Billy Joel

William Martin Joel is an American singer-songwriter and pianist. Nicknamed the "Piano Man" after his first major hit and signature song of the same name, he has led a commercially successful career as a solo artist since the 1970s, having released twelve studio albums from 1971 to 1993 as well as one studio album in 2001, he is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, as well as the sixth best-selling recording artist and the third best-selling solo artist in the United States, with over 150 million records sold worldwide. His 1985 compilation album, Greatest Hits Vol. 1 & 2, is one of the best-selling albums in the US. Joel was born in 1949 in The Bronx, New York, grew up on Long Island, both places that influenced his music. Growing up, he took piano lessons at the insistence of his mother. After dropping out of high school to pursue a musical career, Joel took part in two short-lived bands, The Hassles and Attila, before signing a record deal with Family Productions and kicking off a solo career in 1971 with his first release, Cold Spring Harbor.

In 1972, Joel caught the attention of Columbia Records after a live radio performance of the song "Captain Jack" became popular in Philadelphia, prompting him to sign a new record deal with the company and release his second album, Piano Man, in 1973. After releasing the albums Streetlife Serenade and Turnstiles in 1974 and 1976 Joel released his critical and commercial breakthrough album, The Stranger, in 1977; this album became Columbia's best-selling release, selling over 10 million copies and spawning several hit singles, including "Just the Way You Are", "Movin' Out", "Only the Good Die Young", "She's Always a Woman". Joel's next album, 52nd Street, was released in 1978 and became his first album to peak at No.1 on the Billboard 200 chart. Joel released his seventh studio album, Glass Houses, in 1980 in an attempt to further establish himself as a rock and roll artist, his next album, The Nylon Curtain, was released in 1982, stemmed from a desire from Joel to create more lyrically and melodically ambitious music.

An Innocent Man, released in 1983, served as an homage to genres of music which Joel had grown up with in the 1950s, such as rhythm and blues and doo-wop. After releasing the albums The Bridge and Storm Front in 1986 and 1989 Joel released his twelfth and to date final studio album, River of Dreams, in 1993, he went on to release Fantasies and Delusions, a 2001 album featuring classical compositions composed by Joel and performed by British-Korean pianist Richard Hyung-ki Joo. Joel provided voiceover work in 1988 for the animated Disney film, Oliver & Company, in which he played the character Dodger, contributed to the soundtracks to several different films, including Easy Money, Ruthless People, Honeymoon in Vegas. Across the 20 years of his solo career, Joel produced 33 Top 40 hits in the U. S. all of which he wrote himself, three of which managed to peak at the top of the Billboard Hot 100 charts. Joel has been nominated for 23 Grammy Awards, winning five of them, including Album of the Year for 52nd Street.

Joel was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Long Island Music Hall of Fame. In 2001, Joel received the Johnny Mercer Award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame. In 2013, Joel received the Kennedy Center Honors, for influencing American culture through the arts. Since the advent of his solo career, Joel has held a successful touring career, holding live performances across the globe in which he sings several of his written songs. In 1987, he became one of the first artists to hold a rock and roll tour in the Soviet Union following the country's alleviation of the ban on rock and roll music. Despite retiring from writing and releasing pop music following the release of River of Dreams, he continues to tour. Joel has been in several relationships, including marriages to Elizabeth Weber Small, model Christie Brinkley, chef Katie Lee, he has three daughters: Alexa Ray Joel with Brinkley, Della Rose and Remy Anne with Roderick. William Martin Joel was born in the Bronx, New York City, New York, on May 9, 1949.

When he was one year old, his family moved to the Long Island suburb Hicksville, New York, in the Town of Oyster Bay, where he and his younger sister Judy were raised in a section of Levitt homes. Joel's father, Howard Joel, a classical pianist and businessman, was born in Nuremberg, Germany, to a Jewish family, the son of a merchant and manufacturer, Karl Amson Joel. Helmut was educated in Switzerland, his father had created a successful mail order textile business, Joel Macht Fabrik. To escape the Nazi regime, Helmut's family emigrated to Switzerland, his father was forced to sell his business at a fraction of its value. The family reached the United States via Cuba, because immigration quotas for German Jews prevented direct immigration at the time. In the United States, Helmut/Howard Joel always loved music. Joel's mother, was born in Brooklyn, New York City, to Jewish parents and Rebecca

Classification schemes for indigenous languages of the Americas

This article is a list of different language classification proposals developed for indigenous languages of the Americas. The article is divided into North and South America sections. An early attempt at North American language classification was attempted by A. A. Albert Gallatin published in 1826, 1836, 1848. Gallatin's classifications are missing several languages which are recorded in the classifications by Daniel G. Brinton and John Wesley Powell. Families Algonkin-Lenape Athapascas Catawban Eskimaux Iroquois Cherokees Muskogee Chahtas Sioux Languages Families Algonquian languages Athabaskan languages Catawban languages Eskimoan languages Iroquoian languages Iroquoian languages Muskogean languages Siouan languagesLanguages John Wesley Powell, an explorer who served as director of the Bureau of American Ethnology, published a classification of 58 "stocks", the "cornerstone" of genetic classifications in North America. Powell's classification was influenced by Gallatin to a large extent.

John Wesley Powell was in a race with Daniel G. Brinton to publish the first comprehensive classification of North America languages; as a result of this competition, Brinton was not allowed access to the linguistic data collected by Powell's fieldworkers. Paul Rivet lists a total of 46 independent language families in Central America. Olive and Janambre are extinct languages of Mexico. Below is Edward Sapir's famous Encyclopædia Britannica classification. Note that Sapir's classification was controversial at the time and it additionally was an original proposal. Sapir was part of a "lumper" movement in Native American language classification. Sapir himself writes of his classification: "A more far-reaching scheme than Powell's, suggestive but not demonstrable in all its features at the present time". Sapir's classifies all the languages in North America into only 6 families: Eskimo–Aleut, Algonkin–Wakashan, Penutian, Hokan–Siouan, Aztec–Tanoan. Sapir's classification is still used in general languages-of-the-world type surveys.

"Proposed Classification of American Indian Languages North of Mexico" The Voegelin & Voegelin classification was the result of a conference of Americanist linguists held at Indiana University in 1964. This classification identifies 16 main genetic units. Chumashan and Coahuiltecan included in Hokan with "reservations". Esselen is included in Hokan with "strong reservations". Tsimshian and Zuni are included in Penutian with reservations. Campbell & Mithun's 1979 is a more conservative classification where they insist on more rigorous demonstration of genetic relationship before grouping. Thus, many of the speculative phyla of previous authors are "split". Subtiaba–Tlapanec is part of Otomanguean. Aztec–Tanoan is "undemonstrated". Glottolog 4.1 recognizes 42 independent families and 31 isolates in North America. Families Uto-Aztecan Corachol Aztecan Totonac–Tepehua OtomangueanOtopamean Popolocan–Mazatecan Subtiaba–Tlapanec Amuzgo Mixtecan Chatino–Zapotec Chinantec Chiapanec–Mangue Tequistlatec-Jicaque Mixe–Zoque Mayan Misumalpan Chibchan PayaIsolates Purépecha Cuitlatec Huave Xinca Lenca Proposed stocks Hokan Tequistlatec-JicaqueMacro-Mayan Totonac–Tepehua Huave Mixe–Zoque MayanMacro-ChibchanChibchan Misumalpan Paya Xinca Lenca Notable early classifications of classifications of indigenous South American language families include those by Filippo Salvatore Gilii, Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro, Daniel Garrison Brinton, Paul Rivet, John Alden Mason, Čestmír Loukotka.

Other classifications include those of Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño, Antonio Tovar, Jorge A. Suárez. Paul Rivet lists 77 independent language families of South America. Classification of South American languages by J. Alden Mason: Čestmír Loukotka proposed a total of 117 indigenous language families and isolates of South America. Terrence Kaufman's classification is meant to be a rather conservative genetic grouping of the languages of South America, he has 118 genetic units. Kaufman believes for these 118 units "that there is little likelihood that any of the groups recognized here will be broken apart". Kaufman uses more specific terminology than only language family, such as language area, emergent area, language complex, where he recognizes issues such as partial mutual intelligibility and dialect continuums; the list below collapses t


Year 1248 was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. April 26 – The Gothic chapel Sainte-Chapelle is consecrated in Paris, France. August 15 – The foundation stone of Cologne Cathedral is laid, after an older cathedral on the site burns down on April 30. August 25 – The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III, Archbishop of Utrecht, after it has been pillaged at least twice by a local robber baron. November 23 – Reconquista: King Ferdinand III of Castile recaptures the city of Seville from the Moors, ending the Siege of Seville. November 24 – In the middle of the night a mass on the north side of Mont Granier collapses, in one of the largest historical rock slope failures known in Europe. King Louis IX of France launches the Seventh Crusade, setting sail with an army of 20,000 toward Egypt. Pope Innocent IV grants the Croats permission to use their own script in liturgy. Tallinn converts from Riga law to Lübeck law. Roger Bacon publishes the formula for black powder in Europe.

Approximate date – History of the Aztecs: The Mexica tribe, predecessors of the Aztec people, arrive at Chapultepec. Tezcapoctzin becomes Ruler of the City-state Azcapotzalco at the Valley of Mexico Blanche of Artois, queen consort and regent of Navarre Robert II, Duke of Burgundy Peter Olivi, Franciscan theologian Isabella of Aragon, queen of Philip III of France January 4 – King Sancho II of Portugal February 1 – Henry II, Duke of Brabant March 27 – Maud Marshal, English countess April 20 – Güyük Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire June 11 – Adachi Kagemori, Japanese samuraiHaraldr Óláfsson, King of Mann and the Isles and his wife, Cecilía, daughter of Hákon Hákonarson, King of Norway Subutai, Mongol general