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Billy Hughes

William Morris Hughes, was an Australian politician who served as the 7th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1915 to 1923. He is best known for leading the country during World War I, but his influence on national politics spanned several decades. Hughes was a member of federal parliament from Federation in 1901 until his death, the only person to have served for more than 50 years, he represented six political parties during his career, leading five, outlasting four, being expelled from three. Hughes was born in London to Welsh parents, he emigrated to Australia at the age of 22, became involved in the fledgling labour movement. He was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly in 1894, as a member of the New South Wales Labor Party, transferred to the new federal parliament in 1901. Hughes combined his early political career with part-time legal studies, was called to the bar in 1903, he first entered cabinet in 1904, in the short-lived Watson Government, was Attorney-General in each of Andrew Fisher's governments.

He was elected deputy leader of the Australian Labor Party in 1914. Hughes became prime minister in October 1915; the war was the dominant issue of the time, his support for sending conscripted troops overseas caused a split within Labor ranks. Hughes and his supporters were expelled from the party in November 1916, but he was able to remain in power at the head of the new National Labor Party, which after a few months merged with the Liberals to form the Nationalist Party, his government was re-elected with large majorities at the 1919 elections. Hughes established the forerunners of the Australian Federal Police and the CSIRO during the war, created a number of new state-owned enterprises to aid the post-war economy, he made a significant impression on other world leaders at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, where he secured Australian control of the former German New Guinea. At the 1922 election, the Nationalists lost their majority in parliament and were forced to form a coalition with the Country Party.

Hughes' resignation was the price for Country Party support, he was succeeded as prime minister by Stanley Bruce. He became one of Bruce's leading critics over time, in 1928, following a dispute over industrial relations, he and his supporters crossed the floor on a confidence motion and brought down the government. After a period as an independent, Hughes formed his own organisation, the Australian Party, which in 1931 merged into the new United Australia Party, he returned to cabinet in 1934, became known for his prescient warnings against Japanese imperialism. As late as 1939, he missed out on a second stint as prime minister by only a handful of votes, losing a UAP leadership ballot to Robert Menzies. Hughes is acknowledged as one of the most influential Australian politicians of the 20th century, he was a controversial figure throughout his lifetime, his legacy continues to be debated by historians. His strong views and abrasive manner meant he made political enemies from within his own parties.

Hughes' opponents accused him of engaging in authoritarianism and populism, as well as inflaming sectarianism. His former colleagues in the Labor Party considered him a traitor, while conservatives were suspicious of what they viewed as his socialist economic policies. However, he was popular among the general public ex-servicemen, who affectionately nicknamed him "the little digger". Hughes was born on 25 September 1862 at 7 Moreton Place, London, the son of William Hughes and the former Jane Morris, his parents were both Welsh. His father, who worked as a carpenter and joiner at the Palace of Westminster, was from North Wales and was a fluent Welsh speaker, his mother, a domestic servant, was from the small village of Llansantffraid-ym-Mechain, spoke only English. Hughes was an only child. Hughes' mother died in May 1869, his father subsequently sent him to be raised by relatives in Wales. During the school term, he lived with his father's sister, Mary Hughes, who kept a boarding house in Llandudno named "Bryn Rosa".

He earned pocket money by doing chores for his aunt's tenants and singing in the choir at the local church. Hughes began his formal schooling in Llandudno, he spent his holidays with his mother's family in Llansantffraid. There, he divided his time between "Winllan", the farm of his widowed aunt, "Plas Bedw", the neighbouring farm of his grandparents. Hughes regarded his early years in Wales as the happiest time of his life, he was immensely proud of his Welsh identity, he became active in the Welsh Australian community speaking at Saint David's Day celebrations. Hughes called Welsh the "language of heaven". Like many of his contemporaries, he had no formal schooling in Welsh, had particular difficulties with spelling. Nonetheless, he received and replied to correspondence from Welsh-speakers throughout his political career, as prime minister famously traded insults in Welsh with David Lloyd George. At the age of eleven, Hughes was enrolled in St Stephen's School, one of the many church schools established by the philanthropist Lady Burdett-Coutts.

He won prizes in French, receiving the latter from Lord Harrowby. After finishing his elementary schooling, he was apprenticed as a "pupil-teacher" for five years, instructing younger students for five hour

Aedes aegypti

Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is a mosquito that can spread dengue fever, Zika fever and yellow fever viruses, other disease agents. The mosquito can be recognized by white markings on its legs and a marking in the form of a lyre on the upper surface of its thorax; this mosquito originated in Africa, but is now found in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world. Aedes aegypti is a vector for transmitting several tropical fevers. Only the female bites for blood. To find a host, these mosquitoes are attracted to chemical compounds emitted by mammals, including ammonia, carbon dioxide, lactic acid, octenol. Scientists at The United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service have studied the specific chemical structure of octenol to better understand why this chemical attracts the mosquito to its host, they found. The yellow fever mosquito can contribute to the spread of reticular cell sarcoma among Syrian hamsters; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traveler's page on preventing dengue fever suggests using mosquito repellents that contain DEET.

It suggests: Although Aedes aegypti mosquitoes most feed at dusk and dawn, indoors, in shady areas, or when the weather is cloudy, "they can bite and spread infection all year long and at any time of day." Once a week, scrub off eggs sticking to wet containers, seal and/or discard them. The mosquitoes prefer to breed in areas of stagnant water, such as flower vases, uncovered barrels and discarded tires, but the most dangerous areas are wet shower floors and toilet tanks, as they allow the mosquitos PJ BOBO KA to breed in the residence. Research has shown that certain chemicals emanating from bacteria in water containers stimulate the female mosquitoes to lay their eggs, they are motivated to lay eggs in water containers that have the correct amounts of specific fatty acids associated with bacteria involved in the degradation of leaves and other organic matter in water. The chemicals associated with the microbial stew are far more stimulating to discerning female mosquitoes than plain or filtered water in which the bacteria once lived.

Wear long-sleeved clothing and long trousers when outdoors during the day and evening. Use mosquito netting over the bed if the bedroom is not air conditioned or screened, for additional protection, treat the mosquito netting with the insecticide permethrin. Insect repellants containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol were effective in repelling Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, while others were less effective or ineffective in a scientific study. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention article on "Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & Other Arthropods" notes that "Studies suggest that concentrations of DEET above 50% do not offer a marked increase in protection time against mosquitoes. Mosquito control is the best method for disease prevention; this includes source reduction, pesticide spraying for larval control and "fogging" for adult control, or the use of mosquito traps like the lethal ovitrap. Although the lifespan of an adult Ae. aegypti is two to four weeks depending on conditions, the eggs can be viable for over a year in a dry state, which allows the mosquito to re-emerge after a cold winter or dry spell.

The preference for biting humans is dependent on expression of the odorant receptor AeegOr4. New research is looking into the use of a bacterium called Wolbachia as a method of biocontrol. Studies show that invasion of Ae. aegypti by the endosymbiotic bacteria allows mosquitos to be resistant to the certain arboviruses such as dengue fever and Zika virus strains circulating. The yellow fever mosquito's distribution has increased in the past two to three decades worldwide, it is considered to be among the most widespread mosquito species. Signs of Zika virus-capable mosquito populations have been found adapting for persistence in warm temperate climates; such a population has been identified to exist in parts of Washington, DC, genetic evidence suggests they survived at least the last four winters in the region. One of the study researchers noted, "...some mosquito species are finding ways to survive in restrictive environments by taking advantage of underground refugia". As the world's climate becomes predictably warmer, the range of Aedes aegypti and a hardier species originating in Asia, the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, which can expand its range to cooler climates, will inexorably spread north and south.

Sadie Ryan of the University of Florida was the lead author in a 2019 study published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases that estimated the vulnerability of naïve populations in geographic regions that do not harbor vectors i.e. for Zika in the Old World. Ryan's co-author, Georgetown University's Colin Carlson remarked,"Plain and simple, climate change is going to kill a lot of people." A 2019 study published in Nature Microbiology found that accelerating urbanization and human movement would contribute to the spread of Aedes mosquitoes. New research has attempted to estimate the basic reproduction number, or R0 value, for Zika virus in several locations. Research looking at the Yap Island epidemic estimated an R0 of 4.3–5.8. R0 value estimates for the Colombia epidemic ranged from 3.0–6.6. Values for both locations were seen to be similar to those found for Chikungunya virus. Determining these values could help determine transmissibility, as well as how large an area would

James Joseph Patterson

James Joseph Patterson was an American newspaper executive, part of an influential publishing family. James J. Patterson was raised in Ossining, New York, he was the only son of Joseph Medill Patterson, the founder of the New York Daily News, his wife Mary King. She was the first female editor of the Chicago Tribune, he was owner of the Chicago Tribune and mayor of Chicago. Patterson graduated from West Point in 1944, he served during World War II. In April 1944 his engagement was announced to Dorothy Marie Clarke, they had first met in a grade school run by St. Augustine Catholic Church in Ossining, her father was a prison guard at Sing Sing and he had 14 siblings. They were married on June 1944 in the Catholic Church. In 1949 Patterson joined the Daily News as a reporter in the Washington, DC bureau. After working for nearly a decade in various positions, he became vice president and assistant managing editor of the Daily News in 1958; the couple never had children. They divorced in 1968, he died on June 24, 1992 in Washington, DC.

Patterson's nephew, Joseph Medill Patterson Albright, son of his older half-sister Josephine Patterson Albright, married Madeleine Korbel, who had immigrated as a child with her family from Czechoslovakia after World War II. Her father was a diplomat in Europe, she spoke several languages, she completed her higher education in the United States, graduating from Wellesley, earning an MA and PhD at Columbia University. She served as Secretary of State under President Bill Clinton. Patterson's older half-sister, Alicia Patterson, founded Newsday, a regional newspaper on Long Island. In January 1968, Patterson married Barbara McMartin, a mathematician who completed her PhD in 1972, she was an environmental activist and writer about the Adirondack Mountains and Park. The couple divorced in 1976, his former wife Dorothy Clarke Patterson died September 30, 2007. In 2008 her estate made one of the ten largest charitable bequests of the year in the United States; the bequest to create the Patterson Foundation in Sarasota, Florida was estimated to be $225 million.

Unlike many large donors, Patterson left few guidelines for the gift