Biodiversity is the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is greater near the equator, the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, is richest in the tropics; these tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity tends to cluster in hotspots, has been increasing through time, but will be to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes cause mass extinctions. More than 99.9 percent of all species that lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.
More in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth with only one-thousandth of one percent described. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all organisms living on Earth; the age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years. The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates at least from 3.5 billion years ago, during the Eoarchean Era after a geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon. There are microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia. Other early physical evidence of a biogenic substance is graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old meta-sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland. More in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.
According to one of the researchers, "If life arose quickly on Earth.. it could be common in the universe."Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon marked a rapid growth in biodiversity via the Cambrian explosion—a period during which the majority of multicellular phyla first appeared; the next 400 million years included repeated, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. In the Carboniferous, rainforest collapse led to a great loss of animal life; the Permian–Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago, was the worst. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago and has attracted more attention than others because it resulted in the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs; the period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused by human impacts habitat destruction.
Conversely, biodiversity positively impacts human health in a number of ways, although a few negative effects are studied. The United Nations designated 2011–2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. and 2021–2030 as the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration According to a 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by IPBES, 25% of plant and animal species are threatened with extinction as the result of human activity. 1916 – The term biological diversity was used first by J. Arthur Harris in "The Variable Desert," Scientific American, JSTOR 6182: "The bare statement that the region contains a flora rich in genera and species and of diverse geographic origin or affinity is inadequate as a description of its real biological diversity." 1975 – The term natural diversity was introduced 1980 – Thomas Lovejoy introduced the term biological diversity to the scientific community in a book. It became used. 1985 – According to Edward O. Wilson, the contracted form biodiversity was coined by W. G. Rosen: "The National Forum on BioDiversity... was conceived by Walter G.
Rosen... Dr. Rosen represented the NRC/NAS throughout the planning stages of the project. Furthermore, he introduced the term biodiversity". 1985 - The term "biodiversity" appears in the article, "A New Plan to Conserve the Earth's Biota" by Laura Tangley. 1988 - The term biodiversity first appeared in a publication. The present - the term has achieved widespread use. "Biodiversity" is most used to replace the more defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness. Biologists most define biodiversity as the "totality of genes and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional types of biological variety identified: taxonomic diversity ecological diversity morphological diversity functional diversity (which is a measure of the number of functionally disparate species within a populati
Image Creative Education is an animation training institute in India, established in 1996. It offers professional, job-oriented courses in Animation, Visual Effects, Graphic Design, Web Design and few other Digital design related streams. In the 20 years, it has established 40 training institutes across India and has trained around 60,000 students. In 2005, Image Creative Education became an ISO 9001:2008 certified company. 2D Animation Design 3D Design Digital Video Production Graphic and Web Design Graphic Design Graphics and 2D Animation Graphics and 3D Animation Interior Design Visual Effects Web and UI Design AR VR Techonogies 3D Animation 3D and Visual Effects Advertising Design Fashion Design Game Technologies Interior Design Web Technologies AR VR Technologies B. Sc. Multimedia Image Creative Education is a Training Partner of National Skill Development Corporation, a Public-Private Partnership system that falls under the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship. NSDC visions to provide/improve the skills of 400 million people in India by 2022.
With this partnership, Image Creative Education has proposed to train more than 1 Lakh students in 10 years. The UG Degree course, B. Sc. Multimedia at Image Creative Education is offered in strategic technical collaboration with Annamalai University; the collaboration was established in 2009. Along with for-profit training services, Image Creative Education makes creative education available for the needy by joining hands with Vivekananda Cultural Centre. Through this collaboration, the economically-less privileged students are offered Certificate course in Graphic Design at subsidized fees. ICAT Design and Media College Image Infotainment PVT LTD ImageMinds Official Website of Image Creative Education: http://www.image.edu.in/
Edwin Keith "Banjo" Matthews was a NASCAR driver, car owner and builder. Matthews began his career as a successful Modified driver, he made 51 starts with a best finish of second. He won three poles, one each at the Daytona Beach and Road Course, Daytona International Speedway, Atlanta International Raceway, his best finishes were on super speedways where he would finish in 15th place on average while his worst finishes would be on road courses where he would finish in 39th place on average. Matthews drove 26 races using #94. Matthews served as car owner for several of the biggest names in NASCAR in the 1960s and 1970s, including Fireball Roberts, A. J. Foyt, Junior Johnson, Donnie Allison, Cale Yarborough. Matthews' career as a team owner began at the 1957 Southern 500 and ended at the 1974 Southeastern 500. Matthews served as co-crew chief for Jack Ingram in 1975, with Junior Johnson, he is best known, for having constructed many cars in the 1970s and 1980s, including 72% of the winning cars in the top NASCAR division from 1974 to 1985.
He was inducted in the International Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1998. Banjo Matthews driver statistics at Racing-Reference Banjo Matthews owner statistics at Racing-Reference Banjo Matthews crew chief statistics at Racing-Reference