Education in Hamburg
Education in Hamburg covers the whole spectrum from kindergarten, primary education, secondary education, higher education in Hamburg. The German states are responsible for the educational system in Germany, therefore the Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung is the administrative agency in Hamburg; the Behörde für Wissenschaft und Forschung has the oversight for colleges. The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, one of the six educational institutes of UNESCO, is located in Hamburg. Per student no other State of Germany spends more money on education than Hamburg, yet at the Programme for International Student Assessment the students did poorly and were outperformed by 14 other States of Germany. Only the State of Bremen did worse than Hamburg. One in two Hamburg children comes from an immigrant family, in 2007, 20,4 percent of all Hamburg children were on welfare. So Hamburg faces more challenges than many other States of Germany. In 2008-mid 2009, several types of secondary schools existed in Hamburg.
The most common types were Hauptschulen, Realschulen and Gesamtschulen. Kids graduated from primary schools after 4th grade and were allowed to apply for any of those schools; the choice which school to apply for was made by the parents. In October 2009, the Hamburg Parliament voted for an act to change this system with the start of the educational year 2010/11; the Grundschule—primary school of 4 years education from the age of 6 to 10—would be changed into a Primärschule, lasting 6 years. This would be followed by a so-called location or quarter school with certificates, like the Abitur after 13 years of education; the Gymnasium will offer the Abitur after 12 years. Pupils could enter the Gymnasium. Parents would no longer be allowed to choose. Only those children whose primary school teachers state that the child would make a successful transition into a Gymnasium would be allowed to apply; the act states that no more than 25 pupils are allowed in classes of the primary school, 20 in so-called difficult quarters, not more than 28 in a Gymnasium class.
This decision was criticized by factions of the The Left. Many people were not pleased by this educational reform; some were dismayed that the reform did not do away with Gymnasien they saw as a breeding ground of privilege. It has been noted that most of the children attending a Gymnasium came from upper-middle-class families and that Gymnasien failed to enroll minority youngsters. A movement called; the movement attempted to collect enough signatures to force a referendum, but fell short of the required number to do so. Many parents of those attending a Realschule were dismayed. Another group of parents was dismayed that the decision of whether their kids should apply for a Gymnasium was no longer left to the parents, they were concerned about the fact that Gymnasien would no longer be allowed to enroll students after fourth grade, but had to wait until they graduated from sixth grade. These would mean Gymnasien would get two fewer years to impart Ancient Greek, it was feared that if Gymnasien would not be able to enroll students as young as ten years, it would become difficult for them to instill school spirit and love for learning in the students.
It was claimed that the academically most promising kids were denied an adequate education if they were not allowed to enroll in a Gymnasium after four years of schooling. A movement called Wir wollen lernen! was formed. It collected 184.500 signatures in November, three times the number needed to force a referendum. An attempt by the city government of Hamburg to have all pupils attend the same school until 7th grade was, rejected by 276,304 votes to 218,065 German television showed that the voter participation was higher in the wealthy neighbourhoods than in the poor ones; the opinion was put forward that the referendum to reject the school reforms was only successful because of this. In fact, although the proposal in Hamburg was to have all children in a single school system two years longer in order to treat everyone for a longer time, German TV found a number of wealthy parents willing to make statements to TV cameras that they considered such equal treatment unfair: "you don't have to disadvantage the advantaged so that the disadvantaged benefit".
In other words, putting everyone in the same school is considered unfair by many of the wealthy in Germany. Besides regular German schools and kindergarten, an International School of Hamburg and a French school exist. Both offer an education in the respective language from kindergarten to secondary school; the International School Hamburg provides the International Baccalaureate, the French school the French baccalauréat and the AbiBac. In 2007, there were 1,039 day-care centers for children, 244 primary schools, 195 secondary schools, with a total of 167,714 pupils; as of 2009 several Hamburg schools were Wilhelm-Gymnasium, Christianeum Hamburg, Friedrich-Ebert-Gymnasium, Gymnasium Farmsen, Helene-Lange-Gymnasium. Hamburg's oldest school is the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums; as of 2012/2013, 19 universities and colleges were located in Hamburg with about 90,000 university students, including 10,000 international students. Universities in Hamburg are: University of Hamburg Hamburg University of Technology HafenCity University Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg (College of Fine
Außenalster or Outer Alster Lake is the larger one of two artificial lakes, which are formed by the Alster River and are both located within the city limits of Hamburg, Germany. The other lake is the Binnenalster; the Außenalster and its shores are used by the inhabitants of Hamburg for many sport and recreational purposes, such as sailing and rowing. The phrase "outer" refers to the former Wallanlagen of Hamburg; the Außenalster was the part of the lake, "outside" the city walls, built in 1625. In 1804 city wall and ramparts were stripped down and re-naturalized to parks, but the spatial division between the two lakes was retained. Today, two car and rail bridges, the Lombardsbrücke and the Kennedybrücke, span the river at this location; the areas around the Außenalster developed different on the eastern and western sides. The Außenalster is on average only some 2.5 metres deep. It is fed by the rivers Alster and Wandse. Other canals entering the Außenalster include Rondeelkanal and Uhlenhorster Kanal.
The lake forms a number of smaller bays and inlets. The Alster River enters the Außenalster in the North at Krugkoppelbrücke and leaves it in the South at Kennedybrücke. Districts bordering the Außenalster are Harvestehude and Rotherbaum on the western shore, Winterhude, Hohenfelde and St. Georg on the eastern shore. Many of the streets around Außenalster are among the most desirable addresses in Hamburg. St. Georg, as part of Hamburg-Mitte, has a notably denser built environment. Alsterufer and Harvestehuder Weg on the western shore include a number of consular missions, like the U. S. Consulate General. For its proximity to the inner city and its recreational qualities, the Außenalster is location of a number of hotels: among others, five-star superior Hotel Atlantic lies near the south-eastern bay of Außenalster. During May, the Japanese community in Hamburg organizes the annual Kirschblütenfest around Außenalster. Less − that is, only when a winter becomes cold enough and the Außenalster's ice strong enough − the Alstereisvergnügen is held on the frozen Alster.
All banks of the Außenalster are public. Private gardens on the western side were made public while Hamburg was host to the Internationale Gartenbauausstellung in 1953; the banks vary from a small strip of green to large public parks. The 7.6 kilometres long pathway around the lake is popular for joggers. Because of occurring gusts, the lake is consider no easy sailing area; the Alster's water is tested for quality, consider "very clean" by German standards. Swimming is not recommended, because of the density of watercrafts and an oftentimes shallow vision. A number of famous, long-standing sailing and rowing clubs are based around Außenalster: like Der Hamburger und Germania Ruder Club, Ruderclub Allemannia, Norddeutscher Regatta Verein or Hamburger Segel-Club. List of lakes in Schleswig-Holstein List of lakes in Germany Statistical office Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein Statistisches Amt für Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein Statistisches Jahrbuch 2006/2007 Photos of Außenalster on bilderbuch-hamburg.de Photos of Außenalster on bilder-hamburg.info Nixdorf, B..
"Außenalster", Dokumentation von Zustand und Entwicklung der wichtigsten Seen Deutschlands, Berlin: Umweltbundesamt, p. 6
The Jungfernstieg is an urban promenade in Hamburg, Germany. It is the city's foremost boulevard. Jungfernstieg lies within the quarter of Neustadt. In total the Jungfernstieg stretches some 600 m along the southern and south-western shores of the Binnenalster lake and continues further to Gänsemarkt. On the lakeside it is framed by Ballindamm to the east and Neuer Jungfernstieg to the west. Towards the built-up area Jungfernstieg intersects with a number of streets - in the Altstadt with Bergstraße, Plan and Reesendamm. At Reesendammbrücke, Jungfernstieg crosses the Alster into Neustadt, it goes two of Hamburg's leading shopping precincts. At the intersection with Neuer Jungfernstieg, Jungfernstieg forms a Y-junction with Colonnaden, another shopping street; the entire circumference of the lakeside is occupied by a terrace. Two pavilions are located on the terrace: the Alsterpavillion, a smaller pavilion, which functions as the entrance to the rapid transit station; the lakeside is a hub for Hamburg's Alster ferries.
The history of Jungfernstieg began in 1235. At that time, Count Adolph IV of Holstein commissioned the construction of a mill dam, in order to use the Alster's water for a local corn mill; the resulting mill pond turned out much larger than expected, as it reached dimensions of an outright lake. It caused a legal battle, as to who had to pay for the lost land, but it gave land for a city expansion in the back of the dam: Hamburg's Neustadt; the embankment along the newly created Lake Binnenalster was named Reesendamm, in honor of miller Heinrich Reese, who at the time operated the mill. During the 17th and 18th century Reesendamm widened several times. In 1665 a line of linden trees were planted along the water front. With Hamburg's growing international sea trade and the city's status as a sovereign city-state, the elegant promenade obtained a cosmopolitan outlook and became popular for strolls along the lake front. Hanseaten accompanied their unmarried daughters out on a walk, looking for a suitable bridegroom, led to today's name of the promenade: Jungfern, Stieg.
In 1799 the first Alsterpavillion was opened. In 1838 Jungfernstieg became Germany's first street to be asphalted; the Great Fire of 1842 destroyed the entire build-up. After the subsequent reconstruction, Jungfernstieg presented itself in a coherent Neoclassical form; the Arcades on Kleine Alster date from this period. In 1843, Sillem's Bazar opened on Jungfernstieg as Germany's first shopping arcade, connecting onto Poststraße. During the Gründerzeit boom in the decades of the 19th century, many of the Neoclassical buildings were replaced by various Revival style buildings. Sillem's Bazar was replaced by Renaissance Revival Hamburger Hof in 1881. Art Nouveau Heine-Haus was rebuilt in 1903. Scholviens-Passage was replaced by Alsterhaus department store in 1912. In 1866, a horsecar line was introduced on Jungfernstieg, which by 1900 was replaced by an electric tram line. Jungfernstieg U-Bahn station was opened in 1931 and extended by an underground S-Bahn station in 1973. Gänsemarkt U-Bahn station opened in 1970.
By 1978 the tram was discontinued, though the Senate has considered to reintroduce it. During the early 2000s, Jungfernstieg was refurbished; the newly refurbished lake-side's terrace forms a public waterfront-plaza with views onto lake and the lake's fountain. The terrace is used for events throughout the year. Though not one of Hamburg's typical shopping streets, Jungfernstieg features direct access to some of Hamburg's largest shopping malls and accommodates a number of banks, art galleries and high-end shops. More its history, the scenic setting on the Binnenalster and its pivot role for the inner city's commercial life and street grid, attribute it with a strong "sense of place" for people to relax and meet. In the course of the European migrant crisis, on 31 December 2015, Jungfernstieg boulevard was one of the scenes of the numerous crimes in the city. During the summer of 2016, the promenade saw other crimes. Several people were injured. Police floodlighted the street on weekend nights to avoid further crimes, which decreased with the colder days in autumn.
List of leading shopping streets and districts by city Brühl's Terrace in Hamburg's sister-city Dresden English Embankment in Hamburg's sister-city Saint Petersburg photos on bilderbuch-hamburg.de Jungfernstieg interest group
Hamburg Chamber of Commerce
The Hamburg Chamber of Commerce named the Commercial Deputation, is the chamber of commerce for the city state of Hamburg, was founded in 1665. Hamburg has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce has 160,000 companies as its members, it was traditionally one of the three main political bodies of Hamburg. The chamber has several official responsibilities; the Hamburg Stock Exchange is owned by and subordinate to the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce. The chamber has its offices in the old stock exchange building; the Commercial Deputation, founded in 1665 consisted of seven members, elected among the city's "honourable merchants." Each member became President of the Commercial Deputation during his last year in office. The Commercial Deputation was recognised by the Hamburg council in 1674 as the representation of the city's merchants. From 1710, all the seven members of the Commercial Deputation were ex officio members of the Erbgesessene Bürgerschaft.
The Commercial Deputation was, along with council/senate and Bürgerschaft, one of the most important political bodies of Hamburg. In 1735, the Commerzbibliothek was founded, is the oldest library of its kind. In 1867, the Commercial Deputation was transformed into the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce. Since 2004 the Chamber of Commerce organizes the bi-annual Hamburg Summit: China meets Europe. Hamburg Chamber of Commerce official Web site Clippings about Hamburg Chamber of Commerce in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
The Alster is a right tributary of the Elbe river in Northern Germany. It has its source near Henstedt-Ulzburg, Schleswig-Holstein, flows somewhat southwards through much of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg and joins the Elbe in central Hamburg; the Alster is Hamburg's second most important river. While the Elbe river is a tidal navigation of international significance and prone to flooding, the Alster is a non-tidal, slow-flowing and in some places untouched idyll of nature, in other places tamed and landscaped urban space. In the city center, the river forms both prominent features in Hamburg's cityscape. In total, the Alster has an incline from 31 m to 4 m above sea level, its drainage basin is about 587 km2. Left tributaries to the Alster are: Rönne, Alte Alster, Ammersbek, Bredenbek, Lohbek, Saselbek and Wandse; the source of the Alster is a small bog pool in the Timhagen Brook near Henstedt-Ulzburg 25 km north of Hamburg. The small brook makes a couple of curves before entering Hamburg territory at Duvenstedt and Wohldorf-Ohlstedt.
At that point, the Alster has been passed by 15 bridges. From here on, Hamburgers use the river for water sports for canoe and kayak trips on the river, or hikes along its shores. At Wellingsbüttel, the Alster runs past Wellingsbüttel Manor. At Ohlsdorf the Alster reaches a weir at the height of the former Fuhlsbüttel Lock, the last water level regulation before reaching the inner city. From Fuhlsbüttel downstream, the Alster's course, has been straightened on several locations, with old and new river beds forming parallel canal beds. Between city limits and the inner city's first lake − the Außenalster − the river is crossed by 42 bridges. For Hamburg's inner city, the river is a major geographical feature and defines its cityscape. Through ponding of the river in the 13th century, two artificial lakes, the Außenalster and the smaller Binnenalster were created in central Hamburg; these two lakes and the surrounding parks serve as important recreational areas in the heart of the city. Binnenalster and the subsequent Kleine Alster form important urban spaces.
The Alster's final section between Kleine Alster and its mouth at Binnenhafen, is called Alsterfleet, as part of a network of inner-city canals, including Bleichenfleet, Herrengrabenfleet, Mönkedammfleet and Nikolaifleet. Alsterfleet is regulated by two locks at Rathaus/Rathausmarkt and Baumwall, the latter protecting it from the Elbe tide. Hamburg was used it as a port; the water was used to flood the moats of the fortifications. The Alster has been dammed since 1190 to power a watermill. In 1235 a further dam was built for a second mill, which changed the shape of the river to be like a lake. In the 15th and 16th century, an Alster canal was built to connect Hamburg with Lübeck; the canal was about 8 km long and built from the Alster to the Beste, a tributary of the Trave river, at Sülfeld. Because of the difficulties in holding water near marsh areas, the 91 km long waterway from Hamburg to Lübeck was navigable from 1529 to 1550 only. Hamburg expanded along the shores of the Alster, several locks were constructed to make the river navigable.
Until the 19th century water transport with barges were used up to the town of Kayhude. The barges—transporting building material and foods—were staked or hauled; the Alster is navigatable some 9 km upstream from the mouth. Alster Touristik GmbH, a subsidiary of the Hamburger Hochbahn, provides public and touristic transport on a fleet of Alster ferries in the city of Hamburg. Along the entire course within Hamburg, rowing or paddle boats are available for rent. In general, the Alster is assessed to be clean. Hamburg's Alster and its lakes and canals are famous for its white swans, cared for out of public funds since the 16th century; the Alster basin was an important model for the design of the Charles River basin, constructed in the early 20th century. Throughout much of Germany, an Alsterwasser is the name for a type of shandy, a concoction of equal parts of beer and lemonade; the river inspired the Hamburg-born composer Oscar Fetrás to compose the popular waltz "Mondnacht auf der Alster". Hamburg's largest aquatic center, the Alster-Schwimmhalle, is named after the river.
List of rivers of Schleswig-Holstein List of rivers of Hamburg List of bridges in Hamburg Franklin Koplitzsch and Daniel Tilgner, ed.. Hamburg Lexikon. Ellert&Richter. ISBN 3-8319-0179-1. Images on bildarchiv-hamburg.de Images on bilderbuch-hamburg.de