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A bio-marker, or biological marker is a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition. Biomarkers are measured and evaluated to examine normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers are used in many scientific fields. Biomarkers used for medicine, or precision medicine, are a part of a new clinical toolset, they are categorized in 3 primary ways according to their clinical applications. They are classified as cellular biomarkers or imaging biomarkers. All 3 types of biomarkers have a clinical role in narrowing or guiding treatment decisions and follow a sub-categorization of being either predictive, prognostic, or diagnostic. Predictive molecular, cellular, or imaging biomarkers that pass validation can serve as a method of predicting clinical outcomes. Predictive biomarkers are used to help optimize ideal treatments, indicate the likelihood of benefiting from a specific therapy. For example, molecular biomarkers situated at the interface of pathology-specific molecular process architecture and drug mechanism of action promise capturing aspects allowing assessment of an individual treatment response.

This offers a dual approach to both seeing trends in retrospective studies and using biomarkers to predict outcomes. For example, in metastatic colorectal cancer predictive biomarkers can serve as a way of evaluating and improving patient survival rates and in the individual case by case scenario, they can serve as a way of sparing patients from needless toxicity that arises from cancer treatment plans. Common examples of predictive biomarkers are genes such as ER, PR and HER2/neu in breast cancer, BCR-ABL fusion protein in chronic myeloid leukaemia, c-KIT mutations in GIST tumours and EGFR1 mutations in NSCLC. Diagnostic biomarkers; this can lead to diagnosis that are more specific to individual patients. A biomarker can be a traceable substance, introduced into an organism as a means to examine organ function or other aspects of health. For example, rubidium chloride is used as a radioactive isotope to evaluate perfusion of heart muscle, it can be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may indicate an infection.

More a biomarker indicates a change in expression or state of a protein that correlates with the risk or progression of a disease, or with the susceptibility of the disease to a given treatment. One example of a used biomarker in medicine is prostate-specific antigen; this marker can be measured as a proxy of prostate size with rapid changes indicating cancer. The most extreme case would be to detect mutant proteins as cancer specific biomarkers through Selected reaction monitoring, since mutant proteins can only come from an existing tumor, thus providing the best specificity for medical purposes. Another example is KRAS, an oncogene that encodes a GTPase involved in several signal transduction pathways. Biomarkers for precision oncology are utilized in the molecular diagnostics of chronic myeloid leukemia, colon and lung cancer, in melanoma. A prognostic biomarker provides information about the patients overall outcome, regardless of therapy. Biomarkers for precision medicine are a part of a new clinical toolset.

In the case of metastatic colorectal cancer only two predictive biomarkers have so far been identified and implemented clinically. In this case, the lack of data beyond retrospective studies and successful biomarker-driven approaches was suggested to be principal cause behind a need for novel biomarker studies within the medical field due to the severe attrition that accompanies clinical trials; the field of biomarker research is expanding to include a combinatorial approach to identifying biomarkers from multi-omic sources. Combining groups of biomarkers from various omic data allows for the possibility of developing panels that evaluate treatment response based on many biomarkers at a single time. One such area of expanding research in multi-omic biomarkers is mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA have been shown to correlate to risk and treatment response of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this example, a low cost sequencing pipeline was shown to be able to detect low frequency mutations within tumor-associated cells.

This highlights the general snapshot capability of mitochondrial DNA-based biomarkers in capturing heterogeneity amongst individuals. The Early Detection Research Network compiled a list of seven criteria by which biomarkers can be assessed in order to streamline clinical validation. Proof of concept Previously used to identify the specific characteristics of the biomarker, this step is essential for doing an in situ validation of these benefits; the biologic rationale of a study must be assessed on a small scale before any large scale studies can occur. Many candidates must be tested to select the most relevant ones. Experimental validation This step allows the development of the most adapted protocol for routine use of the biomarker, it is possible to confirm the relevance of the protocol with various methods and to define strata based on the results. Analytical performances validation One of the most important steps, it serves to identify specific characteristics of the candidate biomarker before developing a routine test.

Several parameters are considered including: sensitivity specificity robustness accuracy reproducibility practicality ethicality Protocol standardization This optimizes the validated protocol for routine use, including analysis

Todo Balita

Todo Balita is a weekly morning newscast and radio talk show in Mega Manila, Philippines aired over the Radyo Trabaho morning block of DZXL every Saturdays from 10:00 am to noon. The show is anchored by Neil Ocampo, billed in the country as the Total News-Tertainer, a newscaster with an exceptional entertaining caliber, which he remains until the present. Prior to 1996 and the various installments of Todo Balita, Ocampo was an evening anchor for his eponymous "Oh Yes! It's Neil Ocampo!" on DZMM. Todo Arangkada aired every Mondays to Fridays from 10am to 12nn and every Saturdays from 10am to 11am. Todo Arangkada deviated itself from the rest by interjecting wit to the program's entirety; the program tackled subjects of major and minor importance ranging from straight news commentary to just light banter between the anchor and his famous characters. Launched on March 12, 2001, Todo Balita aired on DZMM and on its cable television counterpart every Mondays to Fridays from 5am to 7am and its first 15 minutes were simulcast over ABS-CBN from 2008-2009.

Ocampo left the station in late 2009 to run as mayor of Marilao, Bulacan but his show continued with rotating anchors and went permanently to Vic de Leon-Lima and David Oro until it left DZMM for good on July 9, 2010 in preparation for the relaunch of Noli de Castro's Kabayan. After his loss in the Marilao mayoralty bid, Ocampo was offered the 3:00-5:00 am slot as de Castro's lead-in, but refused. Todo Balita was relaunched on 92.3 News FM on November 8, 2010 with Ocampo as host until he left in early 2013 for undisclosed reasons. On May 9, 2013, the 6:00 am weekday spot was renamed to Radyo Singko Balita with Ocampo's relief anchor Joel Gorospe filling in the gap. On June 17, 2013, Orly Mercado took over the timeslot with Orly Mercado: All Ready!, ending the second run of Todo Balita. During its run on FM radio, Todo Balita commissioned its intro rap jingle that lasted from 2011-2013. After leaving Radyo5 92.3 News FM in April 2013, Ocampo moved to DZRH and hosted Arangkada Balita and ACS Balita every weekdays at 5:00 am and 6:30am respectively.

During its run on the station, the show was a springboard for its annual anniversary specials. On August 2016, Ocampo returned on the air, this time over DZRJ-AM with the third iteration of Todo Balita as Todo Arangkada Balita airing weekdays at 8 am. By November of that year, 8TriMedia planned to move Ocampo to the evening slot to compete with national TV newscasts simulcast on AM stations, but plans never materialized. On March 14, 2017, Todo Arangkada Balita recommissioned its rap jingle, albeit removing its reference to Radyo5. However, from December 8, 2017, the program ceased airing on DZRJ after the station terminated its agreement with 8TriMedia. Furthermore, the show was not part of the station's absorption of the personnel from the displaced time-brokerage. At this point, Ocampo went into hiatus. In October 2019 DZXL ran promotions on the upcoming return of Ocampo which materialized on October 19 through the return of the program, albeit on a weekly schedule; this marks his second tour of duty to the station as DZXL was his first employment in the 1980s, prior to moving to DZMM after the People Power Revolution.

Neil Ocampo Jejemon Tonyo Tongressman Abnoy Abante Digong Diokterte Gen. Bato-Bato-Pik Vic De Leon-Lima David Oro Nelson Lubao Cheryl Cosim Benjie Felipe - Todo Showbiz segment Anchor Joel Gorospe JV Arcena Leddy Tantoco Gani Oro List of programs aired by ABS-CBN

South African type XF1 tender

The South African type XF1 tender was a steam locomotive tender. Ten Type XF1 tenders were built as spare tenders by the South African Railways during the 1920s, they were not allocated to or built for any particular class of locomotive, but were suitable for use with a wide variety of serving engines. During the 1920s, ten Type XF1 tenders were built as spare tenders by the South African Railways; these tenders had a modern appearance, with flush sides all the way to the top of the coal bunker. They were similar in appearance to those Type XF tenders, rebuilt by the SAR by mounting a new upper structure on the existing underframes, they had the same water capacity of 3,000 imperial gallons and coal capacity of 10 long tons as the Type XF, but rode on diamond frame bogies with a 12 inches longer wheelbase per bogie. Tenders were numbered for the engines they were delivered with; the ten Type XF1 tenders were built as spare tenders, suitable for use with a wide variety of serving engines, were therefore not numbered for specific engines but in the tender number range from N37 to N46.

The "N" number prefixes indicated non-revenue earning vehicles. Since many tender types are interchangeable between different locomotive classes and types, a tender classification system was adopted by the SAR; the first letter of the tender type indicates the classes of engines. The "X_" tenders could be used with the following locomotive classes: Cape Government Railways Mountain, SAR Class 4. SAR Class 4A. SAR Class 5. Cape Government Railways 6th Class of 1897, SAR Class 6B. Oranje-Vrijstaat Gouwerment-Spoorwegen 6th Class L3, SAR Class 6E. Cape Government Railways 6th Class of 1901, SAR Class 6H. Cape Government Railways 6th Class of 1902, SAR Class 6J. Cape Government Railways 8th Class of 1902, SAR Class 8. Imperial Military Railways 8th Class, SAR Class 8A. Central South African Railways Class 8-L2, SAR Class 8B. Central South African Railways Class 8-L3, SAR Class 8C. Cape Government Railways 8th Class 4-8-0 of 1903, SAR Class 8D. Cape Government Railways 8th Class Experimental, SAR Class 8E.

Cape Government Railways 8th Class 4-8-0 of 1904, SAR Class 8F. Cape Government Railways 8th Class 2-8-0 of 1903, SAR Class 8Y. Cape Government Railways 8th Class 2-8-0 of 1904, SAR Class 8Z. Central South African Railways Class 9, SAR Class 9. Central South African Railways Class 10, SAR Class 10. Central South African Railways Class 10-2 Saturated, SAR Class 10A. Central South African Railways Class 10-2 Superheated. SAR Class 10B. Central South African Railways Class 10-C, SAR Class 10C. Central South African Railways Class 11, SAR Class 11. Cape Government Railways 9th Class of 1903, SAR Class Experimental 4. Cape Government Railways 9th Class of 1906, SAR Class Experimental 5. Cape Government Railways 10th Class, SAR Class Experimental 6. SAR Class ME. Central South African Railways Mallet Superheated, SAR Class MF; the second letter indicates the tender's water capacity. The "_F" tenders had a capacity of 3,000 imperial gallons. A number, when added after the letter code, indicates differences between similar tender types, such as function, wheelbase or coal bunker capacity

Hedley Wright

Hedley James Wootton Wright is a former English cricketer. Wright was a left-handed batsman, he was born in Lincolnshire. Wright made his debut for Buckinghamshire in the 1975 Minor Counties Championship against Bedfordshire, he played Minor counties cricket for Buckinghamshire from 1975 to 1978. He joined Suffolk, making his debut for the county in the 1984 Minor Counties Championship, he played Minor counties cricket for Suffolk from 1984 to 1990, which included 33 Minor Counties Championship matches and 6 MCCA Knockout Trophy matches. It was for Suffolk that he made his debut in List A cricket against Lancashire in the 1985 NatWest Trophy, he played 3 further List A matches for Suffolk, the last coming against Northamptonshire in the 1989 NatWest Trophy. In his 4 List A matches, he scored 38 runs at a batting average of 12.66, with a high score of 16. With the ball he took 4 wickets at a bowling average of 31.75, with best figures of 3/29. Hedley Wright at ESPNcricinfo Hedley Wright at CricketArchive

Rachid Niny

Rachid Niny, is a Moroccan journalist and editor, the director of Al Massae, which as of 2012 was Morocco's most popular daily newspaper. He was imprisoned from 28 April 2011 to 28 April 2012 for "undermining a judicial decision", "attempting to influence the judiciary", "reporting on untrue criminal offences", leading Amnesty International to designate him a prisoner of conscience. After receiving his high school diploma in modern literature, Rachid Niny entered The University of Literature and Human Sciences in Mohammedia to specialize in Arabic Literature; when he received his bachelor's degree in 1994, he found. “El Alam”, a daily Arabic Newspaper affiliated to The “Istiqlal party” with which he had collaborated since he was a student, refused to hire him unless he joined the party. He led the local section of qualified unemployed persons' association. In 1992, he collaborated with the “Al Alam” Newspaper, he launched a newspaper in the Amazigh Language called Awal which stopped after the third number.

In 1997, he obtained an accreditation to cover the worldwide Amazigh Congress in the Canary Islands. This enabled him to leave Europe. During three years as an illegal immigrant in Spain, he tried various odds jobs. From this experience, he was inspired to write his book The Diary of a Clandestine. Returning to Morocco, he worked with the Second Moroccan Channel as TV-program presenter of « Nostaljia ». In 2000, he participated in the Assabah newspaper with his daily chronicle Chouf tchouf, he decided to create his own newspaper Al Massae in 2006 where he continues his chronicle with the same free critical tone. In the afternoon of Thursday, 28 April 2011, Rachid Niny was placed under arrest by the Moroccan Police after being accused of an "offence against national and citizens security" by Abd-Allah al-Balghîtî, the general prosecutor of the King at Casablanca, his lawyer Khalid Soufyâni called the arrest a political decision which aimed to silence an opponent of official corruption. On 9 June 2011, the Court of First Instance in Ain S’ba’ in Casablanca sentenced Niny to one year in prison for "undermining a judicial decision", "attempting to influence the judiciary", "reporting on untrue criminal offences".

Amnesty International protested Niny's incarceration, declaring him a prisoner of conscience and demanding his immediate release. On 19 January 2012, he was awarded an Oxfam Novib/PEN Award in recognition of "writers who have been persecuted for their work and continue working despite the consequences". Niny was freed following the completion of his sentence on 28 April 2012. On the day of his release, he spoke to reporters about the need for press freedom in Morocco, stating, "I hope that I will be the last journalist to be imprisoned and tried under the criminal law." Ali Anouzla

1991 Masters Tournament

The 1991 Masters Tournament was the 55th Masters Tournament held April 11–14 at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia. Ian Woosnam won his only major title, one stroke ahead of runner-up José María Olazábal. Woosnam, Olazábal, two-time champion Tom Watson, age 41, were all tied at −11 going into the 72nd hole. Olazábal, a group ahead of the final pairing of Woosnam and Watson, went from fairway bunker to greenside bunker and failed to hole a 45-foot par putt. Watson, who had eagled both 13 and 15, missed the fairway right with his tee shot and hit his second shot into a greenside bunker, he three-putted for a double bogey. Woosnam holed an 8-foot par putt for the green jacket, it was the fourth consecutive year that the Masters champion was from the United Kingdom, which had no winners prior to Sandy Lyle's victory in 1988. Through 2017, Woosnam is the only winner at Augusta from Wales. Olazábal won two Masters, in 1994 and 1999. Phil Mickelson, a 20-year-old junior at Arizona State, was the low amateur at 290 and tied for 46th place.

1. Masters championsTommy Aaron, George Archer, Seve Ballesteros, Gay Brewer, Billy Casper, Charles Coody, Ben Crenshaw, Nick Faldo, Raymond Floyd, Doug Ford, Bernhard Langer, Sandy Lyle, Larry Mize, Jack Nicklaus, Arnold Palmer, Gary Player, Craig Stadler, Tom Watson, Fuzzy Zoeller Jack Burke, Jr. Bob Goalby, Ben Hogan, Herman Keiser, Cary Middlecoff, Byron Nelson, Henry Picard, Gene Sarazen, Sam Snead, Art Wall, Jr. did not play.2. U. S. Open champions Hale Irwin, Scott Simpson, Curtis Strange 3; the Open champions Mark Calcavecchia, Greg Norman 4. PGA champions Wayne Grady, Larry Nelson, Jeff Sluman, Bob Tway Payne Stewart was injured and did not play5. U. S. Amateur champion and runner-upPhil Mickelson, Manny Zerman 6; the Amateur championRolf Muntz 7. U. S. Amateur Public Links championMichael Combs 8. U. S. Mid-Amateur championJim Stuart 9. Top 24 players and ties from the 1990 MastersBill Britton, Fred Couples, Donnie Hammond, Scott Hoch, John Huston, Steve Jones, Tom Kite, José María Olazábal, Masashi Ozaki, Ronan Rafferty, Lee Trevino, Lanny Wadkins 10.

Top 16 players and ties from the 1990 U. S. OpenJim Benepe, Mark Brooks, Billy Ray Brown, Mike Donald, John Inman, Tom Sieckmann, Tim Simpson 11. Top eight players and ties from 1990 PGA ChampionshipChip Beck, Billy Mayfair, Mark McNulty, Gil Morgan, Don Pooley, Loren Roberts 12. Winners of PGA Tour events since the previous MastersPaul Azinger, Jay Don Blake, Steve Elkington, David Frost, Jim Gallagher, Jr. Morris Hatalsky, Nolan Henke, Kenny Knox, Wayne Levi, Davis Love III, Andrew Magee, Rocco Mediate, Jodie Mudd, Mark O'Meara, Steve Pate, Corey Pavin, Ted Schulz, Joey Sindelar, Ian Woosnam Peter Persons, the winner of the Chattanooga Classic was not invited.13. Top 30 players from the 1990 PGA Tour money listJohn Cook, Ian Baker-Finch, Robert Gamez, Peter Jacobsen, Nick Price, Brian Tennyson 14. Members of the U. S. 1989 Ryder Cup teamKen Green, Mark McCumber 15. Special foreign invitationFrankie Miñoza, Tommy Nakajima Source: Source: Thursday, April 11, 1991 Friday, April 12, 1991 Amateurs: Mickelson, Stuart, Muntz Saturday, April 13, 1991 Sunday, April 14, 1991 Source:Amateurs: Mickelson, Zerman Final round Cumulative tournament scores, relative to par Source: – Past winners and results – 1991 Masters Tournament – 1991 Masters leaderboard and scorecards