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Biogas

Biogas is the mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, municipal waste, plant material, green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source. In India, it is known as "Gobar Gas". Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with methanogen or anaerobic organisms, which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials; this closed system is called biodigester or a bioreactor. Biogas is methane and carbon dioxide and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes; the gases methane and carbon monoxide can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel, it can be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat. Biogas can be compressed, the same way as natural gas is compressed to CNG, used to power motor vehicles. In the United Kingdom, for example, biogas is estimated to have the potential to replace around 17% of vehicle fuel.

It qualifies for renewable energy subsidies in some parts of the world. Biogas can be upgraded to natural gas standards, when it becomes bio-methane. Biogas is considered to be a renewable resource because its production-and-use cycle is continuous, it generates no net carbon dioxide; as the organic material grows, it is used. It regrows in a continually repeating cycle. From a carbon perspective, as much carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere in the growth of the primary bio-resource as is released, when the material is converted to energy. Biogas is produced by microorganisms, such as methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria, performing anaerobic respiration. Biogas can refer to gas produced or industrially. In soil, methane is produced in anaerobic zones environments by methanogens, but is consumed in aerobic zones by methanotrophs. Methane emissions result. Wetland soils are the main natural source of methane. Other sources include oceans, forest soils and wild ruminants; the purpose of industrial biogas production is the collection of biomethane for fuel.

Industrial biogas is produced either. A biogas plant is the name given to an anaerobic digester that treats farm wastes or energy crops, it can be produced using anaerobic digesters. These plants can be fed with energy crops such as maize silage or biodegradable wastes including sewage sludge and food waste. During the process, the micro-organisms transform biomass waste into biogas and digestate. Higher quantities of biogas can be produced when the wastewater is co-digested with other residuals from the dairy industry, sugar industry, or brewery industry. For example, while mixing 90% of wastewater from beer factory with 10% cow whey, the production of biogas was increased by 2.5 times compared to the biogas produced by wastewater from the brewery only. There are two key processes: mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, dependent on temperature. In experimental work at University of Alaska Fairbanks, a 1000-litre digester using psychrophiles harvested from "mud from a frozen lake in Alaska" has produced 200–300 liters of methane per day, about 20%–30% of the output from digesters in warmer climates.

The air pollution produced by biogas is similar to that of natural gas. The content of toxic hydrogen sulfide presents additional risks and has been responsible for serious accidents. Leaks of unburned methane are an additional risk. Biogas can be explosive. Special safety precautions have to be taken for entering an empty biogas digester for maintenance work, it is important. Negative gas pressure can occur if too much gas is leaked. Frequent smell checks must be performed on a biogas system. If biogas is smelled anywhere windows and doors should be opened immediately. If there is a fire the gas should be shut off at the gate valve of the biogas system. Landfill gas is produced by wet organic waste decomposing under anaerobic conditions in a similar way to biogas; the waste is covered and mechanically compressed by the weight of the material, deposited above. This material prevents oxygen exposure thus allowing anaerobic microbes to thrive. Biogas builds up and is released into the atmosphere if the site has not been engineered to capture the gas.

Landfill gas released in an uncontrolled way can be hazardous since it can become explosive when it escapes from the landfill and mixes with oxygen. The lower explosive limit is 5% methane and the upper is 15% methane; the methane in biogas is 28 times more potent a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Therefore, uncontained landfill gas, which escapes into the atmosphere may contribute to the effects of global warming. In addition, volatile organic compounds in landfill gas contribute to the formation of photochemical smog. Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the amount of oxygen required by aerobic micro-organisms to decompose the

Liar (Camila Cabello song)

"Liar" is a song by Cuban-American singer Camila Cabello. It was released the same day as "Shameless" on September 5, 2019, as one of the double lead singles from her sophomore studio album Romance; the song was written by Cabello, Alexandra Tamposi, Andrew Wotman, Jonathan Bellion, Jordan Johnson and Stefan Johnson. Songwriting credits were given to Lionel Richie and Ace of Base members Jenny Berggren, Jonas Berggren, Malin Berggren and Ulf Ekberg due to interpolations of "All Night Long" and "All That She Wants", it was produced by The Monsters and the Strangerz and Bellion. The song achieved moderate success internationally. Commercially, the song has topped the charts in Poland while reaching the top 10 in Bulgaria, Lithuania and Venezuela, the top 20 in Belgium, Estonia, Hungary, Ireland, Malaysia, Singapore and Slovenia. On September 1, 2019, Cabello took to social media to upload a teaser of her second project called Romance; the first installment was announced to premiere on September 5, 2019.

Cabello uploaded several pictures of the cover art being revealed and presented in a museum-type of room in the days after. The official cover art of the song was unveiled September 4, 2019. "Liar" contains elements of flamenco and Latin trap, a ska-pop chorus. It was written by Camila Cabello, Alexandra Tamposi, Andrew Wotman, Jonathan Bellion, Jordan Johnson, Stefan Johnson, Jenny Berggren, Jonas Berggren, Malin Berggren, Ulf Ekberg and Lionel Richie, produced by Wotman, The Monsters and the Strangerz and Bellion. "Liar" runs for twenty-seven seconds. In terms of music notation, "Liar" was composed using 44 common time in the key of B minor. According to the sheet music published at Musicnotes.com by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Cabello's vocal range spans from the low note F#3 to the high note of F#5, giving the song a two octave vocal range. Jon Pareles of The New York Times wrote in his review, "'Liar' is a canny pan-Caribbean and Spanish mélange; as she sings about how a certain kiss makes her lose control despite herself —'Clothes are on the floor,' she notes at the end — the ultra-canny track segues from mariachi horns to the stark electronics of Latin trap to flamenco handclaps to a ska-pop chorus: border-hopping at the speed of pop."

Cabello performed the song live at the 2019 iHeartRadio Music Festival, at a private fan concert hosted by Verizon. She performed the song on The Graham Norton Show on October 25, 2019. Cabello shared a 26-second preview of the music video on September 11, 2019, through social media and stated "literally most fun video I've made." It was directed by Dave Meyers and released on September 12, 2019. As of February 2020, it has over 1.8 million likes on YouTube. "Liar" is a mini movie, features a fictional romantic love triangle, with Cabello playing herself and La Flaca, the hostress of Tea Time with La Flaca, Gordita y Tammy, a fictional television show, while Zak Steiner plays Reese Kensington, Keiynan Lonsdale plays "the busboy." It stars Nataliz Jimenez as Gordita and Chelsea Brea as Tammy. The video begins with Camila Cabello at an outdoor restaurant with her suave-talking fiancé, who only sees her as his trophy wife, she starts to show feelings towards a restaurant waiter, who accidentally spills red wine that leaves a heart-shaped stain.

However, Cabello begins to be placed in a Groundhog Day-style time loop where she wakes up and repeats the same date scenario with her fiancé after dying in various accidents which become more surreal. These include choking to death, getting crushed by a falling elephant, run over by a horde of bicyclists, being swarmed by drones, inadvertently burning down her fiancé's mansion, she is taken away by the Truth Police to be placed on a polygraph, while wearing a straitjacket. Cabello professes her love to the waiter, as she wakes up the next day in a different house and holds a digitally animated bird breaking out of the time loop. In the closing moments of the video, a TV in the room plays a sensationalist TV show played near the start of the video; the three fictionalized hosts start conversing about her recent break-up and mock her dating choices, as Cabello reaches for the remote and turns the TV off. Althea Legaspi, who writes for Rolling Stone, stated that, "Mirroring the song's lyrics about falling for someone, despite being in continual denial about those feelings, the visual sees Cabello reliving a number of scenes that get progressively more ridiculous and humorous as she tries to escape her conflicting emotions."Patrick Hosken of MTV News penned, "'Liar,' is cinematic in scope — the pink shot of Cabello amid a sea of flamingos is downright dazzling — and features Cabello playing a gossipy TV host.

As the slapstick drama heightens, Cabello has a lot of fun playing someone more unhinged." Credits adapted from Tidal. List of number-one singles of 2019 List of number-one singles of 2020

Atwell Mill Grove

Atwell Mill Grove is a giant sequoia grove in the east fork of the Kaweah watershed area in California. Can be accessed via the Mineral King Road which branches off California State Route 198 below the south entrance to Sequoia National Park; the grove is located about 1.5 miles west of the community of Silver City and 19 miles from the junction of highway 198. The road into this section of the part is difficult. Atwell Mill Campground, on East Fork of the Kaweah River, is located in part of the grove, logged before the trees were protected. Atwell Mill was at one time a lumber mill; some of the trees found in the grove that are worthy of special note are: Diamond: This tree is on a steep slope, is taller than average at 290 feet. It's the largest tree of the grove. Above Diamond: This tree is just above the Diamond Tree, the main trunk is thick. Dean Tree: 32,333 cubic feet in volume, gives this tree a rank inside the top 30 giant sequoias in the world. Arm Tree: The largest known limb of any tree in the world belongs to this tree at around 12 feet in diameter.

Known as the "Big Limb Tree". List of giant sequoia groves List of superlative trees Mineral King Silver City, California

2008 Sidecarcross World Championship

The 2008 FIM Sidecarcross world championship, the 29th edition of the competition, started on 20 April and finished after twelve race weekends on 14 September 2008. Daniël Willemsen and Reto Grütter were the defending champions, having won the title in 2007, repeated this achievement in 2008; the 2008 season was the 29th edition of the sidecarcross world championship. The twelve races of the season were held in ten countries, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Germany, Belgium, Estonia and Denmark. After 17 seasons in the Sidecarcross World Championship, five-time World Champion Kristers Sergis announced his retirement from the competition, finishing his career with a second place in the 2008 edition; every Grand Prix weekend is split into two races. This means, the 2008 season with its twelve Grand Prix has 24 races; each race lasts for 30 minutes plus two rounds. The two races on a weekend get combined to determine an overall winner. While this overall winners receives no extra WC points, they are awarded a special trophy.

The first twenty teams of each race score competition points. The point system for the 2008 season is as follows: The calendar for the 2008 season: The Sidecarcross des Nations in Genk on 28 September 2008 is a non-championship event but part of the calendar and is denoted by a light blue background in the table above. Only Kegums and Rudersberg have been part of the 2007 race season, all other ten courses are new compare to last season; the top ten of the 2008 season were: Equipment listed is motor and frame. Parallel to the riders championship, a manufacturers competition is held; the final standings in the manufacturers competition were: The numbers for every team are allocated according to their 2007 season finish, meaning the world champion received number one and so on. The numbers for drivers not participating this season were not re-allocated. New entries received a random number above the number 48, the last place achieved by a driver in the points in 2007; this system makes it possible to see a driver's improvement or decline from last year by comparing number with position.

The following teams have taken part in races this season: Where there is only one flag shown, it indicates driver and passenger are from the same country. Placings below the first twenty not shown. Teams who took part in the qualifying but failed to qualify for a race are not shown. X denotes finished outside of points. Passengers in italics. Equipment is frame. Daniël Willemsen used Bruno Kaelin as his passenger in the first two races. Jarno van den Boomen used Guennady Auvrey as his passenger in race one and two, Premysl Novotny in race three and four and Sven Verbrugge in race five and six. Thijs Derks used Tom van Duijnhoven as his passenger in two. Nicky Pulinx used Sven Verbrugge as his passenger in race one to four. Stuart Brown used Wilfreid Keuben as his passenger in race one and two and Colin Dunkley in race seven to ten. Patrick Greup used Jimmy van Gennip as his passenger in two. Martin Walter used Thomas Weinmann as his passenger in race 23 and 24. Only 30 teams registered in time for the Jinin race, therefore every team qualified for the race.

1 In race fourteen of the season, the team Willemsen/Grütter was disqualified due to Grütter losing a glove, after a protest by Kristers Sergis. The lost glove disabled the emergency-stop system of the bike, a break of FIM rules. 2 In race twenty of the season, the team Sergis/Stupelis was disqualified after winning the race due to the team mechanic refusing an inspection of the bike. The bike did not comply with noise level regulations; the World Championship on Sidecarcross.com The John Davey Grand Prix Pages – Results of all GP's up until 2005 FIM Sidecar Motocross World Championship 2010

Juozas Gabrys

Juozas Gabrys or Juozas Gabrys-Paršaitis was a Lithuanian politician and diplomat, best remembered for his efforts to popularize the idea of Lithuania's independence in the West during World War I. Juozas Gabrys was born on February 22, 1880 in the town of Garliava, near the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, he went to the Garliava primary school starting at the age of seven. He graduated with a law degree from the University of Odessa in 1907. Gabrys was a secretary of the Great Seimas of Vilnius during the 1905 Russian Revolution, he went into exile in 1907 to Paris. There, in 1911, he founded the Lithuanian Information Bureau. In 1912, he founded the Union des Nationalités; these two organizations supplied European powers with information on Lithuania and other exploited European countries that crusaded for human rights and freedom. In 1915, Gabrys moved from Paris to Switzerland, he started a campaign of political activities and held the first Lithuanian conferences during World War I to obtain freedom for Lithuania.

His campaigns were financed by Lithuanian immigrants of the United States and the German Foreign Ministry. He published articles in more than fifty European newspapers for his campaigns, sometimes bribing editors to get them through, his greatest success in organization was the Congress of Nationalities held in Switzerland in 1916 with 400 representatives from 23 nationalities. According to Alfred E. Senn, "Gabrys was undoubtedly the best known Lithuanian political figure on the European scene before 1916." During the time period of World War I, Gabrys hoped to secure independence for Lithuania. He communicated the cruel treatment the Lithuanians were receiving from the German military when they were occupying Lithuania to the French authorities, he called upon the Allies of World War I for assisting against German occupation. Gabrys involved the Vatican in a worldwide collection of millions of Swiss francs for Lithuanian victims of war, which ended up in his personal bank accounts, he labelled himself "Count of Garlawa" in his memoirs.

When the new Lithuanian government started at the end of 1918, Gabrys was not a political participant because of his disagreements with the government officials. Because of his German government contacts during World War I, he "became an unperson" in Lithuanian history despite his efforts to liberate the country. In 1919, with the help of the French, Gabrys unsuccessfully attempted to get a Lithuanian government position. From that point on, he dabbled in Lithuanian politics. In retirement, he became a gentleman-farmer in Switzerland. Gabrys died on 26 July 1951 at Corsier-sur-Vevey in Switzerland. Gabrys is the only leading Lithuanian liberation political advocate during World War I to write his memoirs in a Western language, his works include: Gabrys, Juozas. La nation lithuanienne. Paris: Imprimerie de la Cour d'Appel. Retrieved 2014-06-11. Gabrys, J.. Carte Ethnographique de L'Europe 1918. Lausanne: Institut geographique Kummerly and Fray, Berne. Gabrys-Paršaitis, Juozas. Tautos sargyboj. Egzodo archyvas.

Vilnius: Versus aureus. ISBN 995569954X. Demm, Eberhard. Auf Wache für die Nation: Erinnerungen: der Weltkriegsagent Juozas Gabrys berichtet. ISBN 9783653031485. Retrieved 2014-06-10. Senn, Alfred Erich. Jonas Basanavičius: The Patriarch of the Lithuanian National Renaissance. East European Biography Series. Newtonville, Mass: Oriental Research Papers. P. 53. ISBN 0-89250-251-7. Smele, Jonathan; the Russian Revolution and Civil War 1917-1921: An Annotated Bibliography. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4411-1992-6. Tucker, Spencer C.. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political and Military History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2. Works by or about Juozas Gabrys at Internet Archive

Ego the Living Planet

Ego the Living Planet is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character first was created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby. Kurt Russell portrayed the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2. This version was reimagined as a Celestial, Peter Quill’s father. Ego the Living Planet was introduced in The Mighty Thor #132, was created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby. Ego was created by Kirby during a phase. Ego, the alien Kree, The Colonizers followed the creation of Galactus, thus establishing Marvel Comics' own "space age mythology"; as Kirby recalled in 1969, shortly after the character's debut, Ego's genesis came when: I began to experiment...and that's how Ego came about.... A planet, alive; that was nothing new either because there had been other stories live planets but that's not acceptable.... Ou would say,'Yeah, that's wild,' but how do you relate to it? Why is it alive? So I felt somewhere out in the universe, the universe... becomes denser and turns liquid — and that in this liquid, there was a giant multiple virus, if remained isolated for millions and millions of years, it would... begin to evolve by itself and it would begin to think.

By the time we reached it, it might be quite superior to us — and, Ego. Ego returned as a protagonist in Thor #160–161, made a guest appearance in #201, his origin is explored in Thor #228. Following appearances in Fantastic Four #234–235 and Rom #69, Ego had a recurring role in Silver Surfer vol, 3 #4–22; the character returned in the 1991 Thor annual and issues #448–450. Ego played a prominent role in the company-wide crossover storyline "Maximum Security", appearing in Avengers #35; the character returned in Nova vol 4 #20–30 and Astonishing Thor #1–5. Ego the Living Planet appeared in the Oni Press Color Special. Ego once told Thor that his existence was the result of a scientist merging with a planet when that planet's sun went nova. Ego began absorbing space vessels and planets to survive, planned to produce armies of Anti-bodies to conquer worlds across the universe; this behavior attracted the attention of the Rigellian Colonizers, who feared that the nearby Ego would consume their home world.

They recruited Thor, to defeat Ego. Accompanied by a Rigellian Recorder, Thor stunned him with a powerful storm. Feeling humiliated by his defeat, Ego vowed never to leave the Black Galaxy and renounced his plans of conquest. Several months a weakened Galactus invaded Ego's space and sought to replenish his energy by consuming Ego. Thor drove Galactus off. In gratitude, Ego allowed its surface to become the new home of the Wanderers; the Rigellian Tana Nile took a sample of Ego's form, in the hope that this could be used to fertilize sterile worlds being considered for habitation. However, this act drives Ego insane, it soon gives in to its primordial urges and absorbs the Wanderers, which causes Thor to side with a returning Galactus. Assisted by ally and Galactus's herald, Thor holds Ego off until Galactus attaches a massive starship engine to Ego's south pole, which drives the planet through space and thereby prevents it from being a threat to other planets and populated sections of the universe.

Years Ego gains control of the engine and tracks Galactus to Earth, seeking vengeance. Unable to locate him, Ego attacks Earth, he causes massive destruction, undone by a reality-altering mutant. The Fantastic Four attempted to defeat Ego by removing the power cell from one of the attached propulsion engines, which the Thing attempts to throw into Ego's "brain". In response, an angered Ego attempts to counter with his remaining engines but, with one engine now deactivated, the other propels the now-out-of-control planet into the Sun, its gravitational pull breaking apart Ego's substance. Ego, however reforms from a few surviving particles and repairs the propulsion unit. Ego digests a number of Dire Wraiths to replenish its energy reserves, battles the Spaceknight Rom. Ego joins the Elders of the Universe in a plan to destroy Galactus. Ego is sidelined before the confrontation. Ego subsequently attempts to consume his energies. Ego fights the hero, Beta Ray Bill. Ego reveals to Bill that Galactus's propulsion unit is driving Ego mad, the fleet subsequently destroys the propulsion unit.

A sentient bio-verse described as "Super-Ego" begins to consume Ego, but Ego escapes. Driven mad by the Supreme Intelligence, Ego lashes out at other planets, destroying them while trying to'awaken' others like itself, until it is defeated in a battle with Professor X, the Silver Surfer and Cadre K. Ego is subsequently captured and sent to Earth as an "infant" in spore form; as Ego grows, it begins to consume the Earth, with the Supreme Intelligence intending to allow it to grow so that the Kree can take control of Ego and use it as a weapon against the rest of the universe. Quasar absorbs it to prevent this; when Quasar dies during