38th Rescue Squadron
The 38th Rescue Squadron is part of the 347th Rescue Group at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia. It operates various rotary-wing aircraft conducting search and rescue missions; the 38 RQS trains and employs combat-ready pararescue and supporting personnel worldwide in support of U. S. national security interests and NASA. This squadron provides survivor contact and extraction during combat rescue operations, uses various fixed/rotary wing insertion/extraction assets and employs by any means available to provide combat and humanitarian search and medical assistance in all environments; the 38th conducted search and recovery in Japan and adjacent waters from 1952–1957 including supporting operations in Korea and adjacent waters from 1952–1953. It operated 14 search and rescue detachments in Vietnam and Thailand from, 1965–1971; the squadron provided light-lift helicopter operations east of the Mississippi River from 1978–1980. It flew rescue helicopter operations in South Korea and adjacent waters from 1981–1995.
The 38th Air Rescue Squadron was activated on 30 June 1965 at Tan Son Nhut Air Base, South Vietnam, organized the next day to control detachments operating from bases in Vietnam and Thailand as follows: Headquarters Tan Son Nhut Air Base Detachment 2 Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base Detachment 3 Ubon Royal Thai Air Force Base Detachment 4 Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base Detachment 5 Udorn Royal Thai Air Force Base operating 6 HH-3Es Detachment 6 Bien Hoa Air Base operating HH-43s and 2 HH-3Es Detachment 7 Da Nang Air Base operating HH-43s and HU-16s Detachment 8 Cam Ranh Air BaseOn 15 September 1965 two more detachments were organized: Detachment 9 Pleiku Air Base Detachment 10 Binh Thuy Air BaseOn 8 January 1966 the squadron was redesignated the 38th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron as part of the Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service, assigned to the 3rd Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Group. A further 4 detachments were organised as follows: Detachment 11 Tuy Hoa Air Base Detachment 12 U-Tapao Royal Thai Navy Airfield Detachment 13 Phù Cát Air Base Detachment 14 Tan Son Nhut Air BaseMay 1967, the HH-3s and crews of Detachment 7 at Da Nang Air Base were reassigned to the 37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron and the detachment closed.
During 1969–70, with US involvement in Vietnam winding down, other Detachments were moved or disbanded as follows: Detachment 10 was disbanded at Binh Thuy AB on 20 December 1969 Detachment 9 was relocated from Pleiku AB to Nakhon Phanom RTAFB on 16 February 1970 Detachment 8 was disbanded at Cam Ranh AB with the 12th Tactical Fighter Wing on 15 September 1970 Detachment 11 was disbanded on 15 October 1970 when all USAF units left Tuy Hoa AB Detachment 2 was disbanded on 15 November 1970 with the return of USAF strike units from Takhli RTAFB to the US. On 1 July 1971 the entire 38th ARRS was inactivated. Local base rescue helicopters and their crews became detachments of the parent unit, the 3d Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Group. 20 September 1965, Kaman HH-43 Huskie BuNo 62-4510, callsign Dutchy 41 of Detachment 1, Nakhon Phanom Air Base was on a CSAR for Essex 04, an F-105D piloted by Capt Willis E. Forby, over North Vietnam; the HH-43 crashed in the jungle. Pilot Captain Thomas J. Curtis, Crew Chief Sergeant William A. Robinson, P.
J. Arthur Black were all captured by the North Vietnamese Army and taken to a POW camp in North Vietnam, they were released during Operation Homecoming. Co-Pilot 1LT Duane W. Martin, was taken to a POW camp in Laos. On 29 June 1966, Martin, LTJG Dieter Dengler and other prisoners overpowered their guards and escaped. Martin was attacked and killed by a Laotian villager, while Dengler was rescued by a Jolly Green of the 37th ARRS. 6 November 1965, CH-3E BuNo 63-9685 on CSAR for CAPT George G. McKnight pilot of Sandy 14 an A-1E over North Vietnam was hit by ground fire. 3 of the crew became POWs. This was the first Jolly Green loss in combat. 11 April 1966, an HH-43 of Detachment 6 based at Bien Hoa Air Base was called to medevac wounded of the 1st Infantry Division which were surrounded by enemy forces near Cam My, east of Saigon. Pararescueman A1C William H. Pitsenbarger was lowered by winch and spent an hour and a half treating the wounded and evacuating nine wounded soldiers on 5 Huskie flights.
On the sixth approach, Pitsenbarger's Huskie was hit, forcing it to cut the hoist line and pull out for an emergency landing at the nearest strip. Pitsenbarger continued to treat the wounded, collected rifles and ammunition from the dead and distributed them to the men still able to fight and returned enemy fire before being fatally hit. Pitsenbarger was posthumously awarded the Air Force Cross. On 8 December 2000 Pitsenbarger was awarded the Medal of Honor. 28 October 1966, HH-43 BuNo 62-4511 callsign Pedro 42 was medevacing wounded of the 4th Infantry Division at night 60 km west of Pleiku Air Base when it was hit by ground fire and crashed. The Flight Engineer and 3 soldiers were killed in the crash, while the copilot died from injuries. 6 February 1967, Jolly Green 05, HH-3E BuNo 65-12779 had rescued CAPT Lucius L. Heiskell pilot of Nail 65 an O-1F FAC when it was hit by ground fire and crashed near the Mu Gia Pass, North Vietnam. Heiskell, the pilot and flight engineer were KIA-BNR, while the pararescueman Duane D. Hackney survived the crash and was rescued by Jolly Green 36 8 May 1967, HH-43 BuNo 63-9715 callsign Pedro 96 of Detachment 7 was shot down while trying to rescue 4 Marines.
21 May 1967, HH-43 BuNo 63-9711 callsign Pedro 73, Bien Hoa Air Base was flying CSAR for CAPT David Lindberg pilot of Ramrod 02 an F-100D when it was hit by ground fire and made an emergency landing.
Sóc Trăng Airfield
Sóc Trăng Airfield was a French colonial, Japanese Army, U. S. Marine Corps and Army of the Republic of Vietnam base located in Sóc Trăng in southern Vietnam. Sóc Trăng Airfield was established in the French colonial era, it was subsequently used by the Japanese forces from 1940 to 1975. HMM-362 codenamed "SHUFLY" was the first USMC helicopter unit to serve in Vietnam arriving on 15 April 1962. Sóc Trăng was selected for the deployment because it had one of the few hard-surfaced runways in South Vietnam. HMM-362's mission was to provide resupply for ARVN units throughout the Mekong Delta. In early September HMM-362 began moving north to Da Nang Air Base, completing the redeployment by 20 September; the 121st Assault Helicopter Company was based at Sóc Trăng from late 1962. On 4 November 1970, the control of Sóc Trăng was passed to the ARVN. Other units stationed at Sóc Trăng included: 336th Assault Helicopter Company On 19 May 1967, two Bell UH-1D Iroquoiss of the 336th AHC collided on approach to Sóc Trăng causing both helicopters to crash killing all 4 crewmen on one helicopter and 1 crewman on the other On 12 August 1972, Lockheed C-130E Hercules #62-1853 of the 776th Tactical Airlift Squadron was shot down on takeoff from Sóc Trăng, killing 30 of 44 passengers and crew on board The airfield remains visible on satellite images
The Bassac River is a distributary of the Tonlé Sap and Mekong River. The river starts in Phnom Penh and flows southerly, crossing the border into Vietnam near Châu Đốc. In Vietnam it is known as the Hậu River; the Bassac River is an important transportation corridor between Cambodia and Vietnam, with barges and other craft plying the waters. A city of the same name was once the west-bank capital of the Kingdom of Champasak. USS Satyr, a recommissioned repair ship built for the United States Navy during World War II, served on the Bassac River during the Second Indochina War. Three bridges span the Bassac: the Monivong and Takhmao bridges in Phnom Penh and the Cần Thơ Bridge in Cần Thơ in Vietnam. 8.5 kilometers to prey basak lies an old ancient temple ruins Prasat Prey Basak, destroyed during the Vietnam war due to heavy bombing from the United States military. Prasat Prey Basak Temple was built during the Funan empire during the 3rd centuries; the temple is dated between 1900-2000 years old. It is considered to be the oldest Prasat in Cambodia since it was dated back before Chenla during the Funan era
Pacific Air Forces
Pacific Air Forces is a Major Command of the United States Air Force and is the air component command of the United States Indo-Pacific Command. PACAF is headquartered at Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam, is one of two USAF MAJCOMs assigned outside the Continental United States, the other being the United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa. Over the past sixty-five plus years, PACAF has been engaged in combat during the Korean and Vietnam Wars and Operations Desert Storm, Southern Watch, Northern Watch, Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom; the mission of Pacific Air Forces is to provide ready air and space power to promote U. S. interests in the Asia-Pacific region during peacetime, through crisis, in war. PACAF organizes and equips the 45,000 Total Force personnel of the Regular Air Force, the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard with the tools necessary to support the Commander of United States Indo-Pacific Command. PACAF comprises nine main bases and nearly 375 aircraft.
The command's area of responsibility extends from the west coast of the United States to the east coast of Asia and from the Arctic to the Antarctic, more than 100,000,000 square miles. The area is home to nearly two billion people. Not to be confused with Far East Air Force, the military aviation organization of the United States Army in the Philippine Islands from 1941 to 1942; the beginnings of PACAF can be traced back to June 1944, when Major General St. Clair Streett's Thirteenth Air Force was added to Allied Air Forces, South West Pacific Area. At the same time, Lieutenant General George Kenney created the Far East Air Forces from his Fifth Air Force headquarters, while the Advanced Echelon became the Fifth Air Force under Major General Ennis Whitehead, Sr; the RAAF formed the Australian First Tactical Air Force under Air Commodore Harry Cobby in October 1944, when General Douglas MacArthur became commander of all Army forces in the Pacific, the Seventh Air Force was added as well. Far East Air Forces was activated on 3 August 1944, at Brisbane, Australia.
FEAF had been created on 15 June 1944, Fifth Air Force assigned to it. FEAF was subordinate to the U. S. Army served as the headquarters of Allied Air Forces Southwest Pacific Area; the creation of FEAF consolidated the command and control authority over United States Army Air Forces units deployed throughout the southwest Pacific in World War II. On 15 June 1945, Fifth Air Force, Clark Field, Philippines. With the end of World War II in September 1945, the USAAF found its units deployed throughout the Pacific, from Hawaii to India, from Japan to Australia, based on a hundred island airstrips, along with bases in China and Burma. A realignment of these forces was needed by the USAAF to better organize its forces in the Pacific for peacetime. On 6 December 1945, Far East Air Forces was redesignated Pacific Air Command, United States Army, its Air Forces were redeployed as follows: Fifth Air Force: Assigned to Tokyo, JapanPrimary mission performing allied occupational assistance on the Japanese Home Islands and the Korean peninsula.
Seventh Air Force: Assigned to Hickam Field, HawaiiReturning to its prewar mission for the defense of the Hawaiian Islands, including Midway Island. In November 1945, the 509th Composite Group left North Field on the island of Tinian and was reassigned to Roswell Army Air Field, New Mexico, taking the atomic bomb delivery capability of PACUSA to the United States. Shortly afterwards, Eighth Air Force was reassigned to the newly established Strategic Air Command on 7 June 1946 and its strategic units reassigned to the 1st Bombardment Division; the major mission of PACUSA in the postwar years was occupation duty in Japan and the demilitarization of the Japanese society in conjunction with the United States Army. In addition, PACUSA helped to support atomic bomb testing in the Pacific Proving Grounds beginning with the Operation Crossroads test on Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands in 1946. With the impending establishment of the United States Air Force as an independent service that year, PACUSA was redesignated Far East Air Forces on 1 January 1947.
On that same date, Seventh Air Force in Hawaii was inactivated with its organization absorbed by HQ, FEAF. Coinciding with the establishment of the United States Air Force as an independent service in September 1947, PACUSA/FEAF deployments to Korea prior to the 1948 partition of the country helped in the establishment of the Republic of Korea, along with the transfer of surplus military equipment and other aid to French Indochina as well as aid to the Nationalist Chinese during the Chinese Civil War which resumed after the end of World War II. On 25 June 19
Cần Thơ is the fourth largest city in Vietnam, the largest city in the Mekong Delta. It is noted for its floating market, rice paper-making village, picturesque rural canals, it had a population of 1.2 million as of 2011, it has population of 1,520,000 until June 2018, is located on the south bank of the Hau River, a distributary of the Mekong River. In 2007, about 50 people died when the Cần Thơ Bridge collapsed, causing Vietnam's worst engineering disaster. In 2011, Can Tho International Airport opened; the city is nicknamed the "western capital", is located 169 kilometres from Ho Chi Minh City. The city is an independent municipality at the same level as provinces of Vietnam, it was created in the beginning of 2004 by a split of the former Cần Thơ Province into two new administrative units: Cần Thơ City and Hậu Giang Province. Cần Thơ is subdivided into nine district-level sub-divisions: 5 urban districts: 4 rural districts: They are further subdivided into five commune-level towns, 36 communes, 44 wards.
Ninh Kiều, which has the well-known port Ninh Kiều port, is the center district and the most populated and wealthiest of these districts. The city borders the provinces of Hậu Giang, Kiên Giang, Vĩnh Long and Đồng Tháp. Cần Thơ is connected to the rest of the country by National Route 1A and Can Tho International Airport; the city's bridge, now completed, is the longest cable-stayed bridge in south-east Asia. The six-lane Saigon–Cần Thơ Expressway is being built in parts from Hồ Chí Minh City to Mỹ Tho; the hydrofoil express boat links this city with Ho Chi Minh City.. There are many vehicles here such as: taxi, grab bikes, van, coaches and so on; the Mekong Delta is considered to be the "rice basket of Vietnam", contributing more than half of the nation's rice production. People say of Cần Thơ: Cần Thơ is famous for its floating markets, where people sell and buy things on the river, as well as the bird gardens and the port of Ninh Kiều; the city offers a wide range of tropical fruits such as pomelo, jackfruit, guava, rambutan, dragon fruit and durian.
The Cần Thơ City Museum has exhibits on the city's history. Tourist attractions Cần Thơ Bridge Thiền viện Trúc Lâm Phương Nam - Buddhist Temple Nam Nhã Pagoda Bình Thủy Temple BInh Thuy Ancient House Ninh Kiều Quay Cần Thơ pedestrian bridge Cái Răng Floating Market, Phong Điền Floating Market Bằng Lăng Stork Sanctuary Canal Tour Cantho Cathedral Ông Chinese Pagoda Pitu Khôsa Răngsey Khmer Pagoda Quang Duc Pagoda Long Quang Pagoda Phat Hoc Pagoda My Khanh tourist village Can Tho seminary Academic institutions in the city are Cần Thơ University, Cần Thơ Department of Education and Training, Cần Thơ University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Tây Đô University, Nam Cần Thơ University, Cần Thơ College, College of Foreign Economic Relations – Cần Thơ Branch, Medical College, Can Tho Technical Economic College and Vocational College, with its well-known College of Agriculture and Mekong Delta Rice Research Institute, Cần Thơ University of Technology Cần Thơ's climate is tropical and monsoonal with two seasons: rainy, from May to November.
Average annual humidity is 83%, rainfall 1,635 mm and temperature 27 °C. After 120 years of development, the city now is the delta's most important center of economics, culture and technology, it has two industrial parks. Nice, France Shantou, China Phnom Penh, Cambodia Amol, Iran Riverside, California Jeollanamdo, Korea
Cần Thơ Base Camp
Cần Thơ Base Camp is a former U. S. Army, U. S. Air Force, Army of the Republic of Vietnam, Republic of Vietnam Air Force and current People's Army of Vietnam base west of Cần Thơ in the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam. Cần Thơ airfield was established during the French colonial period and was used by the Japanese during World War II. In June 1962 Detachment 3, 6220th Air Base Squadron was established at Cần Thơ. On 8 July 1963 a Detachment of the 33rd Tactical Group was established at Cần Thơ. In May 1963 Detachment 7, 8th Aerial Port Squadron was established at Cần Thơ. On 8 July 1963 a Detachment of the 33rd Tactical Group was established at Cần Thơ replacing Detachment 3, 6220th Air Base Squadron; the RVNAF maintained a detachment from its 122nd Liaison Squadron equipped with 5 O-1 Bird Dogs. In mid-1963 Military Assistance Command, Vietnam proposed the construction of a 6,000-foot runway near Cần Thơ to replace the existing 3,000-foot runway at Sóc Trăng Airfield, unsuitable for night and wet weather operations with a projected US$4.5 million construction cost and a 2 year construction period.
On the night of 16 July 1963 a Viet Cong mortar attack on Cần Thơ Airfield wounded 17 ARVN and US Special Forces troops. In July 1963 the 19th Tactical Air Support Squadron was activated at Bien Hoa Air Base, becoming operational on 15 September, it maintained a detachment of 6 O-1s at Cần Thơ. In January 1964 given the need for heavier aircraft to be available for quick reaction air support in the Mekong Delta, CINCPAC approved the construction of a new airfield at Cần Thơ for a cost of US$2.5 million to be ready within one year. Construction of the new Binh Thuy Air Base, 7km northwest of Cần Thơ Airfield began in February 1964. In April 1964, Detachment 3, 619th Tactical Control Squadron was organized at the base. In the same month the RVNAF 74th Tactical Wing was established; the base was established by the 9th Infantry Division. Other units stationed here included: Battery H, 29th Artillery 6th Battalion, 77th Artillery 13th Aviation Battalion 18th Aviation Company 235th Aviation Company 244th Aviation Company 271st Aviation Company Troop C, 16th Cavalry Detachment C, 1st Military Intelligence Battalion 69th Engineer BattalionThe US Air Force 619th Tactical Control Squadron Detachment 3 provided air traffic control until June 1972.
Cần Thơ was a base for the ARVN 9th Division until April 1975. The base remains in use by the PAVN as the headquarters of the 9th Military Region; the airfield is no longer used but still visible on satellite images. Http://www.cantho-rvn.org/ Photos of the base and airfield
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a natural surface. In January 1919, aviation pioneer Orville Wright underlined the need for "distinctly marked and prepared landing places, the preparing of the surface of reasonably flat ground an expensive undertaking there would be a continuous expense for the upkeep." Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the local magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west and runway 36 points to the north; when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane is heading around 90°. A runway can be used in both directions, is named for each direction separately: e.g. "runway 15" in one direction is "runway 33" when used in the other. The two numbers differ by 18.
For clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually: runway one-five, runway three-three, etc.. A leading zero, for example in "runway zero-six" or "runway zero-one-left", is included for all ICAO and some U. S. military airports. However, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield; this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is common in a country such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04, the pilot read back the clearance as runway 4. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world. For example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05. If there is more than one runway pointing in the same direction, each runway is identified by appending left and right to the number to identify its position — for example, runways one-five-left, one-five-center, one-five-right.
Runway zero-three-left becomes runway two-one-right. In some countries, regulations mandate that where parallel runways are too close to each other, only one may be used at a time under certain conditions. At large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 1 to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways. For example, in Los Angeles, this system results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L, 7R though all four runways are parallel at 69°. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, 18R, all oriented at a heading of 175.4°. An airport with only three parallel runways may use different runway identifiers, such as when a third parallel runway was opened at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in 2000 to the south of existing 8R/26L — rather than confusingly becoming the "new" 8R/26L it was instead designated 7R/25L, with the former 8R/26L becoming 7L/25R and 8L/26R becoming 8/26.
Runway designations may change over time because Earth's magnetic lines drift on the surface and the magnetic direction changes. Depending on the airport location and how much drift occurs, it may be necessary to change the runway designation; as runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10°, this affects some runways sooner than others. For example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233°, it is designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changes downwards by 5 degrees to 228°, the runway remains Runway 23. If on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226°, the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224°, the runway becomes Runway 22; because magnetic drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon, not welcomed, as they require an accompanying change in aeronautical charts and descriptive documents. When runway designations do change at major airports, it is changed at night as taxiway signs need to be changed and the huge numbers at each end of the runway need to be repainted to the new runway designators.
In July 2009 for example, London Stansted Airport in the United Kingdom changed its runway designations from 05/23 to 04/22 during the night. For fixed-wing aircraft it is advantageous to perform takeoffs and landings into the wind to reduce takeoff or landing roll and reduce the ground speed needed to attain flying speed. Larger airports have several runways in different directions, so that one can be selected, most nearly aligned with the wind. Airports with one runway are constructed to be aligned with the prevailing wind. Compiling a wind rose is in fact one of the preliminary steps taken in constructing airport runways. Note that wind direction is given as the direction the wind is coming from: a plane taking off from runway 09 faces east, into an "east wind" blowing from 090°. Runway dimensions vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in s