Billy Wilder was an Austrian-born American film director and screenwriter whose career spanned more than five decades. He is regarded as one of the most brilliant and versatile filmmakers of the Hollywood Golden Age of cinema. With The Apartment, Wilder became the first person to win Academy Awards as producer and screenwriter for the same film. Wilder became a screenwriter in the late 1920s while living in Berlin. After the rise of the Nazi Party, he left for Paris, he moved to Hollywood in 1933, in 1939 he had a hit when he co-wrote the screenplay for the romantic comedy Ninotchka, starring Greta Garbo. Wilder established his directorial reputation with an adaption of James M. Cain's Double Indemnity, a film noir. Wilder co-wrote the screenplay with crime novelist Raymond Chandler. Wilder earned the Best Director and Best Screenplay Academy Awards for the adaptation of a Charles R. Jackson story The Lost Weekend, about alcoholism. In 1950, Wilder co-wrote and directed the critically acclaimed Sunset Boulevard, as well as Stalag 17 in 1953.
From the mid-1950s on, Wilder made comedies. Among the classics Wilder created in this period are the farces The Seven Year Itch and Some Like It Hot, satires such as The Apartment, he directed fourteen different actors in Oscar-nominated performances. Wilder was recognized with the American Film Institute Life Achievement Award in 1986. In 1988, Wilder was awarded the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award. In 1993, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts. Samuel Wilder was born on June 1906 to a family of Austrian Jews in Sucha Beskidzka, his parents were Max Wilder. He was nicknamed "Billie" by his mother, he had an elder brother, William Lee Wilder, who became a screenwriter, film producer, director. His parents had a successful and well-known cake shop in Sucha's train station and unsuccessfully tried to persuade their son to join the family business. Soon the family moved to Vienna. Instead of attending the University of Vienna, Wilder became a journalist. In 1926, jazz band leader Paul Whiteman was on tour in Vienna, Austria when he met and was interviewed by ambitious newspaper reporter Billy Wilder, a fan of Whiteman’s band.
Whiteman liked young Wilder enough, that he took him with the band to Berlin where Wilder was able to make more connections in the entertainment field. Wilder decided to move to Berlin, before achieving success as a writer, he worked as a taxi dancer. After writing crime and sports stories as a stringer for local newspapers, he was offered a regular job at a Berlin tabloid. Developing an interest in film, he began working as a screenwriter, he collaborated with several other novices on the 1929 feature People on Sunday. He wrote the screenplay for the 1931 film adaptation of a novel by Erich Kästner and the Detectives. After the rise of Adolf Hitler, Jewish, left for Paris, where he made his directorial debut with the 1934 film Mauvaise Graine, he relocated to Hollywood prior to its release. Wilder's mother and stepfather all died in the Holocaust. For decades it was assumed that it happened at Auschwitz, but while researching Polish and Israeli archives, his Austrian biographer Andreas Hutter discovered in 2011 that they were murdered in different locations: his mother, Eugenia "Gitla" Siedlisker, in 1943 at Plaszow.
After arriving in Hollywood in 1933, Wilder continued his career as a screenwriter. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1939, having spent time in Mexico waiting for the US government after his six-month visa had expired in 1934, an episode reflected in his 1941 Hold Back the Dawn. Wilder's first significant success was Ninotchka in 1939, a collaboration with fellow German immigrant Ernst Lubitsch; this romantic comedy starred Greta Garbo, was popularly and critically acclaimed. With the byline, "Garbo Laughs!", it took Garbo's career in a new direction. The film marked Wilder's first Academy Award nomination, which he shared with co-writer Charles Brackett. For twelve years Wilder co-wrote many of his films with Brackett, from 1938 through 1950, he followed Ninotchka with a series of box office hits in 1942, including his Hold Back the Dawn and Ball of Fire, as well as his directorial feature debut, The Major and the Minor. His third film as director, Double Indemnity was a major hit.
A film noir, nominated for Best Director and Screenplay, it was co-written with mystery novelist Raymond Chandler, although the two men did not get along. Double Indemnity not only set conventions for the noir genre, but was a landmark in the battle against Hollywood censorship; the original James M. Cain novel Double Indemnity featured two love triangles and a murder plotted for insurance money. While the book was popular with the reading public, it had been considered unfilmable under the Hays Code, because adultery was central to its plot. Double Indemnity is credited by some as the first true film noir, combining the stylistic elements of Citizen Kane with the narrative elements of The Maltese Falcon. During the liberation of concentration camps in 1945, the Psychologi
Halftime Magazine, which premiered in July 2007, is a glossy print magazine that highlights the “sights and spirit of the marching arts”. Halftime Magazine is a publication of LLC, based in Cincinnati, Ohio; the first issue printed was the July/August 2007 issue. The magazine focuses on college preparation and college football's bowl games; this bimonthly lifestyle magazine connects high school and college musician-athletes through shared experiences about competitions, school spirit, band traditions with profiles, first-person accounts and thought-provoking feature stories. In addition, the publication provides tips to enhance students’ musical and marching skills as well as connect the band community through news, events calendars and product reviews, it covers high school marching bands, college marching bands, drum corps, winter guards, indoor drum line and all-age ensembles. Official website
Lomatium ochocense is a rare species of flowering plant in the carrot family known by the common name Ochoco lomatium. It is endemic to Oregon; this plant was discovered in 1994 and described to science as a new species in 2010. It is a small perennial herb growing up to 8 centimeters tall, it grows from a large black root up to 3 centimeters in diameter. The waxy blue-green leaves are divided into many overlapping segments; the inflorescence is a compound umbel of flowers. The flowers are andromonoecious, either only staminate with no female parts; the tiny petals are yellow. This plant grows among many other species of Lomatium and it can be distinguished by its blue-green leaves with overlapping leaflets; this plant is restricted to scabland habitat with exposed bedrock. Other plants in the area include scabland sagebrush, pine bluegrass, rock onion, Henderson's needlegrass, wormleaf stonecrop. Lomatium species are common. Though the plant is a local endemic, the populations are quite large and are located on Bureau of Land Management land with few threats to their survival.
USDA Plants Profile