A biofuel is a fuel, produced through contemporary processes from biomass, rather than a fuel produced by the slow geological processes involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as oil. Since biomass technically can be used as a fuel directly, some people use the terms biomass and biofuel interchangeably. More than not however, the word biomass denotes the biological raw material the fuel is made of, or some form of thermally/chemically altered solid end product, like torrefied pellets or briquettes; the word biofuel is reserved for liquid or gaseous fuels, used for transportation. The EIA follow this naming practice. If the biomass used in the production of biofuel can regrow the fuel is considered to be a form of renewable energy. Biofuels can be produced from plants, or from agricultural, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. Renewable biofuels involve contemporary carbon fixation, such as those that occur in plants or microalgae through the process of photosynthesis; some argue that biofuel can be carbon-neutral because all biomass crops sequester carbon to a certain extent – all crops move CO2 from above-ground circulation to below-ground storage in the roots and the surrounding soil.
For instance, McCalmont et al. found below-ground carbon accumulation ranging from 0.42 to 3.8 tonnes per hectare per year for soils below Miscanthus x giganteus energy crops, with a mean accumulation rate of 1.84 tonne, or 20% of total harvested carbon per year. However, the simple proposal that biofuel is carbon-neutral by definition has been superseded by the more nuanced proposal that for a particular biofuel project to be carbon neutral, the total carbon sequestered by the energy crop's root system must compensate for all the above-ground emissions; this includes any emissions caused by indirect land use change. Many first generation biofuel projects are not carbon neutral given these demands; some have higher total GHG emissions than some fossil based alternatives. Some are carbon neutral or negative, though perennial crops; the amount of carbon sequestrated and the amount of GHG emitted will determine if the total GHG life cycle cost of a biofuel project is positive, neutral or negative.
A carbon negative life cycle is possible if the total below-ground carbon accumulation more than compensates for the total life-cycle GHG emissions above ground. In other words, to achieve carbon neutrality yields should be high and emissions should be low. High-yielding energy crops are thus prime candidates for carbon neutrality; the graphic on the right displays two CO2 negative Miscanthus x giganteus production pathways, represented in gram CO2-equivalents per megajoule. The yellow diamonds represent mean values. Further, successful sequestration is dependent on planting sites, as the best soils for sequestration are those that are low in carbon; the varied results displayed in the graph highlights this fact. For the UK, successful sequestration is expected for arable land over most of England and Wales, with unsuccessful sequestration expected in parts of Scotland, due to carbon rich soils plus lower yields. Soils rich in carbon includes peatland and mature forest. Grassland can be carbon rich, however Milner et al. argues that the most successful carbon sequestration in the UK takes place below improved grasslands.
The bottom graphic displays the estimated yield necessary to compensate for related lifecycle GHG-emissions. The higher the yield, the more CO2 negativity becomes; the two most common types of biofuel are biodiesel. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn, sugarcane, or sweet sorghum. Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as trees and grasses, is being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is used in the United States and in Brazil. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe, it can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. In 2018, worldwide biofuel production reached 152 billion liters, up 7% from 2017, biofuels provided 3% of the world's fuels for road transport.
The International Energy Agency want biofuels to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050, in order to reduce dependency on petroleum. However, the production and consumption of biofuels are not on track to meet the IEA's sustainable development scenario. From 2020 to 2030 global biofuel output has to increase by 10% each year to reach IEA's goal. Only 3% growth annually is expected. Here are some various social, economic and technical issues relating to biofuels production and use, which have been debated in the popular media and scientific journals. "First-generation" or conventional biofuels are biofuels made from food crops grown on arable land. With this biofuel production generation, food crops are thus explicitly grown for fuel production, not anything else; the sugar, starch, or vegetable oil obtained from the crops is converted into biodiesel or ethanol, using transesterification, or yeast fermentation. Second generation biofuels ar
Jeanne Munn Bracken is an American author and a retired librarian. She is known for her non-fiction work, including Children With Cancer: A Comprehensive Reference Guide for Parents. Bracken graduated from the University of New Hampshire in 1968 with a major in German Language and Literature and a minor in Speech and Drama, she earned her masters in Library Science from Simmons College in 1971. Bracken went on to work at the UNH Dimond Library, at the Boston University School of Medicine Library, at the Research Library at Arthur D. Little, Inc. at the Acton Memorial Library, at the Lincoln Public Library. Bracken retired as a librarian in 2006. Bracken's daughter, was diagnosed and treated for cancer when she was a child. During this time, Bracken researched cancer. Bracken's guide, Children With Cancer: A Comprehensive Reference Guide for Parents was called "Highly recommended" by Library Journal in 2010; the Journal of the Medical Library Association wrote that the format of the book "works well" and that the references in the book are excellent.
The Journal wrote that it is "an essential part of the collection of pediatric hospital libraries."Library Journal reviewed the 1986 edition and said Bracken gave "Good, clear overall coverage" of the topic. The Los Angeles Times wrote "Her perceptive suggestions help the reader calm the small child, afraid of yet another need, aid the angry adolescent with a puffy face and bald head, give the exhausted parent permission to take the night off." Life in the American Colonies: Daily Lifestyles of the Early Settlers. Carlisle, Massachusetts: Discovery Enterprises. 1995. ISBN 9780613188906. Iron Horses Across America: The Transcontinental Railroad. Carlisle, Massachusetts: Discovery Enterprises. 1995. ISBN 9781878668363. Life in the Southern Colonies: Jamestown, Williamsburg, St. Mary's City and Beyond. Carlisle, Massachusetts: Discovery Enterprises. 1997. ISBN 9780613188920. American Waterways: Canal Days. Carlisle, Massachusetts: Discovery Enterprises. 1997. ISBN 9781878668752; the Orphan Trains. with JoAnne Weisman Deitch.
Carlisle, Massachusetts: Discovery Enterprises. 2002. ISBN 9781579600846. CS1 maint: others Someday We'll Laugh About This. Littleton, Massachusetts: Molisa Press. 2005. ISBN 9780976212508. Women in the American Revolution. Boston: History Compass. 2009. ISBN 9781932663235. Children With Cancer: A Comprehensive Reference Guide for Parents. New York: Oxford University Press. 2010. ISBN 9780195147391. Best Editorial, Massachusetts Press Association Best Feature article Best column Best column: National Press Association Excellence in Cancer Communications New York Times Librarian Award, 2005 Official site
Gustavo Giussani is a former professional tennis player from Argentina. Nicknamed "Pancho", Salta born Giussani was based in Cordoba. In 1988 he won Challenger titles in Bogota, his best performance on the international circuit came in the doubles at the 1989 Athens Open. He partnered with countryman Gerardo Mirad to finish runners-up, to Tomáš Šmíd. In singles that year he made the quarter-finals at a Grand Prix event in Saint Vincent and had a win over Guillermo Vilas in a Cairo Challenger tournament, he now works as a tennis talent scout. Gustavo Giussani at the Association of Tennis Professionals Gustavo Giussani at the International Tennis Federation