National Association of Realtors
The National Association of Realtors, whose member brokers are known as realtors, is a North American trade association for those who work in the real estate industry. It has over 1.1 million members, including NAR's institutes and councils, involved in all aspects of the residential and commercial real estate industries. NAR functions as a self-regulatory organization for real estate brokerage; the organization is headquartered in Chicago. The National Association of Realtors was founded on May 13, 1908 as the National Association of Real Estate Exchanges in Chicago, Illinois. In 1916, the National Association of Real Estate Exchanges changed its name to The National Association of Real Estate Boards; the current name was adopted in 1972. NAR's members are residential and commercial real estate brokers, real estate salespeople, immovable property managers, appraisers and others engaged in all aspects of the real estate industry, where a state license to practice is required. Members belong to one or more of some 1,600 local realtor associations.
They are pledged to a code of ethics and standards of practice, which were adopted in 1913. The National Association of Realtors is a member of The Real Estate Roundtable, a lobbying group in Washington, D. C; the use of the term "realtor" was first proposed by Charles N. Chadbourn, in an article in the National Real Estate Journal in March 1916. Chadbourn a real estate agent in Minneapolis and vice-president of the National Association of Real Estate Boards, wrote "I propose that the National Association adopt a professional title to be conferred upon its members which they shall use to distinguish them from outsiders; that this title be copyrighted and defended by the National Association against misuse... I therefore, propose that the National Association adopt and confer upon its members, dealers in realty, the title of realtor." The association adopted the term the following year, at its national convention in New Orleans in April 1916. In 1949, the National Association of Real Estate Boards obtained U.
S. registration no. 515,200 for "realtors" as a collective trademark for real estate brokerage services. In 1950, it obtained registration no. 519,789, for "realtor", in the same field. NAR has since obtained registrations for the term in such fields as electronic lock-boxes and jewelry; the 515,200 and 519,789 registrations have been subject to a number of cancellation proceedings: In June 1998, Arleen Freeman, a real estate agent, an NAR member, petitioned the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office to cancel both registrations. In June 2002, the USPTO's Trademark Trial and Appeal Board held that, because Freeman was a former member of NAR and a licensee of the trademarks, she was estopped from bringing a proceeding to cancel them under the doctrine of licensee estoppel. In November 2001, Jacob Zimmerman, a student, not a member of NAR, petitioned the USPTO to cancel the registrations, on the ground that "realtor" and "realtors" were generic terms rather than a trademark. On March 31, 2004, the TTAB denied the petition, finding on the evidence before it that the term was not generic.
In March 2015, Jeffrey Schermerhorn petitioned to cancel the 519,789 registration. Schermerhorn alleged fraud under Torres v. Cantine Torresella S.r.l. as well as genericness, arguing that "Social Media such as Facebook, Linkedin and Google Plus" provides additional evidence of generic use, not available at the time of the Zimmerman proceeding. On March 30, 2016, the TTAB granted the NAR's motion to dismiss the petition on the ground that Schermerhorn, a NAR member and licensee at the time he submitted his petition to cancel, was estopped from challenging the mark; the NAR governs the hundreds of local Multiple Listing Services which are the information exchanges used across the nation by real estate brokers. Through a complicated arrangement, NAR sets the policies for most of the Multiple Listings Services, in the late 1990s, with the growth of the Internet, NAR evolved regulations allowing Internet Data Exchanges whereby brokers would allow a portion of their data to be seen on the Internet via brokers' or agents' websites and Virtual Office Websites which required potential buyers to register to obtain information.
These policies allowed participants—whether they were individual one-person brokers or large regional companies—to limit access to some or all of the MLS data by individual brokers. In 2005, this prompted the Department of Justice to file an antitrust lawsuit against NAR alleging its MLS rules in regard to these types of limitations on the display of data were the product of a conspiracy to restrain trade by excluding brokers who used the Internet to operate differently from traditional brick-and-mortar brokers. Meanwhile, various real estate trends such as expanded consumer access and the Internet are consolidating existing local MLS organizations into larger and more statewide or regional MLS systems, such as in California and Virginia/Maryland/Washington DC's Metropolitan Regional Information Systems. In response to the case, NAR had proposed setting up a single Internet Listing Display system which would not allow participants to exclude individua
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
2010 United States House of Representatives elections in Missouri
Elections were held on November 2, 2010, to determine Missouri's nine members of the United States House of Representatives. Representatives were elected for two-year terms to serve in the 112th Congress from January 3, 2011 until January 3, 2013. Primary elections were held on August 3, 2010. Of the nine elections, the races in the 3rd and 4th districts were rated as competitive by The Cook Political Report, CQ Politics, The Rothenberg Political Report and Sabato's Crystal Ball. Seven of Missouri's nine incumbents were re-elected, while one unsuccessfully sought re-election and one did not seek re-election. In total, six Republicans and three Democrats were elected. A total of 1,920,675 votes were cast, of which 1,103,290 were for Republican candidates, 708,064 were for Democratic candidates, 92,485 were for Libertarian Party candidates, 8,759 were for Constitution Party candidates, 7,193 were for an independent candidate and 884 were for write-in candidates; the 1st district included Ferguson, Hazelwood, Spanish Lake, parts of St. Louis and University City.
The district's population was 40 percent white. Its median income was $41,404. In the 2008 presidential election the district gave 80 percent of its vote to Democratic nominee Barack Obama and 19 percent to Republican nominee John McCain. Democrat William Lacy Clay, Jr. who took office in 2001, was the incumbent. Clay was re-elected in 2008 with 87 percent of the vote. In 2010 Clay's opponent in the general election was Republican nominee Robyn Hamlin, an insurance agent. Libertarian Party nominee Julie Stone ran. Candice Britton sought the Democratic nomination. Martin Baker and Marshall Works sought the Republican nomination. Robb Cunningham sought the Libertarian nomination. Clay raised $693,370 and spent $635,944. Hamlin raised $23,930 and spent $24,012. Britton raised $1,813 and spent $2,026. Prior to the election FiveThirtyEight's forecast gave Clay a 100 percent chance of winning and projected that he would receive 74 percent of the vote to Hamlin's 23 percent. On election day Clay was re-elected with 74 percent of the vote to Hamlin's 24 percent.
Clay was re-elected in 2012, again over Hamlin, in 2014. "Martin Baker campaign website". Archived from the original on February 6, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2010. CS1 maint: Unfit url "Candice Britton campaign website". Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2010. CS1 maint: Unfit url "William Lacy Clay, Jr. campaign website". Archived from the original on August 17, 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2015. CS1 maint: Unfit url "Robb Cunningham campaign website". Archived from the original on September 8, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2014. CS1 maint: Unfit url "Robyn Hamlin campaign website". Archived from the original on October 28, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2010. CS1 maint: Unfit url The 2nd district included Ballwin, Chesterfield, St. Charles and parts of O'Fallon, St. Peters and Wentzville; the district's population was 91 percent white. Its median income was $73,641. In the 2008 presidential election the district gave 55 percent of its vote to Republican nominee John McCain and 44 percent to Democratic nominee Barack Obama.
Republican Todd Akin, who took office in 2001, was the incumbent. Akin was re-elected in 2008 with 62 percent of the vote. In 2010 Akin's opponent in the general election was Democratic nominee Arthur Lieber, the co-founder of the Crossroads College Preparatory School. Libertarian Party nominee Steve Mosbacher ran. Bill Haas and Jeffrey Lowe sought the Republican nomination. Liz Lauber, a government and industry relations communications consultant for Wells Fargo, ended her campaign for the Republican nomination in April 2010. Lieber was unopposed for the Democratic nomination. Akin raised $767,798 and spent $825,668. Lieber raised $50,504 and spent $49,234. Haas raised $33,372 and spent $13,449. Lauber spent the same amount. Prior to the election FiveThirtyEight's forecast gave Akin a 100 percent chance of winning, projected that he would receive 68 percent of the vote to Lieber's 29 percent. On election day Akin was re-elected with 68 percent of the vote to Lieber's 29 percent. In 2011 Lieber wrote and published a book about his campaign entitled An Unlikely Candidate: Reflections on My Run for Office.
Akin unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. Senate in 2012, he was succeeded by Republican Ann Wagner. Lieber, Arthur. An Unlikely Candidate: Reflections on My Run for Congress. EBookIt.com. ISBN 978-1-4566-0268-0. Retrieved April 12, 2014. "Todd Akin campaign website". Archived from the original on October 28, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2010. CS1 maint: Unfit url "Arthur Lieber campaign website". Archived from the original on October 28, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2010. CS1 maint: Unfit url "Steve Mosbacher campaign website". Archived from the original on October 31, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2014. CS1 maint: Unfit url The 3rd district included Oakville and part of St. Louis; the district's population was 9 percent black. Its median income was $51,192. In the 2008 presidential election the district gave 60 percent of its vote to Democratic nominee Barack Obama and 39 percent to Republican nominee J
Brett Michael Kavanaugh is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He served as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and as a staff lawyer for various offices of the federal government. Kavanaugh graduated from Yale University. After graduating from Yale Law School, he began his career as a law clerk and a postgraduate fellow working under Judge Ken Starr. After Starr left the D. C. Circuit to take the position as head of the Office of Independent Counsel, Kavanaugh followed and assisted him with various investigations concerning President Bill Clinton, including the drafting of the Starr Report, which urged Clinton's impeachment. After the 2000 U. S. presidential election, he joined the administration as White House Staff Secretary and was a central figure in its efforts to identify and confirm judicial nominees. Kavanaugh was nominated to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the D. C. Circuit by President Bush in 2003.
His confirmation hearings were contentious. He was confirmed to the D. C. Circuit in May 2006 after a series of negotiations between Democratic and Republican U. S. Senators. A Washington Post analysis found he had the most or second-most conservative voting record on the D. C. Court in every policy area between 2003 and 2018. President Trump nominated Kavanaugh to the U. S. Supreme Court on July 9, 2018, to fill the position vacated by retiring Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy; when Kavanaugh's name was on the short list of Supreme Court nominees and before his nomination, Palo Alto University Professor of Psychology Christine Blasey Ford contacted a Washington Post tip line with accusations that Kavanaugh had sexually assaulted her in the early 1980s while the two were in high school. Two other women accused Kavanaugh of sexual misconduct. Kavanaugh denied all three accusations; the Republican-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee held a supplemental hearing over Ford's allegations, after which it voted to advance the confirmation to a full Senate vote.
After delaying the vote for an additional FBI investigation, the Senate confirmed Kavanaugh's nomination by a vote of 50–48 on October 6, 2018. Kavanaugh was born on February 12, 1965, in Washington, D. C. the son of Martha Gamble and Everett Edward Kavanaugh Jr. His father was an attorney and served as the president of the Cosmetic and Fragrance Association for two decades, his mother was a history teacher at Woodson and McKinley high schools in Washington in the 1960s and 1970s. She earned a J. D. degree from Washington College of Law in 1978 and served as a Maryland Circuit Court judge from 1995 to 2001 in Montgomery County. Kavanaugh is of Irish Catholic descent on both sides with his paternal great-grandfather arriving in the late 1800s from Roscommon in Ireland, his maternal Irish lineage goes back to his great-great-grandparents settling in New Jersey. Kavanaugh was raised in Maryland; as a teenager, he attended Georgetown Preparatory School, a Jesuit boys college prep school, where he was two years ahead of future U.
S. Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch, he was a wide receiver and cornerback on the football team. Kavanaugh was friends with classmate Mark Judge, he graduated in 1983. After prep school, Kavanaugh attended Yale University. Several of Kavanaugh's Yale classmates remembered him as a "serious but not showy student" who loved sports basketball, he unsuccessfully tried out for the Yale Bulldogs men's basketball team and played for two years on the junior varsity team. He wrote articles about basketball and other sports for the Yale Daily News, was a member of the fraternity Delta Kappa Epsilon, he graduated from Yale in 1987 with a Bachelor of Arts cum laude in history. In October 2018, it was reported that Kavanaugh and Chris Dudley were in a bar fight in September 1985 after Kavanaugh threw ice at a man who looked like Ali Campbell of UB40. Kavanaugh attended Yale Law School, where he lived in a group house with future judge James E. Boasberg, played basketball with professor George L. Priest, was a notes editor for the Yale Law Journal.
He graduated with a Juris Doctor in 1990. Kavanaugh first worked as a law clerk for Judge Walter King Stapleton of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. During Kavanaugh's clerkship, Stapleton wrote the majority opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, in which the Third Circuit upheld many of Pennsylvania's abortion restrictions. George Priest recommended Kavanaugh to Ninth Circuit Judge Alex Kozinski, regarded as a feeder judge. After clerking for Kozinski, Kavanaugh next interviewed for a clerkship with Chief Justice William Rehnquist on the U. S. Supreme Court, but was not offered a clerkship. Kavanaugh was admitted to the Maryland Bar in 1990 and the District of Columbia Bar in 1992. In 1992, Kavanaugh earned a one-year fellowship with the Solicitor General of the United States, Ken Starr, he clerked for Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy from 1993–1994, working alongside fellow high school alumnus Neil Gorsuch and with future-Judge Gary Feinerman. After his Supreme Court clerkship, Kavanaugh again worked for Ken Starr until 1997 as an Associate Counsel in the Office of the Independent Counsel with colleagues Rod Rosenstein and Alex Azar.
In that capacity, he reopened an investigation into the 1993 gunshot death of Vincent Foster. After three years, the invest
Christopher Samuel Bond is an American attorney and former United States Senator from Missouri and a member of the Republican Party. First elected to the U. S. Senate in 1986, he defeated Democrat Harriett Woods by a margin of 53%–47%, he was re-elected in 1992, 1998, 2004. On January 8, 2009, he announced that he would not seek re-election to a fifth term in 2010, was succeeded by fellow Republican Roy Blunt on January 3, 2011. Following his retirement from the Senate, Bond became a partner at Thompson Coburn. Before his career in the U. S. Senate, Bond served two non-consecutive terms as Governor of Missouri, from 1973 to 1977 and from 1981 to 1985, he was State Auditor of Missouri from 1971 to 1973. A sixth-generation Missourian, Bond was born in St. Louis, the son of Elizabeth and Arthur D. Bond, his father was captain of a Rhodes Scholar. His maternal grandfather, A. P. Green, founded A. P. Green Industries, a fireclay manufacturer and a major employer for many years in Bond's hometown Mexico, Missouri.
Kit Bond graduated from Deerfield Academy in 1956, Princeton University in 1960 with an A. B. and the University of Virginia School of Law in 1963 with a J. D. Bond served as a law clerk to the Honorable Elbert Tuttle Chief Judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in Atlanta, Georgia. Bond practiced law at Covington & Burling in Washington, D. C. Bond moved back to his hometown of Mexico, Missouri in the fall of 1967, ran for Congress in 1968 in Missouri's 9th congressional district, the rural northeastern part of the state, he defeated Anthony Schroeder in the August Republican primary, 56% to 44%, winning 19 of the district's 23 counties. In the November general election, Bond nearly defeated incumbent Democratic U. S. Congressman Bill Hungate, 48% to 52%. Bond won eight of the district's 23 counties. Out of Hungate's five re-election campaigns, that 1968 election against Bond was his worst performance. State Attorney General John Danforth hired Bond as an Assistant Attorney General in 1969, where Bond led the office's Consumer Protection Division.
In 1970, at the age of 31, Bond was elected Missouri State Auditor. In 1972, Bond was elected governor of Missouri by a margin of 55% to 45%, making him, at 33 years of age, the youngest governor in the history of Missouri. Bond was the first Republican in 28 years to serve as governor of Missouri. Bond's residency qualifications to be governor were challenged, but were upheld by the Missouri Supreme Court in 1972. Missouri law said. In the 10 years before his run, he had attended law school in Virginia, clerked for a federal appeals court judge in Atlanta, worked for a firm in Washington, D. C. applied to take the bar in Virginia and Georgia, registered a car in Washington, D. C. and applied for a marriage license in Kentucky. The Court sided with him noting that residence "is a matter of intention" and did not require "actual, physical presence." The court ruled that a residence was "that place where a man has his true and permanent home and principal establishment, to which whenever he is absent he has the intention of returning."In 1976, he was on the short list to be Gerald Ford's vice presidential running mate.
In many ways Bond governed as a moderate during his first term as governor: for example, he drew criticism from conservatives for his support of the Equal Rights Amendment. On June 25, 1976 he signed an executive order rescinding the Extermination Order against Mormons issued by Governor Lilburn Boggs on October 27, 1838. In 1976, in a surprising upset, Bond was narrowly defeated for re-election by Democrat Joseph P. Teasdale Jackson County Prosecutor. Four years in 1980, Bond made a successful comeback, defeating fellow Republican and incumbent Lieutenant Governor Bill Phelps in the primary, Teasdale in November. Among Bond's most noted accomplishments was helping take the Parents As Teachers program statewide. Bond served as the Chairman of the Midwestern Governors Association in 1977 and 1983. Bond was succeeded as governor in 1985 by John Ashcroft, a Republican who Bond had appointed to complete his unexpired term as State Auditor after he was elected governor. Ashcroft served alongside Bond in the Senate.
After Sen. Thomas Eagleton decided not to run for re-election, Bond was elected Senator in 1986, defeating Lieutenant Governor Harriett Woods by 53% to 47%. Bond was re-elected in 1992 by less than expected over St. Louis County Councilwoman Geri Rothman-Serot. In 1998 Bond decisively defeated Attorney General Jay Nixon and Libertarian Tamara Millay after a hard-fought campaign, in 2004 he won re-election over Democratic challenger State Treasurer Nancy Farmer with 56 percent of the vote. Facing the expiration of his fourth full term in January 2011, Bond announced on January 8, 2009 that he did not plan to seek a fifth term and would not run for re-election in November 2010. Rep. Roy Blunt held the seat for the Republicans, defeating Democratic Secretary of State Robin Carnahan; the environmental watchdog group Republicans for Environmental Protection has given Bond an exceptionally low rating of −2 for the 109th United States Congress, citing anti-environment votes on seven out of seven issues deemed critical by the organization.
According to the 2006 REP scorecard, Bond supported oil drilling both offshore and in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, while opposing a bill for "efficiency and renewable-resource programs to improve energy security, lower costs, reduce energy-related environmental impacts". He has been cited as favoring zero-carbon energy from nuclear power. "If th
Springfield is the third-largest city in the state of Missouri and the county seat of Greene County. As of the 2010 census, its population was 159,498; as of 2017, the Census Bureau estimated its population at 167,376. It is the principal city of the Springfield metropolitan area, which has a population of 462,369 and includes the counties of Christian, Greene, Webster. Springfield's nickname is "Queen City of the Ozarks" and it is known as the "Birthplace of Route 66", it is home to three universities, Missouri State University, Drury University, Evangel University. The origin of the city's name is unclear, but the most common view is that it was named for Springfield, Massachusetts by migrants from that area. One account holds that James Wilson, who lived in the unnamed city, offered free whiskey to anyone who would vote for the name Springfield, after his hometown in Massachusetts; the editor of the Springfield Express, J. G. Newbill, said in the November 11, 1881 issue:"It has been stated that this city got its name from the fact of a spring and field being near by just west of town.
But such is not a correct version. When the authorized persons met and adopted the title of the "Future Great" of the Southwest, several of the earliest settlers had handed in their favorite names, among whom was Kindred Rose, who presented the winning name, "Springfield," in honor of his former home town, Tennessee." In 1883, historian R. I. Holcombe wrote: "The town took its name from the circumstance of there being a spring under the hill, on the creek, while on top of the hill, where the principal portion of the town lay, there was a field." The presence of the Native Americans in the area slowed the European-American settlement of the land. Long before the 1830s, the native Kickapoo and Osage, the Lenape from the mid-Atlantic coast had settled in this general area; the Osage had been the dominant tribe for more than a century in the larger region. On the southeastern side of the city in 1812, about 500 Kickapoo Native Americans built a small village of about 100 wigwams, they abandoned the site in 1828.
Ten miles south of the site of Springfield, the Lenape had built a substantial dwelling of houses that borrowed elements of Anglo colonial style from the mid-Atlantic, where their people had migrated from. The first European-American settlers to the area were John Polk Campbell and his brother, who moved to the area in 1829 from Tennessee. Campbell chose the area because of the presence of a natural well, he staked his claim by carving his initials in a tree. Cambell was joined by settlers Thomas Finney, Samuel Weaver, Joseph Miller, they proceeded to clear the land of trees to develop it for farms. A small general store was soon opened. In 1833, the southern part of the state was named Greene County after Revolutionary War hero General Nathanael Greene; the legislature deeded 50 acres of land to John Campbell for the creation of a county seat in 1835. Campbell laid out city lots; the town was incorporated in 1838. In 1878, the town got its nickname the "Queen City of the Ozarks."The United States government enforced Indian Removal during the 1830s, forcing land cessions in the Southeast and other areas, relocating tribes to Indian Territory, which developed as Oklahoma.
During the 1838 relocation of Cherokee natives, the Trail of Tears passed through Springfield to the west, along the Old Wire Road. By 1861, Springfield's population had grown to 2,000, it had become an important commercial hub. At the start of the American Civil War, Springfield was divided in its loyalty, as it had been settled by people from both the North and South, as well as by German immigrants in the mid-19th century who tended to support the Union; the Union and Confederate armies both recognized the city's strategic importance and sought to control it. They fought the Battle of Wilson's Creek on a few miles southwest of town; the battle was a Confederate victory, Nathaniel Lyon became the first Union General killed in Civil War. Union troops retreated to Lebanon to regroup; when they returned, they found. On October 25, 1861, Union Major Charles Zagonyi led an attack against the remaining Confederates in the area, in a battle known as the First Battle of Springfield, or Zagonyi's Charge.
Zagonyi's men returned to camp. It was the only Union victory in southwestern Missouri in 1861; the increased military activity in the area set the stage for the Battle of Pea Ridge in northern Arkansas in March 1862. On January 8, 1863, Confederate forces under General John S. Marmaduke advanced to take control of Springfield and an urban fight ensued, but that evening, the Confederates withdrew. This became known as the Second Battle of Springfield. Marmaduke sent a message to the Union forces asking that the Confederate casualties have a proper burial; the city remained under Union control for the remainder of the war. The US army used Springfield as a supply base and central point of operation for military activities in the area. Promptly after the Civil War ended on July 21, 1865 Wild Bill Hickok shot and killed Davis Tutt in a shootout over a disagreement about a debt Tutt claimed Hickok owed him. During a poker game at the former Lyon House Hotel, in response to the disagreement over the amount, Tutt had taken Hickok's watch, which Hickok demanded he return immediately.
Hickok warned that Tutt had better not be seen wearing that watch spotted him wearing it in Park Central Square, prompting the gunfight. On January 25, 1866, Hickok was still in Springfield when he witnessed a Springfield police officer, John Orr and kill James Coleman after Coleman interfered with t
In the context of present celebrity culture, an Internet celebrity, cyberstar, online celebrity, micro-celebrity or Internet personality, or influencer is someone who has become famous by means of the Internet. The advent of social media has helped people increase their outreach to a global audience; the Internet allows the masses to wrest control of fame from traditional media, creating micro-celebrities with the click of a mouse A micro-celebrity is the state of being famous to a niche group of people on a social media platform. Achieving micro-celebrity status involves the use of a self-presentation technique in which the subject views himself or herself as a public persona to be consumed by others. Persons who achieve this status use self-presentation to appeal to followers. Micro-celebrities are targeted by companies for advertising products to their fans and followers. Wanghong, or internet fame in Mandarin, is the Chinese rendition of internet stardom; the term is used to describe the Chinese digital economy based on influencer marketing in social media.
Wanghong has been predominantly used to generate profits via retail or eCommerce, by attracting the attention of celebrities' followers. According to CBN Data, a commercial data company affiliated with Alibaba, the Internet celebrities economy was set to be worth 58 billion yuan in 2016, more than China's total cinema box office revenue in 2015. There are two main business models in the Wanghong economy: Social Media Advertising, Online Retailing. In the online retailing business model, eCommerce-based Wanghong involves the use of social media platforms to sell self-branded products to potential buyers among followers via Chinese customer to customer C2C websites, such as TaoBao. Celebrities work as their own shops’ models by posting pictures or videos of themselves, wearing the clothes or accessories they sell, or giving distinctive makeup or fashion tips; the celebrities serve as key opinion leaders for their followers, who either aspire to be like them, or look up to them. Zhang Dayi, one of China's best known Wang Hong, with 4.9 million Sina weibo followers, has her online shop in a TaoBao website earning 300 million yuan per year.
This is comparable to the $21 million made by a top Chinese actress. In social media advertising, internet celebrities can be paid to advertise products; when celebrities have garnered sufficient attention and follower-ship, advertising companies approach them to help advertise products, which can reach a large user base. Censorship in Chinese media has created an entire social media ecosystem, that has become wildly successful in its own way. For every social media platform in the Western world, there is a Chinese version of it, the Chinese version can be successful. In China, the social media platforms used are different from those used in the West, but the results are the same - the platforms generate revenue; the greatest difference between Chinese Wanghong celebrities and their Western counterparts is that the profits generated by Chinese celebrities can be immense. Unlike YouTube, which takes a 45% of the commission on ads, one of the biggest social media platforms of China, is not involved in advertising, which allows internet celebrities to be more independent.
Monthly incomes can exceed 10 million RMB for those at the top. Millions of people write online weblogs. In many cases these contributions do not make the writers notable on a large scale, or only for people with the same specialist interest, but if the author has or develops a distinctive personality, the author may rise to fame derived from this, as much as from the content of the writer's blog. In some cases, people might rise to fame through a single video that goes viral; the Internet allows videos, news articles, jokes to spread quickly. Depending on the reach of the spread, the content may become considered an "Internet meme" and, any of the people associated may gain exposure for posting intelligent content. For example, Zach Anner, an Austin, Texas-based comedian, gained worldwide attention after submitting a video to Oprah Winfrey's "Search for the Next TV Star" competition. There is substantial searching online for people. Internet celebrities have become a popular phenomenon in China with the likes of Sister Furong, who received worldwide notoriety and fame for her unashamed efforts at self-promotion via Internet postings.
The concept of web celebrity ties into Andy Warhol's quip about 15 minutes of fame. A more recent adaptation of Warhol's quip prompted by the rise of online social networking and similar online phenomena, is the claim that "In the future, everyone will be famous to fifteen people" or, in some renditions, "On the Web, everyone will be famous to fifteen people"; this quote, though attributed to David Weinberger, was said to have originated with the Scottish artist Momus. Social media personalities function as lifestyle gurus who present a particular lifestyle or attitude to their spectators. In this role they may be crucial influencers / multipliers for trends in the fashion industry, variously becoming popular as fashion bloggers or fashion designers. Meetups are a way Internet celebrities engage in to meet and interact with fans. An Internet celebrity has naively invited fans to meet him/her at a certain place and time, without proper organization, attracting crowds of fans, causing disorderly and unsafe situations.
Tanacon is an example of an organization involving a group of internet celebrities that were set to meet paying fans but did not follow through. Because of the unorderly setup, the meetup resulted in chaos. Alternatively it can be