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Bioenergy

Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. Biomass is any organic material; as a fuel it may include wood, wood waste and other crop residues, manure and many other by-products from a variety of agricultural processes. By 2010, there was 35 GW of globally installed bioenergy capacity for electricity generation, of which 7 GW was in the United States. In its most narrow sense it is a synonym to biofuel, fuel derived from biological sources. In its broader sense it includes biomass, the biological material used as a biofuel, as well as the social, economic and technical fields associated with using biological sources for energy; this is a common misconception, as bioenergy is the energy extracted from the biomass, as the biomass is the fuel and the bioenergy is the energy contained in the fuelThere is a slight tendency for the word bioenergy to be favoured in Europe compared with biofuel in America. One of the advantages of biomass fuel is that it is a by-product, residue or waste-product of other processes, such as farming, animal husbandry and forestry.

In theory this means there is no competition between fuel and food production, although this is not always the case. Land use, existing biomass industries and relevant conversion technologies must be considered when evaluating suitability of developing biomass as feedstock for energy. Biomass is the material derived from living organisms, which includes plants and their byproducts. Manure, garden waste and crop residues are all sources of biomass, it is a renewable energy source based on the carbon cycle, unlike other natural resources such as petroleum and nuclear fuels. Another source includes Animal waste, a persistent and unavoidable pollutant produced by the animals housed in industrial-sized farms. There are agricultural products being grown for biofuel production; these include corn, soybeans and to some extent willow and switchgrass on a pre-commercial research level in the United States. Hemp has been proven to work as a biofuel. Biodegradable outputs from industry, agriculture and households can be used for biofuel production, using e.g. anaerobic digestion to produce biogas, gasification to produce syngas or by direct combustion.

Examples of biodegradable wastes include straw, manure, rice husks and food waste. The use of biomass fuels can therefore contribute to waste management as well as fuel security and help to prevent or slow down climate change, although alone they are not a comprehensive solution to these problems. Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Rotting garbage, agricultural and human waste, all release methane gas—also called "landfill gas" or "biogas." Crops, such as corn and sugar cane, can be fermented to produce ethanol. Biodiesel, another transportation fuel, can be produced from left-over food products like vegetable oils and animal fats. Biomass to liquids and cellulosic ethanol are still under research; the use of municipal and household waste is on the forefront of new sources for biomass, is a discarded resource on which new research is being conducted for use of energy production. A new bioenergy sewage treatment process aimed at developing countries is now on the horizon.

Sewage sludge is a point of focus in current research for developing bioenergy from biomass. The large quantity being produced by households at a continuous rate presents an opportunity to extract valuable compounds contained within it which can be used to produce bioenergy; the main form of bioenergy being produced from sewage is methane, but producing other forms is still being researched. The use of sewage to produce methane reduces the amount of waste put into landfills, its costs of transportation and disposal, keeps a larger amount of gas out of the atmosphere, as more is able to be captured.. The biomass used for electricity production ranges by region. Forest byproducts, such as wood residues, are popular in the United States. Agricultural waste is common in Southeast Asia. Animal husbandry residues, such as poultry litter, is popular in the UK. Sucrose accounts for little more than 30% of the chemical energy stored in the mature plant; the production process of sugar and ethanol in takes full advantage of the energy stored in sugarcane.

Part of the bagasse is burned at the mill to provide heat for distillation and electricity to run the machinery. This allows ethanol plants to be energetically self-sufficient and sell surplus electricity to utilities; this secondary activity is expected to boom now that utilities have been induced to pay "fair price " for 10 year contracts. This is half of what the World Bank considers the reference price for investing in similar projects; the energy is valuable to utilities because it is produced in the

Climate Commission

The Climate Commission was an independent body established in 2011 by the Federal Government of Australia to communicate "reliable and authoritative information" about climate change in Australia. Abolished by the newly elected LNP government led by Prime Minister Tony Abbott in September 2013, it was relaunched as an independent non-profit organisation called the Climate Council; the Climate Commission was announced by the Gillard Labor Government in February 2011. The chief commissioner was Professor Tim Flannery, other commissioners included Professor Veena Sahajwalla, Professor Lesley Hughes, Professor Will Steffen, Roger Beale, Gerry Hueston; the Commission was projected to cost $5.4 million over four years. The Commission released a number of reports on climate change science, health impacts, international action and renewable energy, as well as holding public events around Australia; the Critical Decade, the Commission's first report, summarised the current state of climate science, the impacts and the urgency for action.

The report found: "...the global climate is changing and humanity is surely the dominant cause. The risks have never been clearer and the case for action has never been more urgent."The third and final chapter of the report uses a budget approach to estimate the level of greenhouse gas emissions reductions required to keep global temperature below 2 degrees. The budget approach looks at the amount of additional greenhouse gas emissions over a period and calculates the likelihood of a particular temperature rise. For example, to have a 75% change of keeping temperature increase to below 2 degrees, the world can emit no more that 1000 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide between 2000 and 2050; the report was reviewed favourably by leading Australian climate scientists, including Professor David Karoly, Professor Ove Hoegh-Guldberg and Professor Steven Sherwood. The Climate Commission was abolished in September 2013 by the newly elected Abbott Liberal Government, as a stated streamlining and cost-cutting measure.

Less than a week the Commission was relaunched as an independent non-profit organisation called the Climate Council, to be funded by public donations

William Hone (cricketer)

William Hone was an Irish cricketer. A right-handed batsman, he played eleven times for the Ireland cricket team between 1861 and 1878 and played nine first-class matches for the MCC. Hone made his debut for Ireland in September 1861, he played against the Irish military the following month, against the MCC in May 1862 and against I Zingari in September 1863, before beginning his first-class career. He made his first-class debut for the MCC in July 1864, he next played for them against Oxford University and Surrey in 1866. In 1867, he played three matches for the MCC, against Cambridge University, Oxford University and Surrey, he scored 76 in the first innings of the match against Oxford University, his highest first-class score. He played against Cambridge University for Southgate in a first-class match that year, he returned to the Irish side in September 1867. He played another first-class match for the MCC, against England at Lord's in June 1868 and three days played against the MCC for Ireland on the same ground, during which he took 4/20, his best bowling figures for Ireland.

He followed this with a match against I Zingari, scoring 91 in the Irish innings, his only half-century for Ireland. He played four more times for Ireland, three times against I Zingari and once against the MCC, his last Irish game coming in August 1878 against I Zingari, he played one more first-class match for the MCC, against Cambridge University in June 1877. In first-class cricket, Hone scored 266 runs at an average of 20.46 and took three wickets at an average of 21.33. In matches for Ireland, he scored 274 runs at an average of 17.12 and took eight wickets at an average of 9.62. Hone came from a cricketing family, his brother Nathaniel played for Ireland, as did another brother Leland who played Test cricket for England. Three of his cousins, William and Jeffery played for Ireland as did his son Pat