Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become successful at explaining living processes through these three disciplines. All areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed by biochemical methodology and research. Biochemistry focuses on understanding the chemical basis which allows biological molecules to give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, which in turn relates to the study and understanding of tissues and organism structure and function. Biochemistry is related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms of biological phenomena. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.
The chemistry of the cell depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins; the mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism. The findings of biochemistry are applied in medicine and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the cures of diseases. In nutrition, they study how to maintain health wellness and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies. In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers, try to discover ways to improve crop cultivation, crop storage and pest control. At its broadest definition, biochemistry can be seen as a study of the components and composition of living things and how they come together to become life, in this sense the history of biochemistry may therefore go back as far as the ancient Greeks. However, biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning sometime in the 19th century, or a little earlier, depending on which aspect of biochemistry is being focused on.
Some argued that the beginning of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase, in 1833 by Anselme Payen, while others considered Eduard Buchner's first demonstration of a complex biochemical process alcoholic fermentation in cell-free extracts in 1897 to be the birth of biochemistry. Some might point as its beginning to the influential 1842 work by Justus von Liebig, Animal chemistry, or, Organic chemistry in its applications to physiology and pathology, which presented a chemical theory of metabolism, or earlier to the 18th century studies on fermentation and respiration by Antoine Lavoisier. Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry, for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of proteins, F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry; the term "biochemistry" itself is derived from a combination of chemistry. In 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the foreword to the first issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie where he argued for the setting up of institutes dedicated to this field of study.
The German chemist Carl Neuberg however is cited to have coined the word in 1903, while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister. It was once believed that life and its materials had some essential property or substance distinct from any found in non-living matter, it was thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of life. In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created artificially. Since biochemistry has advanced since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations; these techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, led to an understanding of biochemistry on a molecular level. Philip Randle is well known for his discovery in diabetes research is the glucose-fatty acid cycle in 1963.
He confirmed. High fat oxidation was responsible for the insulin resistance. Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene, its role in the transfer of information in the cell. In the 1950s, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins were instrumental in solving DNA structure and suggesting its relationship with genetic transfer of information. In 1958, George Beadle and Edward Tatum received the Nobel Prize for work in fungi showing that one gene produces one enzyme. In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with DNA evidence, which led to the growth of forensic science. More Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize for discovering the role of RNA interference, in the silencing of gene expression. Around two dozen of the 92 occurring chemical elements are essential to various kinds of biological life. Most ra
The Cachoeira da Fumaça is 340 m tall waterfall in Bahia, Brazil. It was believed to be the country's highest waterfall until the 353 m tall Cachoeira do Araca was discovered in the Amazon. Cachoeira da Fumaça is located in Chapada Diamantina, an attractive region for adventurers, named that way because the tiny water flow is sprayed by the wind before it touches the ground. However, depending on the season, it can be dry. There are two ways to reach it: from above, walking 6 kilometers from the ecological base placed in the Vale do Capão, or from below, after a three-day trek starting from Lençóis, Chapada's best-known city. Local people knew about the waterfall but wider public learned about it after it was noticed by bush pilot George Glass in 1960. In the film Dhoom 2, there is a scene at the waterfall where Sunehri is dared to jump off without any support mechanism in order to gain Aryan's trust, she does so only to have him leap behind her with a bungee cord
Michael "Roxy" Roxborough is an American odds maker, syndicated columnist and author. He is best known as founder and owner of Las Vegas Sports Consultants, the international odds making company licensed by the Nevada Gaming Control Board. Roxborough is credited with introducing mathematical formulas and computer models to the multi-billion dollar sports wagering industry; the Las Vegas Review-Journal listed Roxborough number two in its list of the most influential people in sports of the 20th century. Roxborough was a co-founder of American Wagering Inc, the first U. S. bookmaking company to be listed on a public stock exchange in 1996. He served as a director from the company's inception until March 11, 1998; the company was subsequently purchased by UK Bookmakers William Hill PLC. With partner Benjamin Lee Eckstein in 1986, Roxborough co-founded “America’s Line,” a daily newspaper sports odds column syndicated by Universal Press in 1988 appearing in more than 120 North American newspapers. Roxborough and Mike Rhoden co-authored “Sports Book Management: A Guide to the Legal Bookmaker” published in 1988 and updated in 1991 and 1998.
The 112 page book was a text for the college course Race and Sports Book Management that Roxborough taught at the College of Southern Nevada as part of the Casino Management curriculum. Roxborough was a partner in the 1997 Sprint Champion and Eclipse Award winning thoroughbred race horse Smoke Glacken; the novel Gambling on Magic by Christopher G. Moore was loosely based on Roxborough's life. Roxborough is featured in the 2016 sports gambling documentary The Best of It; the 50 Greatest Sports Figures in Nevada History. The 50 Most Important People in Sports; the 10 Most Influential People in Gaming. Roxy Roxborough on IMDb Roxy Roxborough on Twitter The KG's