006-12 Unreleased Art, vols. Trio 1980 Blues for the Fisherman – Mole 1980 True Blues – Mole 1981 Mistral 1982 Richie Cole, Return to Alto Acres – Palo Alto Published transcriptions, Jazz Styles and Analysis, Alto Sax by Harry Miedema
Gary Bartz is an American alto and soprano saxophonist and clarinetist. Bartz graduated from the Baltimore City College high school and the Juilliard School, Bartz has played with Miles Davis, Charles Mingus, Max Roach, McCoy Tyner, and Jackie McLean. His group, the Ntu Troop, combined soul, African music, hard bop, and avant-garde jazz. In liner notes to his album released in 1995, The Red and Orange Poems and he has recorded more than 40 solo albums and over 200 as a guest artist. He won a Grammy Award in 2005 for his playing on McCoy Tyners album Illuminations, Bartz was awarded the BNY Mellon Jazz 2015 Living Legacy Award, presented at a special ceremony at The Kennedy Center. He currently teaches at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music in Ohio,4 With Antonio Hart Dont You Know That I Care With Phyllis Hyman You Know How to Love Me Phyllis Hyman Cant We Fall in Love Again
Patrick Bruce Pat Metheny is an American jazz guitarist and composer. He is the leader of the Pat Metheny Group and is involved in duets, solo works. His style incorporates elements of progressive and contemporary jazz, Latin jazz, Metheny has three gold albums and 20 Grammy Awards and is the only person to win Grammys in ten different categories. He is the brother of jazz flugelhornist and journalist Mike Metheny, Metheny was born and raised in Lees Summit, Missouri, a suburb southeast of Kansas City. At age 15, he won a Down Beat scholarship to a jazz camp and was mentored by guitarist Attila Zoller. Zoller invited the young Metheny to New York City to see guitarist Jim Hall, following his graduation from Lees Summit High School, Metheny briefly attended the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida in 1972, where he was offered a teaching position. He moved to Boston to take a teaching assistantship at the Berklee College of Music with jazz vibraphonist Gary Burton and he established a reputation as a prodigy when he was with Burton.
In 1974 he made his debut on an album unofficially titled Jaco with pianist Paul Bley, bassist Jaco Pastorius. Metheny entered the jazz scene in 1975 when he joined Gary Burtons band. Metheny and Goodrick were interviewed together by Guitar Player magazine in 1975, Metheny released his official debut album, Bright Size Life with Jaco Pastorius on bass and Bob Moses on drums. His next album, was the first time he recorded with pianist Lyle Mays, the album featured Danny Gottlieb, who became the drummer for the first version of the Pat Metheny Group. With Metheny and Gottlieb, the member was bassist Mark Egan when the album Pat Metheny Group was released. When Pat Metheny Group album was released, the Group was a quartet comprising, besides Metheny, Danny Gottlieb on drums, Mark Egan on bass, and Lyle Mays on piano and synthesizer. All but Egan had played on Methenys album Watercolors, recorded a year before the first Group album, the second Group album, American Garage, reached number 1 on the Billboard Jazz chart and crossed over onto the pop charts.
The song reached number 14 in the British Top 40 in 1985, both Rodby and Wertico were members of the Simon and Bard Group at the time and had played in Simon-Bard in Chicago before joining Metheny. First Circle was Methenys last album with ECM, he had been a key artist for the label but left following disagreements with the labels founder, still Life featured new Group members trumpeter Mark Ledford, vocalist David Blamires, and percussionist Armando Marçal. Aznar returned for vocals and guitar on Letter from Home, the group integrated new instrumentation and technologies into its work, notably Mays use of synthesizers. Metheny and Mays themselves refer to the next three Pat Metheny Group releases as a triptych, We Live Here and Imaginary Day
Grant Green was an American jazz guitarist and composer. Recording prolifically and mainly for Blue Note Records Green performed in the bop, soul jazz, bebop. Critics Michael Erlewine and Ron Wynn write, A severely underrated player during his lifetime, Greens playing is immediately recognizable – perhaps more than any other guitarist. Critic Dave Hunter described his sound as lithe, slightly bluesy and he often performed in an organ trio, a small group with an organ and drummer. Apart from guitarist Charlie Christian, Greens primary influences were saxophonists, particularly Charlie Parker, Green was born in St. Louis, Missouri. He first performed in a setting at the age of 13 as a member of a gospel music ensemble. His influences were Charlie Christian, Charlie Parker, Lester Young and his first recordings in St. Louis were with tenor saxophonist Jimmy Forrest for the United label. The drummer in the band was Elvin Jones, the powerhouse behind sax player John Coltrane, Green recorded with Elvin again in the early 1960s.
Lou Donaldson discovered him playing in a bar in St. Louis, after touring together with Donaldson, Green arrived in New York around 1959–60. Lou Donaldson introduced Green to Alfred Lion of Blue Note Records, Lion was so impressed, rather than testing Green as a sideman, as was the usual Blue Note practice, Lion arranged for him to record as a group leader first. However, due to a lack of confidence on Greens part the initial recording session was released in 2001 as First Session. Despite the shelving of his first session, Greens recording relationship with Blue Note was to last, with a few exceptions, from 1961 to 1965, Green made more appearances on Blue Note LPs, as leader or sideman, than anyone else. Greens first issued album as a leader was Grants First Stand and this was followed in the same year by Green Street and Grantstand. Grant was named best new star in the Down Beat critics poll and he often provided support to the other important musicians on Blue Note, including saxophonists Hank Mobley, Ike Quebec, Stanley Turrentine and organist Larry Young.
Sunday Mornin, The Latin Bit and Feelin the Spirit are all loose concept albums, each taking a musical theme or style, Latin, Grant always carried off his more commercial dates with artistic success during this period. Idle Moments, featuring Joe Henderson and Bobby Hutcherson, and Solid, are described by jazz critics as two of Greens best recordings. Many of Grant Greens recordings were not released during his lifetime and these include McCoy Tyner and Elvin Jones performing on Matador, and several albums with pianist Sonny Clark. In 1966 Green left Blue Note and recorded for other labels