A biologist is a professional who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, understanding the underlying mechanisms that govern the functioning of biological systems within fields such as health and the environment. Biologists involved in fundamental research attempt to explore and further explain the underlying mechanisms that govern the functioning of living matter. Biologists involved in applied research attempt to develop or improve more specific processes and understanding, in fields such as medicine and industry. Biologists are interested in understanding the underlying mechanisms that govern the functioning of living matter as well as the complex properties that emerge from the biophysical, biochemical and systemic interactions of living systems. Biologists conduct research using the scientific method to test the validity of a theory in a rational and reproducible manner; this consists of hypothesis formation and data analysis to establish the validity or invalidity of a scientific theory.

There are different types of biologists. Theoretical biologists use mathematical methods and develop models to understand phenomena and ideally predict future experimental results, while experimental biologists conceive experiments to test those predictions; some biologists work on microorganisms. Some investigate the nano or micro-scale, others emergent properties such as ecological interactions or cognition. There is much overlap between different fields of biology and due to the interdisciplinary nature of the field it is difficult to classify a life scientist as only one of them. Many biological scientists work in development; some conduct fundamental research to advance human knowledge of life. Furthermore, applied biological research aids the development of solutions to problems in areas such as human health and the natural environment. Biological scientists work in government and private industry laboratories. Biologists who work in basic research formulate theories and devise experiments to advance human knowledge on life including topics such as evolution, molecular biology and cell biology.

Biological scientists who work in applied research use instead the accomplishments gained by basic research to further knowledge in particular fields or applications. For example, this applied research may be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs and medical diagnostic tests. Biological scientists conducting applied research and product development in private industry may be required to describe their research plans or results to non-scientists who are in a position to veto or approve their ideas; these scientists must consider the business effects of their work. While theoretical biologists work in "dry" labs, formulating mathematical models and running computer simulations, some experimental biologists conduct laboratory experiments involving animals, microorganisms or biomolecules. However, a small part of experimental biological research occurs outside the laboratory and may involve natural observation rather than experimentation. For example, a botanist may investigate the plant species present in a particular environment, while an ecologist might study how a forest area recovers after a fire.

Swift advances in knowledge of genetics and organic molecules spurred growth in the field of biotechnology, transforming the industries in which biological scientists work. Biological scientists can now manipulate the genetic material of animals and plants, attempting to make organisms more productive or resistant to disease. Basic and applied research on biotechnological processes, such as recombining DNA, has led to the production of important substances, including human insulin and growth hormone. Many other substances not available in large quantities are now produced by biotechnological means; some of these substances are useful in treating diseases. Those working on various genome projects determine their function; this work continues to lead to the discovery of genes associated with specific diseases and inherited health risks, such as sickle cell anemia. Advances in biotechnology have created research opportunities in all areas of biology, with commercial applications in areas such as medicine and environmental remediation.

Most biological scientists specialize in the study of a certain type of organism or in a specific activity, although recent advances have blurred some traditional classifications. Geneticists study genetics, the science of genes and variation of organisms. Neuroscientists study the nervous system. Developmental biologists study the process of development and growth of organisms Biochemists study the chemical composition of living things, they analyze the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism and growth. Molecular biologists study the biological activity between biomolecules. Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Physiologists study life functions of plants and animals, in the whole organism and at the cellular or molecular level, under normal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists specialize in functions such as growth, photosynthesis, respiration, or movement, or in the physiology of a certain area or system of the organism.

Biophysicists use experimental methods traditionally employed in physics to answer biological questions. Computational Biologists apply the techniques of computer science, applied mathematics and statis

Monk McDonald

Angus Morris "Monk" McDonald was an American college athlete, a head coach for the North Carolina Tar Heels men's basketball team, a urologist. He is best known for his time as a college athlete playing football and baseball for the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is considered the best all-around college athlete to attend the University of North Carolina. For his collegiate and coaching career, he was inducted in the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame. Monk McDonald was born as Angus Morris McDonald on February 21, 1901, in Charlotte, North Carolina to Angus Morris, Sr. and Ann Howard McDonald. Monk McDonald's father, Angus Morris Sr. was the founder of the Southern Real Estate Company and was a chairman on the Mecklenburg County Board of Commissioners. McDonald attended Charlotte High School and Fishburne Military School before attending the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. While at North Carolina, McDonald, 5 feet, 7 inches, played quarterback on the football team, guard on the men's basketball team, shortstop on the baseball team.

McDonald lettered in all three sports for all four years. He is considered the best all-around athlete in North Carolina sports history. McDonald won the first Patterson Medal, the most prestigious award for student-athletes at the University of North Carolina, for his collegiate career in 1924. McDonald lettered in football for the four years. McDonald most successful season in football came in 1922 when, as quarterback, he led North Carolina to a 9–1 record and led North Carolina to a first place standing in the Southern Conference. During one game that season, McDonald had a kickoff return of 95 yards against in-state rival NC State, the ninth longest kickoff return in North Carolina football history. During his baseball career, McDonald batted over.300 and helped his team to 19 wins and only two losses during the 1922 season. McDonald was good enough to be considered a prospective professional baseball player. McDonald first played for North Carolina under head coach Fred Boye for the 1920–21 season, during this season North Carolina earned a 12–8 record.

After the 1920–21 season, North Carolina was without a head coach for two years after Boye left the team. During the 1921–22 season, North Carolina played its first season in the Southern Conference, gained a 15–6 record, won the first Southern Conference Tournament. McDonald was named all-Southern Conference—an award given annually to the best basketball players during the regular season in the Southern Conference division—at the end of this season. McDonald was captain of North Carolina during the 1922–23 season, he led the coachless team to a 15–1 record, which tied North Carolina for first place in the Southern Conference regular season standings. Before the start of the 1923–24 season, Norman Shepard became the head coach of North Carolina. Beside McDonald, there were several other talented players on the 1923–24 team, including senior Cartwright Carmichael, the first North Carolina All-American in any sport, Jack Cobb, who would be named to the All-American team and would have his number retired at North Carolina.

This team earned the nickname the "White Phantoms" because of their fast defense. McDonald was named all-Southern Conference and all-Southern Conference Tournament team – an award given annually to the best players in the Southern Conference basketball tournament – for his play during the 1923–24 season; the 1923–24 North Carolina team managed to win all 26 games they played that year. Because there was no national post-season tournament, the final game for North Carolina was in the Southern Conference tournament against the University of Alabama Crimson Tide. North Carolina managed to win the game 26–18; the local news reported that hundreds of students at North Carolina "waited in the streets in front of telegraph offices and cafes" for news about the game and after the victory students "went wild" and set a bonfire on the athletic field. In 1936, the Helms Athletic Foundation retroactively awarded a national championship to the 1923–24 North Carolina men's basketball team since there had been no organization to award national championships at the time.

This was the first national championship given to a North Carolina men's basketball team. After coaching North Carolina for one season, Norman Shepard went to the Far East to work as a sales manager for Liggett and Meyer tobacco company, which left the position of head coach open. Though McDonald has just graduated from North Carolina and had started to attend medical school full-time, he became the next head coach after Shepard's departure. McDonald was the first former player to become head coach of the North Carolina men's basketball team; when McDonald took over, there were still many seasoned veterans on the team including Jack Cobb. McDonald continued the team's winning streak from the previous season for the first eight games, but North Carolina lost to the Harvard Crimson basketball team, ending their 34-game winning streak. Although the team would lose another four games, North Carolina went through the regular season unbeaten when playing at its home arena, the Tin Can; that season McDonald's team managed to win the Southern Conference regular season for the second year in a row and win the Southern Conference Tournament beating Tulane University in the finals, which McDonald did not attend due to his medical studies.

North Carolina would end the 1924–25 season with a 20–5 record. McDonald instead focused on attending medical school. In 1926, McDonald transferred to the University

Judith Tanur

Judith M. Tanur is an American statistician and sociologist, Distinguished Teaching Professor Emerita of Sociology at Stony Brook University. Judith Tanur was born to Edward Mark and Libbie Berman Mark on August 12, 1935 in Jersey City, NJ; when Tanur was young, her family moved to Great Neck, New York. She graduated from Great Neck High School in 1953 and entered Antioch College, studying psychology and statistics there, but in 1955 she transferred to Columbia University, in part because it was closer to the University of Pennsylvania where her future husband was studying dentistry. At the same time, she took a job at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Tanur completed a bachelor's degree in psychology in 1957 and began graduate studies at Penn, but became pregnant and dropped out, she returned to graduate school, completed a master's degree in mathematical statistics from Columbia University in 1963, took a new job as an editor for William Kruskal at the International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences.

She became a lecturer at Stony Brook in 1968, still only holding a master's degree, completed her Ph. D. in sociology at Stony Brook. With S. James Press, she is the author of The Subjectivity of the Bayesian Approach. In 1980 she was elected as a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, she is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a winner of the Founder's Award of the American Statistical Association, the 2006 winner of the Geoffrey Marshall Mentoring Award of the Northeastern Association of Graduate Schools